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British  Association 
































of  the 

iAL  H\^')^ 

CARDIFF— 1920 

AUGUST    24—28 






Officers  and  Council,  1920-21  iv 

Officers  of  Sections,  Cardiff,  1920 vi 

Officers  of  Conference  of  Delegates    vii 

Annual  Meetings  :  Places  and  Dates,  Presidents,  Attendances, 
Eeceipts,  Sums  paid  on  account  of  Grants  foe  Scientific 
Purposes  (1831-1920)  viii 

Report  of  the  Council  to  the  General  Committee  (1919-20) xii 

General  Meetings  at  Cardiff    xvii 

Public  Lectures  at  Cardiff    xvii 

General  Treasurer's  Account  (1919-20) xviii 

Research  Committees  (1920-21)  xx 

Resolutions  and  Recommendations  (Cardiff  Meeting)  xxvi 

Cairo  Fund  xxx 

Inaugural  General  Meeting xxxi 

Address  by  the  Peesident,  Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman,  C.B.E.,  F.R.S....       1 

Sectional  Presidents'  Addresses  : 

A.— (Prof.  A.  S.  Eddington,  FJR.S.) 34 

B.— (C.  T.  Heycock,  F.E.S.)....; 50 

C— (Dr.  F.  a.  Bather,  F.R.S.)  61 

D. — (Prof.  J.  Stanley  Gardiner,  F.E.S.) 87 

E.— (J.  McFarlane,  M.A.)    98 

F.— (Dr.  J.  H.  Clapham,  C.B.E.) 114 

G.— (Prof.  C.  F.  Jenkin,  C.B.E.)    125 

H. — (Prof.  Karl  Pearson,  F.R.S.) 135 

I.  — (J.  Barcroft,  F.R.S.) 152 

K.— (Miss  E.  R.  Saunders)  169 

L. — (Sir  Robert  Blair,  M.A.) 191 

M.— (Prof.  F.  W.  Keeblb,  C.B.E.,  F.R.S.)    200 

Reports  on  the  State  of  Science,  &c 215 

Transactions  of  the  Sections ,  351 

References  to  Publication  of  Communications  to  the  Sections  ...  880 

Evening  Discourses   384 

Corresponding  Societies  Committee 391 

Index  ........" 436 

Appendix — Third  Report  on  Colloid  Chemistry'    1-154 

'  Printed  and  published  separately  by  H.M.  Stationery  Office. 

A  2 



Professor  W.  A.  HuaD.MAN,  C.B.E.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Sir  T.  EDWAiiD  Thorpe,  O.B.,  D.Sc,  Sc.D.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 


The  Eight  Hon.  the  Lord   Mayor  op  CardifB' 

(Councillor  G.  F.  Forsdike,  J.P.). 
The  Most  Noble  the  Marquis  ov  Bute. 
The  Right  Hon.  the  Earl,  op   Plymouth,  P.O. 

(Lord-Lieutenant  of  the  County  of  Glamorgan). 
Major-Gen.  the  Eight  Hon.  Lord  Trbowen,  O.B., 

C.M.G.    (Lord-Lieutenant    of   the    County    of 

The  Right  Hon .  Lord  Abebdare,  D.L. 
The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Fo^fTyPHIDD,  D.L. 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Tredegar,  D.L. 

E.  H.  Griffiths,  D.Sc..  F.E.S. 

Sir  J.  Herbert  Cory,  Bart.,  M.P. 

Principal  A.  H.  Trow,  D.Sc.  (Principal  of  Uni- 
versity CoUnge  of  S.  Wales  and  Monmouthshire ; 
President,  Cardiff  Naturalists'  Society). 

J.  Dyer  Lewi.s  (President,  South  Wales  Institute 
of  Engineers). 

R.  0.  Sanderson  (President,  Oardift  Chamber  of 


The  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Provost  op  Edin- 

The  Eight  Hon.  R.  MuNRO,  P.O.  (H.M.  Secretary 
of  State  for  Scotland). 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Clyde  (Lord  Justice 

Sir  Isaac  Bayley  Balfour,  F.R.S. 

Sir   Alfred    Bwing,    F.R.S.    (Principal    of    the 

University  of  Edinburgh). 
The  Right  Hon.  Viscount  Linlithgow. 
Sir  E.  Sharpey  Schafer,  F.R.S. 
Sir   Robert   Usher     (Convener   of    Midlothian 

County  Council). 

E.  H.  Griffiths,  Sc.D.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.E.S. 

Professor  H.  H.  Turner, D.So.,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S.    |         Professor  J.  L.  Myrrs,  O.B.E.,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

0.  J.  R.  Howarth,  O.B.E.,  M.A.,  Burlington  House,  London,  W.  1. 


Armstrong,  Dr.  E.  F.,  F.R.S. 
B.ARCROFT,  J.,  F.R.S. 
Bonk,  Professor  W.  A.,  F.RS. 
Dixey,  Dr.  F.  A.,  F.R.S. 
Dyson,  Sir  F.  W.,  F.R.S. 
Fowler,  Professor  A.,  F.R.S. 
Gardiner,  Professor  J.  Siaxlet, 

Gregory,  Sir  R.  A. 

Hadfikld,  Sir  R.,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 
Hall,  Sir  Daniel,  K.O.B.,  F.R.S. 
Harmbr,  Sir  S.  F.,  K.B.E.,  F.R.S. 
Jeans,  J.  H.,  F.R.S. 
Keith,  Professor  A.,  F.R.S. 
Keltie,  Sir  J.  Scott. 
KiRKALDY,  Professor  A.  W. 
Mitchell,  Dr.  P.  Chalmers, 

Morris,  Sir  D.,  K.O.M.G. 
Pope,  Sir  W.  J.,  F.R.S. 
Rivers,  Dr.  W.  H.  R.,  F.R.S. 
Saunders,  Miss  B.  R. 
Scott,  Professor  W.  R. 
Strahan,  Sir  Aubrey,  F.R.S. 
Whitaker,  W.,  F.R.S. 
Woodward,   Dr.   A.   Smith, 

Councillor  T.  E.  Whitson. 


Andrew  Gribrson,  Town  Clerk  of  Edinburgh.     |  Professor  J.  H.  Ashwobth,  F.R.S. 



The  Trustees,  past  Presidents  of  the  Association,  the  President  and  Vice-Presidents  for  the  year,  the 
President  and  Vice-Presidents  Elect,  past  and  present  General  Treasurers  and  General  Secretaries,  past 
Assistant  General  Secretaries,  and  the  Liocal  Treasurers  and  Local  Secretaries  for  the  ensuing  Annual 



Major  P.  A.  MacMahov,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  F.E.A.S.  |  Sir  Abthdr  Evaks,M.A.,LL.D.,F.R.S.,  F.S.A. 
Hon.  Sir  Charles  Parsons,  K.C.B.,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. 


Sir  A.  Geikje.K.O.B.,  O.M.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  James  Dewar,  F.R.S. 
Arthur  J.  Balfour,  O.M.,  F.R.S. 
Sir    E.    Hay  Lankester,  K.O.B., 

Sir  Francis  Darwin,  F.R.S. 
Sir  J.  J.  Thomson, O.M.,  Pres.E.S. 
Professor  T.  G.  Bonney,  F.R.S. 
Sir  E.  Sharpey  Schafer,  F.R.S. 
Sir  Oliver  Lodge,  F.R.S. 

Professor  W.  Bateson,  F.R.S. 
Sir  Arthur  Schuster,  F.R.S. 
Sir  Arthur  Evans,  F.R.S. 
Hon.     Sir     C.    Parsons,    K.O.B., 
i     F.R.S. 


Professor  T.  G.  Bonney,  F.R.S. 
Sir  E.  Sharpey  Schafer,  P.R.S. 

I  Dr.  D.  H.  Scott,  F.R.S. 
Dr.  J.  G.  Garson. 

1  Major  P.  A.  MaoMahon,  F.R.S. 
I  Professor  W.  A.  Herdman,  C.B.E., 

Sir  Edward  Brabrook,  C.B.  |         Professor  A.  Bowlet. 

MEETING,   1920. 


Prcsidfint.—  'Pxoi.  A.  S.  Eddington,  M.Sc,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— B.  H.  Griffiths,  Sc.D.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. ; 
Prof.  G.  H.  Hardy,  M.A.,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  A.  L.  Selby,  M.A. 

Secretaries. — W.  Makower,  M.A.,  D.Sc.  {Necorder) ;  H.  R.  Hass^  ; 
J.  Jackson  ;  A.  0.  Rankine,  D.Sc.  ;  "Capt.  J.  H.  Shaxby,  B.Sc. 


President.— C.  T.  Heycock,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof.  P.  Phillips  Bedson,  D.Sc. ;  Prof.  C.  M. 
Thompson,  D.Sc. 

Secretaries.— Fioi.  C.  H.  Desch,  D.Sc,  Ph.D.  (Becorder)  ;  H.  F. 
Coward,  D.Sc.  {Acting) ;  *Prof.  E.  P.  Perman,  D.Sc. 


President.— F.  A.  Bather,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— :J.  W.  Evans,  LL.B.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. ;  H.  K.  Jordan, 
D.Sc.  ;   Principal  T.  Franklin  Sibly,  D.Sc. 

Secretaries. — A.  R.  Dwerryhouse,  T.D.,  D.Sc.  (Recorder) ;  W.  T. 
Gordon,  D.Sc.  ;  G.  Hickling,  D.Sc. ;  *Prof.  A.  Hubert  Cox,  Ph.D. 


President. — Prof.  J.  Stanley  Gardiner,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents.— F.  A.  Dixey,  M.A.,  M.D.,  F.R.S. ;  Prof.  G.  Gibson  ; 
Prof.  E.  S.  Goodrich,  M.A.,  F.R.S.;  W.  Evans  Hoyle,  D.Sc; 
Cresswell  Shearer,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. 

Secretaries. — Prof.  J.  H.  Ashwoeth,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.  (Becorder) ; 
F.  Balfour  Browne,  M.A. ;  R.  D.  Laurie,  M.A. ;  *H.  Edgar  Salmon. 


President. — J.  McFarlane,  M.A. 

Vice-  Presidents. — Rev.  W.  J.  Barton,  M.A. ;  H.  0.  Beckit,  M.A. ; 
J.  Bolton,  M.A. ;  G.  G.  Chisholm,  M.A. ;  D.  Lleufer  Thomas. 

Secretaries.— B..  N.  Rudmose  Brown,  D.Sc.  (Becorder) ;  C.  B. 
Fawcett  ;  *A.  E.  L.  Hudson. 


President. — J.  H.  Clapham,  C.B.E.,  Litt.D. 

Vice-Presidents. — Sir    Hugh    Bell,     Bart.,     C.B.,    D.L. ;    Sir    E. 
Brabrook,  C.B.  ;  Prof.  A.  W.  Kiekaldy,  M.A.,  M.Com. 

Secretaries. — C.   R.   Fay,   M.A.    (Becorder) ;   J.  Cunnison  ;  Miss  L. 
Grier  ;  *Prof.  W.  J.  Roberts,  M.A. 

*  Local  Sectional  Secretaries. 

OFFICERS    OF    SECTIONS,    1920.  vii 


President.— Fi-ot.  C.  F.  Jenkin,  G.B.E.,  M.A. 
Vice-Presidents. — J.  Dyer  Lewis  ;  David  E.  Egberts. 
Secretaries.— Vroi.   G.  W.  0.  Howe,  D.Sc.   (Becordcr) ;   Prof.  F.  C. 
Lea,  D.Sc.  ;  Prof.  W.  H.  Watkinson  ;  *Prof.  F.  Bacon,  M.A. 


President. — Prof.  Karl  Pearson,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof.  D.  Hepburn,  C.M.G.,  M.D. ;  Edward  Owen, 
M.A. ;  H.  J.  E.  Peake. 

Secretaries. — E.  N.  Fallaize,  B.A.  (Recorder);  Rev.  E.  0.  James; 
F.  C.  Shrubsall,  M.D. ;  *Prof.  H.  J.  Fleure,  D.Sc. 


President. — J.  Barcroft,  B.Sc,  F.R.S. 

Vice-Presidents. — S.  Monckton  Copeman,  F.R.S ;  Prof.  J.  B. 
Haycraft,  M.D.,  B.Sc. ;  T.  Lewis,  M.D.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. ;  C.  S.  Myers, 
D.Sc,  F.R.S. 

Secretaries.— Prof.  H.  E.  Roaf,  M.D.,  D.Sc.  (Recorder) ;  C.  L.  Burt  ; 
C.  LovATT  Evans,  D.Sc.  ;  Prof.  P.  T.  Herring,  M.D. ;  *T.  H.  Burlend, 


President. — Miss  E.  R.  Saunders. 

Vice-Presidents. — Prof.  R.  Chodat  ;  Sir  Daniel  Morris,  K.C.M.G., 
D.Sc,  D.C.L.,  LL.D. ;  Prof.  R.  W.  Phillips  ;  Prof.  A.  C.  Seward,  D.Sc, 
F.R.S.  ;  Principal  A.  H.  Trow,  D.Sc.  ;   Prof.  J.  Lloyd  Williams. 

Secretaries.— -Miss  E.  N.  Miles  Thomas,  D.Sc.  (Recorder) ;  F.  T. 
Brooks  ;  W.  E.  Hiley  ;  'Miss  E.  Vachell. 


President. — Sir  Robert  Blair,  M.A. 

Vice-Presidents.— Frinciipal  J.  C.  Maxwell  Garnett,  M.A. ;  Sir 
R.  A.  GrecxOry  ;  Miss  E.  P.  Hughes,  LL.D.  ;  Sir  Napier  Shaw,  M.A., 
ScD.,  F.R.S. ;  Herbert  M.  Thomp.*on. 

Secretaries.— D.  Berridge,  M.A.  (Recorder) ;    C.  E.  Browne,  B.Sc. 
E.  H.  Tripp,  Ph.D. ;  ^Stanley  H.  Watkins,  M.A.,  Ph.D. 


President.— Vroi.  F.  W.  Keeble,  C.B.E.,  Sc.D.,  F.R.S. 
Vice-Presidents.— C.  Crowther,  Ph.D. ;    C.  Bryner  Jones,  C.B.E. 
Secretaries.— A.    Lauder,    D.Sc.   (Recorder) ;    C.    G.    T.    Morison  ; 
H.  G.  Thornton ;  *H.  Alexander. 



President— T.  Sheppabd,  M.Sc,  F.G.S. 
Vice-President. — T.  W.  Sowerbutts. 
Secretary.— VI.  Mark  "Webb. 

*  Local  Sectional  Secretaries 



Table  showing  the  Attendances  and  Receipts 

Date  of  Meeting 

1831,  Sept.  27. 

1832,  June  19 . 

1833,  June  25 . 

1834,  Sept.  8  . 

1835,  Aug.  10 . 

1836,  Aug.  22. 

1837,  Sept.  11. 

1838,  Aug.  10  . 

1839,  Aug.  26  . 

1840,  Sept.  17., 

1841,  July  20 

1842,  June  23., 

1843,  Aug.  17  .. 

1844,  Sept.  26., 

1845,  June  19  ., 

1846,  Sept.  10., 

1847,  June  23  ., 

1848,  Aug.  9  .. 

1849,  Sept.  12.. 
1860,  July  21  .. 

1851,  July  2 

1862,  Sept.  1 

1853,  Sept.  3  .. 

1854,  Sept.  20  .. 
1865,  Sept.  12  .. 
1856,  Aug.  6 
1867,  Aug.  26  ., 

1858,  Sept.  22  .. 

1859,  Sept.  14  .. 

1860,  June  27.. 

1861,  Sept.  4  .. 

1862,  Oct.  1   . 

1863,  Au2.  26 

1864,  Sept.  13.. 

1865,  Sept.  6  . 

1866,  Aug.  22 

1867,  Sept.  4  .. 

1868,  Aug.  19 

1869,  Aug.  18  .. 

1870,  Sept.  14.. 

1871,  Aug.  2  .. 

1872,  Aug.  14.. 

1873,  Sept.  17 .. 

1874,  Aug.  19  .. 

1875,  Aug.  25  . 

1876,  Sept.  6  .. 

1877,  Aug.  16  .. 

1878,  Aug.  14  . 

1879,  Aug.  20 

1880,  Aug.  25  . 

1881,  Aug.  31 

1882,  Aug.  23.. 

1883,  Sept.  19 

1884,  Aug.  27 

1885,  Sept.  9 

1886,  Sept.  1  . 

1887,  Aug.  31 

1888,  Sept.  5  .. 

1889,  Sept.  11 .. 

1890,  Sept.  3 

1891,  Aug.  19 .. 

1892,  Aug.  3 

1893,  Sept.  13 

1894,  Aug.  8 

1895,  Sept.  11 
1898,  Sept.  ]  6 
1897,  Aug.  18 

Where  held 

1898,  Sept.  7    i  Bristol 








Newoastle-on-Tyne. . . 

























Newoastle-on-Tyne. . 



Nottingham , 


Norwich   , 

Exeter   , 




















Newcastle-on-Tyne. . . 









1899,  Sept.  13 

1900,  Sept.  5 

Dover . 


Viscount  Milton,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S. 
The  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  F.R.S.  ... 
The  Rev.  A.  Sedgwick,  F.R.S.  ... 
Sir  T.  M.  Brisbane,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S. 
The  Rev.  Provost  Lloyd,LL.D.,  P.R, 
The  Marquis  of  Lansdowne,  F.R.S. 

The  Earl  of  Burlington,  F.R.S 

The  Duke  of  Northumberland,  P.R, 
The  Rev.  W.  Vernon  Harcourt,  P.R, 
The  Marquis  of  Breadalbane,  F.R, 

The  Rev.  W.  WheweU,  F.R.S 

The  Lord  Francis  Egerton,  F.G.S. 
The  Earl  of  Rosse,  F.R.S.      , 
The  Rev.  G.  Peacock,  D.D.,  F.R.S. 
Sir  John  F.  W.  Herschel,  Bart.,  P.R. 
Sir  Roderick  I.Murchison,Bart.,F.R. 
Sir  Robert  H.  Inglis,  Bart.,  F.R.S. 
TheMarquis  ofNorthampton,Pr€3.R, 
The  Rev.  T.  R.  Robinson,  D.D.,  P.R. 
Sir  David  Brewster,  K.H.,  F.R.S.... 
G.  B.  Airy,  Astronomer  Royal,  P.R. 

Lieut.-General  Sabine,  F.R.S 

William  Hopkins,  F.R.S 

The  Earl  of  Harrowby,  FJR.S. 

The  Duke  of  Argyll,  F.R.S ' 

Prof.  0.  G.  B.  Daubeny,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

The  Rev.  H.  Llo.yd,  D.D.,  F.R.S 

Richard  Owen,  M.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S. 
H.R.H.  The  Prince  Consort 
The  Lord  Wrottesley,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 
William  Fairbairn,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
The  Rev.  Professor  Willis,M.A.,F.R 
Sir  William  G.  Armstrong,O.B.,  F.R.I 
Sir  Charles  Lyell,  Bart.,  M.A.,  F.R, 
Prof.  J.  Phillips,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.R. 

William  R.  Grove,  Q.O.,  F.R.S 

TheDukeofBucoleuch,  K.O.B.,P.R.l 
Dr.  Joseph  D.  Hooker,  F.R.S.  . 
Prof.  G.  G.  Stokes,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  T.  H.  Huxley,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  Sir  W.  Thomson,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 
Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter,  F.R.S. 
Prof.  A.  W.  Williamson,  F.R.S. 

Prof.  J.  Tyndall,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Sir  John  Hawkshaw,  FJi.S 

Prof.  T.  Andrews,  M.D.,  F.R.S. ...'..." 

Prof.  A.  Thomson,  M.D.,  F.R.S 

W.  Spottiswoode,  M.A.,  F.R.S.   .  . 
Prof.  G.  J.  Altaian,  M.D.,  F.R.S. 

A.  0.  Ramsay,  LL.D.,  F.R.S 

Sir  John  Lubbock,  Bart.,  FJl.S. 

Dr.  C.  W.  Siemens,  P.R.S " 

Prof.  A.  Cayley,  D.O.L.,  P.R.S 

Prof.  Lord  Rayleigh,  F.R.S 

Sir  Lyon  Playfair,  K.O.B.,  F.R.S.  .. 
Sir  J.  W,  Dawson,  C.M.G.,  F.R.S.  .. 
Sir  H.  E.  Roscoe,  D.C.L.,  P.R.S.   ... 

Sir  P.  J.  Bramwell,  F.R.S 

Prof.  W.  H.  Flower,  O.B.,  F.R.S.      . 

Sir  F.  A.  Abel,  C.B.,  F.R.S 

Dr.  W.  Huggins,  F.R.S 

Sir  A.  Geikie,  LL.D.,  P.R.S 

Prof.  J.  S.  Burdou  Sanderson,  F.R.S, 
The  Marquis  of  Salisbury,K.G.,P.R.S, 
Sir  Douglas  Gallon,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.  ... 
Sir  Joseph  Lister,  Bart.,  Pres.  R.S. 

Sir  John  Evans,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S 

Sir  W.  Orookes,  F.R.S 

Sir  Michael  Foster,  K.C.B.,  Sec.R.S.... 
Sir  William  Turner,  D.O.L.,  F.R.S.  ... 

Old  Life 






























































New  Life 






Ladles  were  not  admitted  by  purchased  tickets  until  1843. 

t  Tickets  of  Admission  to  Sections  only. 
[Cmitinued  on  jp.  x. 



at  Annual  Meetings  of  the  Association. 









during  the 


Sums  paid 

on  account 

of  Grants 

for  Scientific 















£20  0  0 



167  0  0 


1350   ! 

435  0  0 



922  12  6 




2400   1 


932  2  2 





1595  11  0 





1546  16  4 







1236  10  11 









1449  17  8 






1565  10  2 







981  12  8 









831  9  9 









685  16  0 









208  5  4 








£707  0  0 

276  1  8 







963  0  0 

169  19  6 








1085  0  0 

346  18  0 








620  0  0 

391  9  7 








1086  0  0 

304  6  7 








903  0  0 

206  0  0 








1882  0  0 

380  19  7 








2311  0  0 

480  16  4 








1098  0  0 

734  13  9 








2016  0  0 

507  15  4 








1931  0  0 

618  18  2 








2782  0  0 

684  11  1 








1604  0  0 

766  19  6 








3944  0  0 

nil  5  10 








1089  0  0 

1293  16  6 








3640  0  0 

1608  3  10 








2965  0  0 

1289  15  8 








2227  0  0 

1591  7  10 








2469  0  0 

1750  13  4 








2613  0  0 

1739  4  0 








2042  0  0 

1940  0  0 








1931  0  0 

1622  0  0 








3096  0  0 

1572  0  0 








2575  0  0 

1472  2  6 








2649  0  0 

1285  0  0 








2120  0  0 

1685  0  0 








1979  0  0 

1181  16  0 








2397  0  0 

960  0  0 








3023  0  0 

1092  4  2 








1268  0  0 

1128  9  7 








2615  0  0 

726  16  6 








1425  0  0 

1080  11  11 








899  0  0 

731  7  7 








2689  0  0 

476  8  1 








1286  0  0 

1126  1  11 








3369  0  0 

1083  3  3 








1855  0  0 

1173  4  0 








2256  0  0 

1385  0  0 








2532  0  0 

995  0  6 








4336  0  0 

1186  18  0 








2107  0  0 

1611  0  5 








2441  0  0 

1417  0  11 








1776  0  0 

789  16  8 








1664  0  0 

1029  10  0 








2007  0  0 

864  10  0 








1653  0  0 

907  16  6 








2176  0  0 

583  15  6 








1236  0  0 

977  15  5 








3228  0  0 

1104  6  1 








1398  0  0 

1059  10  8 








2399  0  0 

1212  0  0 








1328  0  0 

1430  14  2 








1801  0  0 

1072  10  0 


%  Including  Ladies.  §  Fellows  of  the  American  Association  were  admitted  as  Hon.  Members  for  this  Meeting. 

[Continiied  oil  p.  xi. 


Table  showing  the  Attendances  and  Receipts 

Date  of  Meeting 

Where  held 


Prof.  A. W.  Ruoker,  D.Sc,  SecJS.S. ... 

Prof.  J.  Dewar,  LL.D.,F.R.S 

Sir  Norman  Lookyer,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 
Et.  Hon.  A.  J.  Balfour,  M.P.,  P.E.S. 
Prof.  G.  H.  Darwin,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ... 
Prof.  E.  Ray  Lankester,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Sir  David  Gill,  K.O.B.,  F.R.S 

Dr.  Francis  Darwin,  F.R.S.  

Prof.  Sir  J.  J.  Tliomson,  F.R.S 

Rev.  Prot.  T.  G.  Bonney,  F.R.S 

Prof.  Sir  W.  Rimsay,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. 

Prof.E.  A.Schafer,  F.R.S 

Sir  Oliver  J.  Lodge,  F.R.S 

Prof.  W.  Bateson,  F.R.S 

Prof.  A.  Schuster,  F.R.S 

1  Sir  Arthur  Evans,  F.R.S j 

Hon.  Sir  0.  Parsons,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S... . 

Prof.  W.  K.  Herdman,  C.B.E.,  F.R.S. 

Old  Life 

New  Life 

1901,  Sept.  11 

1902,  Sept.  10 

1903,  Sept.  9    

1904,  Aug.  17 

1905,  Aug.  15 

1906,  Aug.  1    

1907,  July  31  

1908,  Sept.  2  

1909,  Aug.  25 

1910,  Aug.  31  

1911,  Aug.  30 

1912,  Sept.  4   

1913,  Sept.  10 

1914,  Jaly-Sept.... 

1915,  Sept.  7  

1916,  Sept.  5  



1919,  Sept.  9   

1920,  Aug.  24 











South  Africa    










Ne  wcastle-on-Tyne . . . 

(No  Meeting)   

(No  Meeting)  



%  Including  848  Members  of  the  South  African  Association. 
%X  Grants  from  the  Caird  Fund  are  not  included  in  this  and  subsequent  sums. 



at  Annual  Meetings  of  the  Association— {continMed). 







luring  the 

Sums  paid 

on  account 

of  Grants 

'or  Scientific 






£2046    0 


_.              j 





















£920    9  11 






1644    0 

947    0    0 







1762     0 

845  13     2 







2650     0 

887  18  11 







2422     0 
1811     0 

928     2     2 
882     0     9 







1661     0 

757  12  10 






2317     0 

1167  18     8 







1623     0 

1014     9     9 







1439     0 

963  17     0 







1176     0 

922     0     0 







2349     0 

845     7     6 







2756     0 

978  17     in 







4873     0 
1406     0 

1086  16     4 
1169     2     8 






821     0 

715  18  10 



427  17     2 



220  13     3 




688  • 


1           ' 



1736    0 

160     0    0 


1     A 

inual  Members 

Old       1 

^'»bli"'  Students 


(Regular)!  Me 







13G      i 








1    1272  10 


959  13     9 


•*  Including  137  Members  of  the  American  Association. 

II  Special  arrangements  were  aade  for  Members  and  Afsociates  joining  locally  in  Australia,  see 
Report,  1914,  p.  686.  The  numbers  include  80  Members  who  joined  in  order  to  attend  the  Meeting  of 
L'Assoclation  Fran(;aise  at  Le  Havre. 

»  Including  Students'  Tickets,  10s. 

REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL,  1919-20. 

I.  Sir  T.  E.  Thorpe,  C.B.,  has  been  unanimously  nominated 
by  the  Council  to  fill  the  office  of  President  of  the  Association  for  the 
year  1921-22  (Edinburgh  Meeting). 

II.  Eesolutions  referred  by  the  General  Committee,  at  the  Bourne- 
mouth Meeting,  for  consideration,  and,  if  desirable,  for  action,  were 
dealt  with  as  follows  :  — 

(a)  The  Council  adopted  a  resolution  from  Section  D,  that  in  the 
case  of  persons  applying  for  membership  of  the  General  Committee 
who  are  not  known  to  the  Council,  the  matter  should  be  referred  to 
the  Organising  Committee  of  the  Section  concerned. 

(b)  The  Council  collaborated  with  the  Conjoint  Board  of  Scientific 
Societies  in  laying  before  the  Prime  Minister,  H.M.  Secretaries  of 
State  for  the  Colonies  and  for  India,  and  the  Governments  of  the 
Australian  Commonwealth  and  the  Union  of  South  Africa,  proposals 
for  the  collection  and  publication  of  scientific  data  relating  to  ex-German 
colonies  (Resolutions  of  Sections  E  and  H). 

(c)  The  Council  expressed  to  H.M.  Government  the  Association's 
approval  of  the  proposal  to  establish  a  British  Institute  of  Archaeology 
in  Egypt.     (Resolution  of  Section  H.) 

(d)  The  Council  forwarded  to  the  Board  of  Agriculture  a  represen- 
tation on  the  desirability  of  securing  the  uniform  description  and  nomen- 
clature of  ancient  remains  on  Ordnance  Survey  Maps,  and  after 
coiTespondence  with  the  Director- General  of  the  Ordnance  Survey  have 
learnt  that  measures  have  been  taken  to  this  end.  (Resolution  of 
Section  H.) 

(e)  The  Council  referred  back  to  the  Committee  of  Section  I  a 
proposal  that  that  Section  should  be  entitled  '  Physiology  and 
Psychology, '  and  that  the  Presidents  in  alternate  years  should  represent 
the  two  branches  of  the  Section. 

(/)  The  Council,  after  enquiry,  felt  unable  to  take  action  recom- 
mended by  the  Conference  of  Delegates  in  the  matter  of  a  representa- 
tion to  H.M.  Government  on  the  use  of  taxes  derived  from  motor-spirit 
and  carriages  for  the  improvement  of  roads. 

RKPOET   OF   THE    COUNCIL,  1919-20.  xiu 

(g)  A  pi-oposal  from  the  Conference  of  Delegates,  that  the  Board 
of  Education  should  be  asked  to  hold  an  enquiry  on  the  teaching  of 
geography,  was  referred  to  Section  E. 

(Ii)  The  General  Officers,  on  the  instruction  of  the  General  Com- 
mittee, forwarded  resolutions  urging  upon  H.M.  Government  the 
necessity  for  supporting  an  organised  scheme  of  scientific  research  to 
the  Prims  Minister,  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  the  First  Lord  of 
the  Admiralty,  the  Secretary  of  State  for  War,  the  President  of  the 
Board  of  Trade,  the  Food  Controller,  and  the  Minister  of  Health. 

The  Council  have  received  from  the  Admiralty  and  from  the  War 
Office  infonnation  on  proposals  for  research.  At  the  invitation  of  the 
Master-General  of  the  Ordnance,  the  General  Officers  attended  a  Con- 
ference at  the  War  Office,  at  which  the  Master-General,  Lieut. -General 
Sir  J.  P.  Du  Cane,  the  Quartermaster-General,  Lieut. -General  Sir  T.  E. 
Clarke,  and  the  Director  of  Medical  Sei'vices,  Lieut. -General  Sir  T. 
Goodwin,  explained  the  organisation  which  has  been  adopted  for  scien- 
tific research  in  connection  with  military  services. 

III.  The  Council  nominated  as  their  representatives  on  the  Joint 
Committee  of  the  General  Committee  and  Council  on  Grants,  under 
the  chairmanship  of  the  President  (Sir  C.  Parsons),  Profs.  W.  A. 
Herdman,  J.  Peny,  H.  H.  Turner,  and  J.  L.  Myres.  This  Committee 
was  directed  to  report  to  the  General  Committee  as  well  as  to  the 
Council,  and  its  report,  which  the  Council  has  approved,  is  appended : 

The  Committee  would  favour  the  following  procedure:  That  Ee- 
search  Committees  proposed  by  the  Sectional  Committees  of  the  British 
Association  and  approved  by  the  Committee  of  Eecommendations  be 
recommended  by  the  Council  for  support  by  the  Department  of  Scien- 
tific and  Industrial  Eesearch,  the  Medical  Eesearch  Board,  or  other 
bodies  entrusted  with  the  distribution  of  public  funds,  and  that  all  Com- 
mittees, the  work  of  which  may  be  aided  by  such  bodies,  remain 
Committees  of  the  Association  responsible  as  before  to  the  Sectional 

IV.  The  Council  resumed  consideration  (deferred  owing  to  the  War) 
oif  certain  resolutions  JreferreSd  to  th^em  by  the  General  'Qommibtee 
in  Australia  in  1914. 

(a)  The  Council  forwarded  to  the  Australian  Government  a  resolu- 
tion urging  the  need  for  legalising  in  Australia  the  metric  system  of 
weights  and  measures  as  an  alternative  (optional)  system.  (Eesolution 
of  Section  A.) 

(b)  The  Council  found  it  inexpedient  to  forward  a  resolution  propos- 
ing a  gravity  survey  in  Australia.     (Eesolution  of  Section  C.) 

xiv  REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL,    liJlD-'iO. 

(c)  The  Council  forwarded  to  the  AustraUan  Government  a  resolu- 
tion urging  the  early  production  of  the  Australian  sheets  of  the  Carte 
du  Monde  au  Millionieme.     (Eesolution  of  Section  E.) 

(d)  The  Council  has  still  under  consideration  the  proposal  for  the 
establishment  of  Bench-marks  on  Coral  Islands,  in  the  Pacific. 
(Eesolutions  of  Sections  C  and  E.) 

V.  The  Department  of  Scientific  and  Industrial  Eesearch  made  a 
grant  of  £600  to  the  Association  to  meet  the  cost  of  cei'tain  specified 
researches  foi'  which  Committees  were  appointed  at  the  Bournemouth 

VI.  The  Eesearch  Fund  initiated  at  Bournemouth  now  amounts  to 
£1,888  16s.  Qd. 

VII.  Cairo  Fund. — The  Council  made  the  following  grants  during 
the  year,  additional  to  annual  grants  pi'eviously  made:  — 

Fuel  Economy  Committee  (additional  to  grant  made  by 

General  Committee  at  Bournemouth)           ...         ...  £10 

Committee  on  Training  in  Citizenship             ...         ...  10 

Geophysical  Committee  of  Eoyal  Astronomical  Society  10 

Conjoint  Board  of  Scientific  Societies     ...         ...         ...  10 

VIII.  Conference  of  Delegates  and  Corresponding  Societies 
Committee  :  — 

The  following  Nominations  are  made  by  the  Council:  — 

Conference  of  Delegates. — Mr.  T.  Sheppard  (President),  Mr.  T.  W. 
Sowerbutts  (Vice-President),  Mr.  W.  Mark  Webb  (Secretary). 

Corresponding  Societies  Commiltee. — Mr.  W.  Whitaker  (Chair- 
man), Mr.  W.  Mark  Webb  (Secretary),  Mr.  P.  J.  Ashton,  Dr.  F.  A. 
Bather,  Eev.  J.  0.  Bevan,  Sir  Edward  Brabrook,  Sir  H.  G.  Fordham, 
Mr.  A.  L.  Lewis,  Mr.  T.  Sheppard,  Eev.  T.  E.  Stebbing,  Mr.  Mark 
L.  Sykes,  and  the  President  and  General  Officers  of  the  Associaition. 

On  the  proposal  of  a  sub-committee  of  the  Corresponding  Societies 
Committee  the  Council,  in  the  interests  of  economy,  propose  that  the 
■bibliography  of  scientific  publications  in  the  transactions  of  Correspond- 
ing Societies  be  not  printed  in  future  in  the  Annual  Eeport,  and  there- 
lore  recommend  the  following  change  in  the  Eules  :  — ■ 

EuleChap.  XL,  3  (ii.):  — 

"There  shall  be  inserted  in  the  Annual  Eeport  of  the  Association 
a  list  of  the  papers  published  by  the  Corresponding  Societies  ..." 

to  read  as  follows  :  — 

"A  list  shall  be  prepared  of  the  papers  published  by  the  Corre- 
sponding Societies.   ..." 

REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL,    1919-20.  XV 

IX.  The  Council  have  received  reports  from  the  General  Treasurer 
during  the  past  year.  His  accounts  have  been  audited  and  are  presented 
to  the  General  Committee. 

The  Hon.  Sir  Charles  Parsons  has  been  nominated  a  Trustee  of  tha 
Association,  in  the  room  of  the  late  Lord  Eayleigh. 

X.  Power  having  been  delegated  to  the  Council  by  the  General 
Committee  to  appoint  ordinai'y  members  of  Council  to  the  vacancies 
caused  by  the  resignation  of  Sir  E.  F.  im  Thurn  and  the  appointment  of 
Prof.  J.  L.  Myres  as  General  Secretary,  Sir  E.  Pladfield  and  Sir  J. 
Scott  Keltie  were  appointed. 

The  retiring  members  of  the  Council  are :  — 

By  seniority. — Sir  Dugald  Clerk,  Prof.  A.  Dendy. 

By  least  attendance. — Prof.  W.  H.  Perkin,  Dr.  E.  J.  Russell,  Prof. 
E.  H.  Starling. 

The  Council  nominated  the  following  members:  — 

^Ir.   J.  Bartroft, 

Prof.   J.   Stanley  Gardiner, 

Sir  W.  J.  Pope, 

leaving  two  vacancies  to  be  filled  by  the  General  Committee  without 
nomination  by  the  Council. 

The  full  list  of  nominations  of  ordinary  members  is  as  follows:  — 

Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong. 

Mr.  J.  Barcroft. 

Prof.  W.  A.  Bone. 

Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey. 

Sir  F.  W.  Dyson. 

Prof.  A.  Fowler. 

Prof.  J.  Stanley  Gardiner. 

Sir  R.  A.  Gregory. 

Dr.  E.  H.  Griffiths. 

Sir  R.  Hadfield. 

Sir  S.  F.  Harmer. 

Prof.  J.  H.  Jeans. 

Prof.  A.  Keith. 
Sir  J.  Scott  Keltie. 
Prof.  A.  W.  Kirkaldy. 
Sir  Daniel  Morris. 
Sir  W.   J.  Pope. 
Dr.  W.  H.  R.  Rivers. 
Miss  E.  R.  Saiinders. 
Prof.  W.  R.  Scott. 
Sir  A.  Strahan. 
Mr.  W.  Whitaker. 
Dr.  A.  Smith  Woodward. 

XI.  The  General  Secret.^bies  have  been  nominated  by  the  Council 
as  follows :  — 

Prof.    H.    H.   Turner. 
Prof.  J.  L.   Myres. 

XII.  The  General  Treasurer  and  one  or  other  of  the  General  Secre- 
taries have  been  appointed  representatives  of  the  Association  on  the 
Conjoint  Board  of  Scientific  Societies. 

XTII.  Prof.  H.  A.  Lorentz  has  been  appointed  an  Honorary  Corre- 
sponding Member  of  the  Association. 

Xvi  REPORT    OF    THE    COUNCIL,    1919-20. 

XIV.  The  following  have  been  admitted  as  members  of  the  General 

Committee :  — 

Mr.  W.  B.  Biierley. 
Dr.  F.  D.  Chattaway. 
Mr.  W.  N.  Oheesmaii. 
Miss  M.  C.  Crosfield. 

Miss  A.  C.  Davies. 
Prof.  J.  E.  Duerden. 
Prof.  A.  J.  Ewart. 
INIr.   C.  B.  Fawcett. 
Dr.  A.  Holmes. 
Prof.  F.  Horton. 
Mr.  A.  Pearse  Jenkin. 
Prof.  W.   Neilson  Jones. 

Prof.  A.  A.  Lawson. 
Prof.  J.  W.  MacBain. 
Dr.  R.  MacDowall. 
Dr.  J.  S.  Owens. 
Mr.  H.  J.  E.  Peake. 
Dr.  Mabel  C.  Rayner. 
Prof.  E.  W.  Skeats. 
Mr.  C.  E.  Stromeyer. 
Dr.  W.  M.  Tattereall. 
Mr.  Edwin  Thompson. 
Lieut.-Col.  Marett  Tims. 

XV.  A  Meeting  of  Recorders  and  Local  Sectional  Secretaries  for  the 
Cardiff  Meeting,  together  with  the  General  Secretaries  and  Dr.  W.  E. 
Hoyle,  Local  Secretary,  was  held  in  New  College,  Oxford,  on  April  10- 
32,  1920.  Though  of  an  informal  character,  it  was  fruitful  in  discussion 
of  arrangements  at  Cardiff  and  of  other  details  in  the  working  of  the 
Association,  and  the  Council  hope  that  such  a  meeting  may  become  an 
annual  institution. 

XVI.  The  Council  received  from  the  General  Secretaries  a  detailed 
memorandum  on  the  increased  cost  of  printing,  showing  that  the  Asso- 
ciation could  not  hope  to  maintain  printing  at  the  level  maintained  before 
the  war.  The  Council  have  put  into  force  a  number  of  alterations  in  the 
practice  of  the  Association  in  this  connection,  and  hope  that  the  General 
Committee,  after  experience,  will  approve  fhem.  Taken  together,  it  is 
hoped  that  they  will  save  the  Association  over  £600  a  year. 

XVII.  Finally,  the  Council  record  with  deep  regret  the  death  of 
Mr.  H.  C.  Stewardson,  on  May  1,  1920,  after  a  short  illness.  His 
devoted  service  to  the  Association  began  in  1873,  and  being  in  his 
eightieth  year  he  had  intended  to  retire  at  the  close  of  the  financial 
year  1919-20. 

The  Council  have  instructed  the  Assistant  Secretary  to  carry  on 
the  financial  duties  undertaken  by  Mr.  Stewardson  as  Assistant 


A  verbal  addition  was  made  to  the  above  report,  when  it  was  pre- 
sented to  the  General  Committee,  expressing  the  profound  regret  of 
the  Council  at  the  death  of  Prof.  J.  Perry,  General  Treasurer,  which 
took  place  on  August  4,  1920.* 

The  Council,  at  the  same  time,  recorded  their  regret  at  the  death 
of  Sir  Norman  Lockyer,  President  of  the  Association  in  1903. 

*  The  General  Committee,  after  receiving  this  report  and  expressing 
concurrence  with  the  sentiments  of  the  Council,  delegated  to  the  Council  the 
appointment  of  a  General  Treasurer  for  the  year  1920-31,  and  appointed  Prof. 
H.   H.  Turner  as  Acting  Treasurer  in  the  meantime. 

The  Council,  at  its  meeting  on  November  5,  1920,  elected  Dr.  E.  H. 
Griffiths,  Sc.D.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.,  to  be  General  Treasurer  for  the  year 



On  Tuesday,  August  24,  at  8  p.m.,  in  the  Park  Hall,  the  Hon.  Sir 
Charles  Parsons,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  resigned  the  office  of  President  to 
Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman,  C.B.E..,  F.R.S.     (See  p.  xxxi.) 

Prof.  W.  A.  Herdman  then  assumed  the  chair  and  delivered  an 
address,  for  which  see  p.  1. 

On  Wednesday,  August  25,  at  8  p.m.,  a  Reception  was  given  in  the 
City  Hall  by  the  Right  Hon.  the  Lord  Mayor  of  Cardiff. 

On  Thui'sday,  August  26,  at  5  p.m.,  a  Conference  took  place  in  the 
Assembly  Hall,  Technical  College,  on  Science  Applied  to  Public  Ser- 
vices, arising  out  of  communications  which  had  passed  between  the 
Association  and  Government  Departments  as  the  result  of  resolutions 
adopted  by  the  General  Committee  at  the  Bournemouth  Meeting  (see 
Report,  1919,  pp.  Ixxiii-iv).  The  Conference  was  addressed  by  Mr. 
F.  E.  Smith,  O.B.E.,  Director  of  Scientific  Research,  Admiralty,  and 

On  Thursday,  August  26,  at  8  p.m.,  in  the  Park  Hall,  Sir  R.  T. 
Glazebrook,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S. ,  delivered  a  discourse  on  '  Some  Require- 
ments of  Modern  Aircraft.'     (See  p.  384.) 

On  Friday,  August  27,  at  8  p.m.,  the  concluding  General  Meeting 
was  held  in  the  Park  Hall. 

Sir  Daniel  Hall,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,  delivered  a  discourse  on  '  A 
Grain  of  Wheat  from  the  Field  to  the  Table. '     (See  p.  389.) 

After  the  above  discourse  the  following  resolution  was  unanimously 
adopted  on  the  motion  of  the  President:  — 

That  the  cordial  thanks  of  the  British  Association  be  extended  to  the  Rt. 
Hon.  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Corpoi-ation  and  the  citizens  of  the  city  of  Cardiff 
for  their  hearty  welcome  and  for  the  facilities  so  generously  afforded  to  the 
Association  at  the  City  Hall ;  to  the  Governing  Bodies  of  the  University  of 
Wales,  the  University  College  of  South  Wales  and  Monmouthshire,  the  Tech- 
nical College,  the  South  Wales  Institute  of  Engineers,  and  other  institutions 
which  have  kindly  placed  their  buildings  and  resources  at  the  disposal  o.t  the 
Association  ;  and,  finally,  to  the  Local  Executive  Committee,  the  Local  Treasurers 
and  Secretaries  for  their  exertions  in  collecting  the  necessary  funds  and  for 
the  hospitality  which  has  been  freely  offered  to  many  members  of  the  Associa- 
tion, as  well  as  for  the  admirable  arrangements  made  for  the  eighty-eighth 
annual  meeting  of  the  Association. 


The  following  public  lectures  were  given  in  the  Park  Hall  at  8  p.m. 

on  the  days  stated :  — 

August  23,  Prof.  J.  Lloyd  WilUams  on  'Light  and  Life.' 

August  25,  Prof.  A.  W.  Kirkaldy  on  '  Present  Industrial  Conditions. ' 

August  28,  Dr.    Vaughan  Cornish  on  '  The  Geographical   Position 

of  the  British  Empire.' 





&    s.    d.     £,      ».    d.        £    I.    d. 
To  Balance  brought  forward  :— 

Lloyds  Bank,  Birmingham 1,728  17    3 

Bank  of  England— Western  Branch  :— 

On  '  Caird  Fund  ■    508  19    8 

„  General  Account 172    4    2 

681    3  10 

Cash  in  hand  0    1  11 

2,410    3  0 

ie«  Petty  Cash  overdrawn 2    8  2 

2,407  17  10 

Life  Compositions  (including  Transfers)    734    0    0 

Annual  Subscriptions  707    0    0 

New  Annual  Members 216    0    0 

Sale  of  Associates'  Tickets 645  10    0 

Sale  of  Ladies'  Tickets 152    0    0 

Life  Members  (old)  Additional  Subscriptions  446  13    0 

Donations  for  Research  :— 

C.  Read 0  10  0 

Rev.  F.Smith 2     2  0 

Sir  Hugh  Bell 100    0  0 

Sir  Richard  Robinson  25    0  0 

Sir  Robert  HadBeld 250    0  0 

Sir  Charles  Parsons 1,000    0  0 

Sir  Alfred  Yarrow 500    0  0 

Sir  C.  Bright   1     1  0 

Scientific  and  Industrial  Research  Department   600    0  0 

Scientific  Research  Association    10  13  6 

2,489    6     6 

Sale  of  Publications  224  11  10 

Interest  on  Deposits  : — 

Lloyds  Bank,  Birmingham 17    2  11 

„                       „            'Caird  Gift' 36     5  1 

London  County  Westminster  and  Parr's  Bank 36    3  9 

89  11     9 

Unexpended  Balances  of  Grants  returned  61  19  3 

'Caird  Fund' 50    U    0 

101  19    3 

Dividends  on  Investments: — 

Consols  2i  per  Cent 81    8    0 

India  3  per  Cent 75  12    0 

Great  Indian  Peninsula  Railway  '  B '  Annuity 23    7    2 

War  Stock  e  per  Cent 43    3    0 

War  Bonds  5  per  Cent 49    0    0 

272  10    2 

Dividends  on  '  Caird  Fund '  Investments  :— 

India  3i  per  Cent 64    7    4 

Canada  3J  percent,  (including  extra  i  per  Cent.)   70    0    0 

London  and  South- Western  Railway  ConBoUdated4  per  Cent.  Preference 

Stock 70    0    0 

London  and  North- Western  Railway  Consolidated  4  per  Cent.  Preference 

Stock     58  16    0 

263     3    4 

£     s.    d. 
4,651  10    5    Consolidated  2i  per  Cent.  Stock 
3,600    0    0    India  3  per  Cent.  Stock 

879  14    9    Great  Indian  Peninsula  Railway  £43  '  B '  Annuity 
2,627    0  10    India  3J  per  Cent.  Stock, '  Caird  Fund ' 
2,100    0    0    London  and  North-Western  Railway  Consolidated  4  per  Cent. 

Preference  Stock, '  Caird  Fund' 
2,500    0    0    Canada  3J  per  Cent.  (1930-50)  Registered  Stock  'Caird  Fund  ' 
2,500    0    0    London  and  South- Western  Railway  Consolidated  4   per  Cent. 
Preference  Stock,  '  Caird  Fund ' 
100  19    3    Sir  Frederick  Bramwell's  Gift  of  2J  per  Cent.  Self-Cumulating 

Consolidated  Stock 
863    2  10    War  Loan  5  per  Cent.  Stock 
1,400    0    0    War  Loan  5  per  Cent.,  1929-47 

1,000    0    0    Lloyds  Bank,  Birmingham— Deposit  Account,  Sir  J.  Caird's  Gift 
for  Radio- Activity  Investigation,  included  in  Balance  at  Bank 

£22,222     8     1  £8,750     3     8 

Value  at  30th  June,  1920,  £13,416  8s.  Id. 

OENBBAL  treasurer's  ACCOUNT.  xix 


July  1,  1919,  to  June  30,  1920. 


£    s.   d. 

By  Rent  and  Office  Expenses    292  14    8 

Salaries  and  Travelling  Expenses ""_      877    0    0 

Printing,  Binding,  etc '."""..'.'.      859  15    3 

Grants  to  Research  Oomraittees  : —  £     s.  d. 

Liverpool  Tidal  Institute  160    0  0 

Bronze  Implements  Committee  100    0  0 

Mathematical  Tables 30    0  0 

Geology  of  Coal  Seams 1  13  0 

Free  Places  in  Secondary  Education 10    0  0 

Stress  Distribution 80    0  0 

Effects  of  War  on  Credit  100    0  0 

Replacement  of  Men  by  Womeni 30    0  0 

Breeding  Experiments  on  CEnothera,  <fec 30    0  0 

Radiotelegrapli  Investigations 100    0  0 

Palaeolithic  Site  in  Jersey 5    0  0 

Rnde  Stone  Monuments 20    0  0 

Annual  Tables  of  Constants 40    0  0 

Museums  Committee  [      15     0  0 

Railway  Committee 5    0  0 

Heredity  Committee   40    0  0 

Palaeozoic  Rocks  Committee   ; 30    0  0 

Committee  on  Lepidoptera   50    0  0 

Absorption  Spectra  Committee   10    0  0 

International  Language  Committee  5    0  0 

Charts  and  Pictures  Committee 10    0  0 

Kiltorcan  Rocks  Committee 15    0  0 

Zoological  Bibliography 10    0  0 

Seismological  Committee 100    0  0 

Stoue  Circles  Committee   15    0  0 

Malta  Site 10    0  0 

— 1,011  13    0 

Expenses  Bournemouth  Meeting    260    8    7 

„        Oxford  Meeting 50    5    4 

Grants  made  from  '  Caird  Fund ' ,„  240    U    0 

Balance  at  Lloyds  Bank,  Birmingham  (with  Interest  accrued),  including 
Sir  James  Caird's    Gift,  Radio-Activity  Investigation,  of  £1,000  and 

Interest  accrued  thereon    ...     1,782    5  3 

London  County  Westminster  and  Parr's  Bank,  Ltd 1,854  10  9 

Balance  at  Bank  of  England,  Western  Branch  : — 

On 'Caird  Fund'   582    3    0 

„    General  Account 938    7    1 

1,520  10  1 

6,157    6     1 
Petty  Cash  Balance 10    9 

5,158    6  10 

£8,750    3     8 

I  have  examined  the  above  Account  with  the  Books  and  Vouchers  of  the  Association,  and  certify  the 
same  to  be  correct.  I  have  also  verified  the  Balances  at  the  Bankers,  and  have  ascertained  that  the  Invest- 
ments are  registered  in  the  names  of  the  Trustees,  or  held  by  the  Bank  of  England  on  account  of  the 
Approved — 

Edward  Brabrook,  \  .    ,. 

Arthur  L.  Bowi.ey,  f  ^'"I'lors.  ^   g   ^.^.^    Charlered  Aocounlanl. 

23  Queen  Victoria  Street,  E.C.  4, 
Aufust  13,  1920. 



Appointed  by  the  General  Committee,  Meeting  in  Cardiff  : 

August,  1920. 

1.  (a)  Receiving  grants  of  money  from  the  Association  for  expenses 
connected  with  research,  (b)  Receiving  grants  of  money  from  the  Associa- 
tion specifically  for  cost  of  printing  Report,  (c)  Grant  to  be  applied  for 
from  Public  Funds. 


Seismological  Investigations. — Prof.  H.  H.  Turner  (Chairman),  Mr.  J.  J.  Shaw 
(Secretary),  Mr.  C.  Vernon  Boys,  Dr.  J.  E.  Crombie,  Sir  H.  Darwin,  Dr.  C.  Davison, 
Sir  F.  W.  Dyson,  Sir  R.  T.  Glazebrook,  Prof.  C.  G.  Knott,  Prof.  H.  Lamb,  Sir 
J.  Larmor,  Prof.  A.  E.  H.  Love,  Prof.  H.  M.  Macdonald,  Prof.  H.  C.  Plummer, 
Mr.  W.  E.  Plummer,  Prof.  R.  A.  Sampson,  Sir  A.  SchustT,  Sir  Napier  Shaw, 
Dr.  G.  T.  Walker,  Mr.  G.  W.  Walker,     (b)  £10,  (c)  £90.  t 

To  assist  work  on  the  Tides. — Prof.  H.  Lamb  (Chairman),  Dr.  A.  T.  Doodson  (Secretary), 
Colonel  Sir  C.  P.  Close,  Dr.  P.  H.  Cowell,  Sir  H.  Darwin,  Dr.  G.  H.  Fowler, 
Admiral  Y.  C.  Learmonth,  Sir  J.  E.  Petavel,  Prof.  J.  Proudman,  Major  G.  I. 
Taylor,  Prof.  D'Arcv  W.  Thompson,  Sir  J.  J.  Thomson,  Prof.  H.  H.  Turner. 
(b)  £35,  (c)  £165. 

Annual  Tables  of  Constants  and  Numerical  Data,  chemical,  physical,  and  technological. 
—  Sir  E.  Rutherford  (Chairman),  Prof.  A.  W.  Porter  (Secretary),  Mr.  A.  E.  G. 
Egerton.     (a)  £40. 

Determination  of  Gravity  at  Sea. — Prof.  A.  E.  H.  Love  (Chairman),  Dr.  W.  G.  Duffield 
(Secretary),  Mr.  T.  W.  Chaundy,  SirH.  Darwin, Prof.  A.  S.  Eddington,  Major  E.  O. 
Henrici,  Sir  A.  Schuster,  and  Prof.  H.  H.  Turner,     (a)  £10. 

Calculation  of  Mathematical  Tables. — Prof.  J.  W.  Nicholson  (Chairman),  Dr.  J.  R. 
Airey  (Secretary),  Mr.  T.  W.  Chaundy,  Prof.  L.  N.  G.  Filon,  Sir  G.  Greenhill, 
Colonel  Hippisley,  Prof.  E.  W.  Hobson,  Mr.  G.  Kennedy,  and  Profs.  Alfred 
Lodge,  A.  E.  H.  Love,  H.  M.  Macdonald,  G.  B.  Mathews,  G.  N.  Watson,  and 
A.  G.  Webster,     (a)  £30,  (c)  £270. 


Colloid  Chemistry  and  its  Industrial  Applications. — Prof.  F.  G.  Donnan  (Chairman), 
Mr.  W.  Clayton  (Secretary),  Mr.  E.  Ardern,  Dr.  E.  F.  Armstrong,  Prof.  W.  M. 
Bavliss,  Prof.  C.  H.  Desch,  Dr.  A.  E.  Dunstan,  Mr.  H.  W.  Greenwood,  Mr.  W. 
Harrison,  Mr.  E.  Hatschek,  Mr.  G.  King,  Prof.  W.  C.  McC.  Lewis,  Prof.  J.  W. 
McBain,  Dr.  R.  S.  Morell,  Profs.  H.  R.  Proctor  and  W.  Ramsden,  Dr.  E.  J. 
Russell,  Mr.  A.  B.  Searle,  Dr.  S.  A.  Shorter,  Dr.  R.  E.  Slade,  Mr.  Sproxton, 
Dr.  H.  P.  Stevens,  Mr.  H.  B.  Stocks,  Mr.  R.  Whymper.  (a)  £5,  (c)  For 
printing  Report. 

Fuel  Economy  ;  Utilisation  of  Coal  ;  Smoke  Prevention. — Prof.  W.  A.  Bone  (Chair- 
man), Mr.  H.  James  Yates  (VicK-Chairman),  Mr.  Robert  Mond  (Secretary),  Mr. 
A.  H.  Barker,  Prof.  P.  P.  Bedson,  Dr.  W.  S.  Boulton,  Mr.  E.  Bury.  Prof.  W.  E. 
Dalby,  Mr.  E.  V.  Evans,  Dr.  W.  Galloway,  Sir  Robert  Hadfield,  Bart.,  Dr. 
H.  S.  Hele-Shaw,  Mr.  D.  H.  Helps,  Dr.  G.  Hickling.  Mr.  D.  V.  HoUingworth, 
Mr.  A.  Hutchinson,  Principal  G.  Knox,  Mr.  Michael  Longridge,  Prof.  Henry 
Louis,  Mr.  G.  E.  Morgans,  Mr.  W.  H.  Patchell,  Mr.  E.  D.  Simon,  Mr.  A.  T.  Smith, 
Dr.  J.  E.  Stead,  Mr.  C.  E.  Stromeyer,  Mr.  G.  Blake  Walker,  Sir  Joseph  Walton, 
Prof.  W.  W.  Watts,  Mr.  W.  B.  Woodhouse,  and  Mr.  C.  H.  Wordingham. 
(a)  £15,  (b)  £20. 

t  The  Committee  receives  a  grant  of  £100  from  the  Caird  Fund. 



Absorption  Spectra  and  Chemical  Constitution  of  Organic  Compounds. — Sir  J.  J. 
Dobbie  {Chairman),  Prof.  E.  E.  C.  Baly  [Secretary),  Dr.  A.  W.  Stewart. 
(a)  £10,  (b)  £25. 

Research  on  Non-Aromatic  Diazonium  Salts. — Dr.  F.  D.  Chattaway  (Chairman), 
Prof.  G  T.  Morgan  [Secretary),  Mr.  P.  G.  W.  Bayly  and  Dr.  N.  V.  Sidgwick. 
(a)  £10. 

To  report  on  the  present  state  of  knowledge  in  regard  of  Infra-red  Spectra. — Prof. 
E.  E.  C.  Baly  [Chairman),  (vacant)  [Secretary),  Prof.  W.  C.  McC.  Lewis, 
Prof.  F.  A.  Lindemann,  Prof.  T.  W.  Lowry,  Prof.  T.  R.  Merton.     (a)  £5. 


The  Old  Red  Sandstone  Rocks  of  Kiltorcan,  Ireland. — Prof.  Grenville  Cole  [Chair- 
man), Prof.  T.  Johnson  [Secretary),  Dr.  J.  W.  Evans,  Dr.  R.  Kidston,  and  Dr. 
A.  Smith  Woodward,     (a)  £15. 

To  excavate  Critical  Sections  in  the  Palaeozoic  Rocks  of  England  and  Wales. — Prof. 
W.  W.  Watts  [Chairman),  Prof.  W.  G.  Fearnsides  [Secretary),  Prof.  W.  S.  Boulton, 
Mr.  E.  S.  Cobbold,  Prof.  E.  J.  Garwood,  Mr.  V.  C.  Illing,  Dr.  Lapworth,  Dr.  J.  E. 
Marr,  and  Dr.  W.  K.  Spencer,     (a)  £30,  (b)  £12. 

To  consider  the  Nomenclature  of  the  Carboniferous,  Permo-carboniferous,  and  Per 
mian  Rocks  of  the  Southern  Hemisphere. — Prof.  T.  W.  Edgeworth  David  [Chair- 
man), Prof.  E.  W.  Skeats  [Secretary),  Mr.  W.  S.  Dun,  Prof.  J.  W.  Gregory,  Sir 
T.  H.  Holland,  Messrs.  W.  Howohin,  A.  E.  Kitson,  and  G.  W.  Lamplugh,  Dr.  A.  W. 
Rogers,  Prof.  A.  C.  Seward,  Mr.  D.  M.  S.  Watsou,  and  Prof.  W.  G.  Woolnough. 
(a)  £25,  (b)  £5. 


To  nominate  competent  Naturalists  to  perform  definite  pieces  of  work  at  the  Marine 
Laboratory,  Plymouth. — Prof.  A.  Dendy  [Chairman  and  Secretary),  Prof.  E.  S. 
Goodrich,  Prof.  J.  P.  Hill,  Prof.  S.  J.  Hickson,  Sir  E.  Ray  Lankester.    (a)  £200. 

Experiments  in  Inheritance  in  Silkworms. — Prof.  W.  Bateson  [Chairman),  Mrs.  Merritt 
Hawkes  [Secretari/),  Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey,  Prof.  E.  B.  Poulton,  Prof.  R.  C.  Punnett. 

(a)  £17  2s.  Id. 

E.xperiments  in  Inheritance  of  Colour  in  Lepidoptera. — Prof.  W.  Bateson  [Chairman), 
The  Hon.  H.  Onslow  [Secretary),  Dr.  F.  A.  Dixey,  Prof.  E.  B.  Poulton.     (a)  £24, 

(b)  £1. 

Zoological  Bibliography  and  Publication.— Prof.  E.  B.  Poulton  [Chairman),  Dr.  F.  A. 
Bather  [Secretary),  Mr.  E.  Heron- Allen,  Dr.  W.  E.  Hoyle,  and  Dr.  P.  Chalmers 
Mitchell,     (a)  £1. 

To  summon  meetings  in  London  or  elsewhere  for  the  consideration  of  matters  affecting 
the  interests  of  Zoology,  and  to  obtain  by  correspondence  the  opinion  of  Zoologists 
on  matters  of  a  similar  kind,  with  power  to  raise  by  subscription  from  each 
Zoologist  a  sum  of  money  for  defraying  current  expenses  of  the  organisation. — 
Prof.  S.  J.  Hickson  [Chairman),  Dr.  W.  M.  Tattersall  [Secretary),  Profs.  G.  C. 
Bourne,  A.  Dendy,  J.  Stanley  Gardiner,  W.  Garstang,  Marcus  Hartog,  W.  A. 
Herdman,  J.  Graham  Kerr,  R.  D.  Laurie,  E.  W.  MacBride,  A.  Meek,  Dr.  P. 
Chalmers  Mitchell,  and  Prof.  E.  B.  Poulton.     (b)  £20. 


The  Effects  of  the  War  on  Credit,  Currency,  Finance,  and  Foreign  Exchanges.—  Prof. 
W.  R.  Scott  [Chairman),  Mr.  J.  E.  Allen  [Secretary),  Prof  C.  F.  Bastable,  Sir  E. 
Brabrook,  Prof.  L.  R.  Dicksee,  Mr.  B.  Ellinger,  Mr.  E.  L.  Franklin,  Mr.  A.  H. 
Gibson,  Mr.  C.  W.  Guilleband,  Mr.  F.  W.  Hirst,  Prof.  A.  W.  Kirkaldy, 
Mr.  F.  Lavington,  Mr.  E.  Sykes,  Sir  J.  C.  Stamp,  Mr.  Hartky  Withers, 
Mr.  Hilton  Young,     (a)  £50. 


Section   G.— ENGINEERING. 

To  report  on  certain  of  the  more  complex  Stress  Distributions  in  Engineering  Materials. 
— Prof.  E.  G.  Coker  {Chairman),  Prof.  L.  N.  G.  Filon  and  Prof.  A.  Robertson 
{Secretary),  Prof.  A.  Barr,  Dr.  Chas.  Chree,  Dr.  Gilbert  Cook,  Prof.  W.  E.  Dalby. 
Sir  J.  A.  Ewing,  Messrs.  A.  R.  Fulton  and  J.  J.  Guest,  Dr.  B.  P.  Haigh,  Profs. 
Sir  J.  B.  Henderson,  C.  E.  Inglis,  F.  C.  Lea,  A.  E.  H.  Love,  and  W.  Mason, 
Sir  J.  E.  Petavel,  Dr.  F.  Rogers,  Dr.  W.  A.  Scoble,  Mr.  R.  V.  Southwell, 
Dr.  T.  E.  Stanton,  Mr.  C.  E.  Stromeyer,  and  Mr.  J.  S.  Wilson,     (b)  £50. 

The  Investigation  of  Gaseous  Explosions,  with  special  reference  to  temperature. — 
Sir  Dugald  Clerk  iChamnan),  (Vacant)  (Secretary),  Profs.  W.  A.  Bone,  F.  W. 
Burstall,  H.  L.  Ca'llendar,  and  E.  G.  Coker,  Mr.  D.  L.  Chapman,  Prof.  H.  B. 
Dixon,  Prof.  A.  H.  Gibson,  Sir  R.  T.  Glazebrook,  Dr.  J.  A.  Barker,  Colonel  Sir 
H.  C.  L.  Holden,  Sir  J.  E.  Petavel,  Mr.  D.  R.  Pye,  Mr.  H.  R.  Ricardo,  Captain 
H.  R.  Sankey,  Prof.  A.  Smithells,  and  Mr.  H.  Wimperis.     (b)  £50. 

Section    H.— ANTHROPOLOGY. 

To  excavate  Early  Sites  in  Macedonia. — Prof.  Sir  W.  Ridgeway  {Chairman),  Mr.  A. 
J.  B.  Wace  {Secretary),  Prof.  R.  C.  Bosanquet,  Mr.  L.  H.  D.  Buxton,  Mr.  S.  Casson, 
Dr.  W.  L.  H.  Duckworth,  Prof.  J.  L.  Myres.     (a)  £50. 

To  excavate  a  Paleolithic  Site  in  Jersey. — Dr.  R.  R.  Marett  {Chairman),  Mr.  G.  de 
Grucby  (Secretary),  Dr.  C.  W.  Andrews,  Mr.  H.  Balfour,  Prof,  A.  Keith,  and 
Colonel  Warton.     (b)  £1. 

To  report  on  the  Classification  and  Distribution  of  Rude  Stone  Monuments. — Dr.  R. 
R.  Marett  {Chairman),  Prof.  H.  J.  Fleure  {Secretary),  Mr.  L.  H.  D.  Buxton,  Prof. 
J.  L.  Myres,  Mr.  H.  Peake.     (a)  £25,  (b)  £1. 

To  report  on  the  Distribution  of  Bronze  Age  Implements. — Prof.  J.  L.  Myres  {Chair- 
vian),  Mr.  H.  Peake  {Secretary),  Dr.  E.  C.  R.  Armstrong,  Dr.  H.  A.  Auden,  Mr. 
H.  Balfour,  Mr.  L.  H.  D.  Buxton,  Mr.  0.  G.  S.  Crawford,  Sir  W.  Boyd  Dawkins, 
Prof.  H.  J.  Fleure,  Mr.  G.  A.  Garfitt,  Dr.  R.  R.  Marett,  Mr.  R.  Mond,  Sir  C.  H. 
Read,  Sir  W.  Ridgeway.     (a)  £100,  (b)  £1. 

To  conduct  Archseological  Investigations  in  Malta. — Prof.  J.  L.  Myres  {Chairman), 
Prof.  A.  Keith  {Secretary),  Dr.  T.  Ashby,  Mr.  H.  Balfour,  Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon, 
Dr.  R.  R.  Marett,  and  Mr.  H.  Peake.     (a)  £50. 

Section  L— PHYSIOLOGY. 

Ductless  Glands. — SirE.  Sharpey  Schafer  {Chairman),  Prof.  Swale  Vincent  {Secretary), 
Dr.  R.  J.  S.  McDowall.     (c)  £30. 

Section  K.— BOTANY. 

Experimental  Studies  in  the  Physiology  of  Heredity. — Dr.  i .  F.  Blackman  {Chairman), 
Miss  E.  R.  Saunders  {Secretary),  Profs.  Bateson  and  Keeble.    (a)  £10,  (c)  £90. 

To  continue  Breeding  Experiments  on  Oenothera  and  other  Genera. — Dr.  A.  B. 
Rendle  {Chairman),  Dr.  R.  R.  Gates  {Secretary),  Prof.  W.  Bateson,  Mr.  W. 
Brierley,  Prof.  O.  V.  Darbishire,  Dr.  M.  C.  Rayner.     (a)  £25. 

Primary  Botanical  Survey  in  Wales. — Dr.  E  N.  Miles  Thomas  {Chairman),  Miss 
Wortham  {Secretary),  Miss  Davey,  Prof.  T'.  W.  Oliver,  Prof.  Stapledon,  Principal 
A.  H.  Trow,     (a)  £20. 



Training  in  Citizenship.— Rt.  Rev.  J.  E.  C.  Welldon  {Chairman),  Lady  Shaw  {Secretary), 
Sir  R.  Baden-Powell,  Mr.  C.  H.  Blakiston,  Mr.  G.  D.  Dunkerley,  Mr.  W.  D.  Eggar, 
Mr.  C.  R.  Fay,  Principal  .1.  C.  Maxwell  Garnett,  kSir  R.  A.  Gregory,  and  Sir  T. 
Morison.     (a)  £16,  (b)  £10,  (c)  £50. 

To  inquire  into  the  provision  of  Educational  Pictures  for  display  in  schools. — Sir  R.  A. 
Gregory  {Chairman),  Mr.  G.  D.  Dunkerley  {Secretary),  Mr.  C.  E.  Browne,  Miss 
L.  J.  Clarke,  Mr.  C.  B.  Fawcett,  Mr.  E.  N.  Fallaize,  Prof.  S.  .1.  Hickson, 
Mr.  0.  J.  R.  Howarth,  Mr.  C.  G.  T.  Morison,  Mr.  H.  J.  E.  Peake.  Prof.  S.  H. 
Reynolds,  Prof.  H.  E.  Roaf,  Sir  Napier  Shaw,  Dr.  T.  W.  Woodhead. 
(a)   £6.  10s.,  (b)  £16. 

To  inquire  into  the  work  being  done  by  University  bureaux  in  furthering  the  inter- 
change of  Students  (particularly  post-graduates)  between  home  and  foreign 
Universities,  and  to  consider  what  steps  can  be  taken  to  increase  their  spheres 
of  action. — Mr.  D.  Berridge  {Secretary),     (a)  £5. 

To  inquire  into  the  Practicability  of  an  International  Auxiliary  Language. — Mr.  W. 
B.  Hardy  {Chairman),  Dr.  E.  H.  Tripp  {Secretary),  Mr.  E.  Bullough,  Prof.  J.  J. 
Findlay,  Sir  Richard  Gregory,  Dr.  C.  W.  Kimmins,  Dr.  H.  Foster  Morley,  Sir 
E.  Cooper  Perry,  Prof.  W.  Ripman,  Mr.  F.  Nowell  Smith,  Mr.  A.  E.  Twentyman. 
(a)  £7.  10s.,  (b)  £15. 


Corresponding  Societies  Committee  for  the  preparation  of  their  Report. — Mr.  W. 
Whitaker  {Chairman),  Mr.  W.  Mark  Webb  {Secretary),  Mr.  P.  J.  Ashton,  Dr.  F.  A. 
Bather,  Rev.  J.  0.  Bevan,  Sir  Edward  Brabrook,  Sir  H.  G.  Fordham,  Mr.  A.  L. 
Lewis,  Mr.  T.  Sheppard,  Rev.  T.  R.  R.  Stebbing,  Mr.  Mark  L.  Sykes,  and  the 
President  and  General  Officers  of  the  Association,     (a)  £40,  (b)  £30. 

2.  Not  receiving  Grants  of  Money. 


Radiotelegraphic  Investigations. — Sir  Oliver  Lodge  {Chairman),  Dr.  W.  H.  Eccles 
{Secretary),  Mr.  S.  G.  Brown,  Dr.  C.  Chree,  Sir  F.  W.  Dyson,  Prof.  A.  S.  Eddington, 
Dr.  Erskine-Murray,  Profs.  J.  A.  Fleming,  G.  W.  0.  Howe,  H.  M.  Macdonald, 
and  J.  W.  Nicholson,  Sir  H.  Norman,  Captain  H.  R.  Sankey,  Sir  A.  Schuster,  Sir 
Napier  Shaw,  and  Prof.  H.  H.  Turner. 

Investigation  of  the  Ucper  Atmosphere. — Sir  Napier  Shaw  {Chairman),  Mr.  C.  J.  P. 
Cave  {Secretary),  Prof.  S.  Chapman.  Mr.  J.  S.  Dines,  Mr.  W.  H.  Dines,  Sir  R.  T. 
Glazebrook,  Col.  E.  Gold,  Dr.  H.  Jeffreys,  Sir  J.  Larmor,  Mr.  R.  G.  K.  Lemp- 
fert.  Prof.  P.  A.  Lindemann,  Dr.  W.  Makower,  Sir  J.  E.  Petavel,  Sir  A.  Schuster, 
Dr.  G.  C.  Simpson,  Mr.  F.  J.  W.  Whipple,  Prof.  H.  H.  Turner. 

To  aid  the  work  of  Establishing  a  Solar  Observatory  in  Australia.— Prof.  H.  H.  Turner, 
{Chairman),  Dr.  W.  G.  Duffield  {Secretary),  Rev.  A.  L.  Cortie,  Dr.  W.  J.  S.  Lockyer, 
Mr.  F.  McClean,  and  Sir  A.  Schuster. 


The  Collection,  Preservation,  and  Systematic  Registration  of  Photographs  of  Geo- 
logical Interest.— Prof .  E.  J.  Garwood  {Chairman),  Prof.  S.  H.  Reynolds  {Secretary), 
Mr.  G.  Bingley,  Dr.  T.  G.  Bonney,  Messrs.  C.  V.  Crook,  R.  Kidston.  and  A.  S. 
Reid,  Sir  J.  J.  H.  Teall,  Prof.  W. W.  Watts,  and  Messrs.  R.  Welch  and  W.  Whitaker. 


To  consider  the  preparation  of  a  List  of  Characteristic  Fossils. — Prof.  P.  F.  Kendall 
[Chairman],  Dr.  W.  T.  Gordon  [Secretary],  Prof.  W.  S.  Boulton,  Dr.  A.  R.  Dwerry- 
house,  Profs.  J.  W.  Gregory,  Sir  T.  H.  Holland,  and  S.  H.  Reynolds,  Dr.  Marie 
C.  Stopes,  Dr.  J.  E.  Marr,  Prof.  W.  W.  Watts,  Mr.  H.  Woods,  and  Dr.  A.  Smith 

To  investigate  the  Flora  of  Lower  Carboniferous  times  as  exemplified  at  a  newly- 
discovered  locality  at  Gullane,  Haddingtonshire. — Dr.  R.  Kidston  (Chairman), 
Dr.  W.  T.  Gordon  [Secretary),  Dr.  J.  S.  Flett,  Prof.  E.  J.  Garwood,  Dr.  J.  Home, 
and  Dr.  B.  N.  Peach. 


To  aid  competent  Investigators  selected  by  the  Committee  to  carry  on  definite  pieces 
of  work  at  the  Zoological  Station  at  Naples. —  Mr.  E.  S.  Goodrich  [Chairman), 
Prof.  J.  H.  Ash  worth  [Secretary],  Dr.  G.  P.  Bidder,  Prof.  F.  0.  Bower,  Drs.  W.  B. 
Hardy,  Sir  S.  F.  Harmer,  Prof.  S.  J.  Hick.son,  Sir  E.  Ray  Lankester,  Prof.  W.  C. 
Mcintosh,  Dr.  A.  D.  Waller.f 

The  collection  of  Marsupials  for  work  upon  [a]  the  reproductive  apparatus  and 
development,  (6)  the  brain. — Prof.  A.  Dendy  [Chairman),  Dr.  G.  E.  Nicholls 
{Secretary],  Profs.  W.  J.  Dakin,  T.  Flynn,  J.  P.  Hill,  E.  B.  Poulton,  and  G. 
Elliot  Smith,  Dr.  Marett  Tims. 


Replacement  of  Men  by  Women  in  Industry. — Prof.  W.  R.  Scott  [Chairman),  Miss 
Grier  [Secretary),  Miss  Ashley,  Mr.  J.  Cunnison,  Mr.  Daniels,  Mr.  C.  R.  Fay,  Mr. 
J.  E.  Highton,  and  Professor  A.  W.  Kirkaldy. 


The  Collection,  Preservation,  and  Systematic  Registration  of  Photographs  of  Anthro- 
pological Interest. — Sir  C.  H.  Read  [Chairman),  Mr.  E.  N.  Fallaize  [Secretary], 
Dr.  G.  A.  Auden,  Dr.  H.  0.  Forbes,  Mr.  E.  Heawood,  and  Prof.  J.  L.  Myres. 

To  conduct  Explorations  with  the  object  of  ascertaining  the  Age  of  Stone  Circles. — 
Sir  C.  H.  Read  [Chairman),  Mr.  H.  Balfour  [Secretary],  Dr.  G.  A.  Auden,  Prof. 
Sir  W.  Ridgeway,  Dr.  J.  G.  Garson,  Sir  Arthur  Evans,  Sir  W.  Boyd  Dawkins, 
Prof.  J.  L.  Myres,  Mr.  A.  L.  Lewis,  and  Mr.  H.  Peake. 

To  conduct  Archaeological  and  Ethnological  Researches  in  Crete. — Mr.  D.  G.  Hogarth 
[Chairman),  Prof.  J.  L.  Myres  [Secretary),  Prof.  R.  C.  Bosanquet,  Dr.  W.  L.  H. 
Duckworth,  Sir  A.  Evans,  Sir  W.  Ridgeway,  Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall. 

To  conduct  Anthropometric  Investigations  in  the  Island  of  Cyprus. — Prof.  J.  L. 
Myres  [Chairman],  Dr.  F.  C.  Shrubsall  [Secretary],  Mr.  L.  H.  Dudley  Buxton,  Dr. 
A.  C.  Haddon. 

To  co-operate  with  Local  Committees  in  excavation  on  Roman  Sites  in  Britain. — 
Sir  W.  Ridgeway  [Chairman],  Mr.  H.  J.  E.  Peake  [Secretary),  Dr.  T.  Ashby,  Mr. 
Willoughby  Gardner,  Prof.  J.  L.  Myres. 

To  report  on  the  present  state  of  knowledge  of  the  Ethnography  and  Anthropology 
of  the  Near  and  Middle  East. — Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon  [Chairman],  Mr.  L.  H.  Dudley 
Buxton  [Secretary),  Mr.  S.  Casson,  Prof.  H.  J.  Fleure,  Mr.  H.  J.  E.  Peake. 

t  Grant  of  £100  from  Caird  Fund  :   see  p.  xxx. 


To  report  on  the  present  state  of  knowledge  of  the  relation  of  early  Palaeolithic 
Instruments  to  Glacial  Deposits. — Mr.  H.  J.  E.  Peake  {Chairman),  Mr.  E.  N. 
Fallaize  {Secretary),  Mr.  H.  Balfour. 

Section   I.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

Electromotive  Phenomena  in  Plants. — Dr.  A.  D.  Waller  {Chairman),  Mrs.  Waller 
{Secretary),  Prof.  J.  B.  Farmer,  Mr.  J.  C.  Waller. 

Food  Standards  and  Man-power. — Prof.  W.  D.  Hallibiirton  {Chairman),  Dr.  A.  D. 
Waller  {Secretary),  Prof.  E.  H.  Starling. 

Section  K.— BOTANY. 

To  consider  the  possibilities  of  investigation  of  the  Ecology  of  Fungi,  and  assist  Mr. 
J.  Ramsbottom  in  his  initial  efforts  in  this  direction. — Mr.  H.  W.  T.  Wager 
{Chairman),  Mr.  J.  Ramsbottom  and  Miss  A.  Lorrain  Smith  {Secretaries),  Mr. 
W.  B.  Brierley,  Mr.  F.  T.  Brooks,  Mr.  W.  N.  Cheesman,  Prof.  T.  Johnson,  Prof. 
M.  C.  Potter,  Mr.  L.  Carleton  Rea,  and  Mr.  E.  W.  Swanton. 

Section  L.— EDUCATION. 

The  Influence  of  School  Books  upon  Eyesight. — Dr.  G.  A.  Auden  {Chairman),  Mr. 
G.  F.  Daniell  {Secretary),  Mr.  C.  H.  Bothamley,  Mr.  W.  D.  Eggar,  Sir  R.  A. 
Gregory,  Dr.  N.  Bishop  Harman,  Mr.  J.  L.  Holland,  Dr.  W.  E.  Sumpner, 
and  Mr.  Trevor  Walsh. 


To  take  steps  to  obtain  Kent's  Cavern  for  the  Nation. — Mr.  W.  Whitaker  {Chairman), 
Mr.  W.  M.  Webb  {Secretary),  Prof.  Sir  W.  Boyd  Dawkins,  Mr.  Mark  L.  Sykes. 

Research  Committees  '  in  Suspense.' 

The  work  of  the  following  Committees  is  in  suspense  until  further 
notice.  The  personnel  of  these  Committees  will  be  found  in  the  Eeport 
for  1917. 


An  investigation  of  the  Biology  of  the  Abrolhos  Islands  and  the  North-west  Coast 
of  Australia  (north  of  Shark's  Bay  to  Broome),  with  particular  reference  to  the 
Marine  Fauna. 

Nomenclator  Animalium  Genera  et  Sub -genera. 


To  investigate  the  Physical  Characters  of  the  Ancient  Egyptians. 

To  prepare  and  publish  Miss  Byrne's  Gazetteer  and  Map  of  the  Native  Tribes 
of  Australia. 

To  investigate  the  Lake  Villages  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Glastonbury  in  connec- 
tion with  a  Committee  of  the  Somerset  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society. 


The  Renting  of  Cinchona  Botanic  Station  in  Jamaica. 



The  following  Resolutions  and  Recommendations  were  referred  to 
the  Council  (unless  otherwise  stated)  by  the  General  Committee  at 
Cardiff  for  consideration  and,  if  desirable,  for  action:  — 

From  Section  A. 

That  H.M.  Stationery  Office  be  aeked  to  print  the  Tables  on  Congruence 
Solutions  prepared  by  Lieut. -Col.  A.  Cunningham  and  Mr.  T.  G.  Creak. 

From  Sections  A  and  E. 

(1)  That  this  joint  meeting  of  Sections  A  and  E  strongly  urges  upon  the 
General  Committee  the  desirability  of  printing  in  the  report  of  the  Association 
the  paper  read  before  it  by  Principal  E.  H.  Griffiths  and  Major  E.  0.  Henrici 
on  'The  Need  for  a  Central  British  Institute  for  Training  and  Research  in 
Surveying,  Hydrography,  and  Geodesy  '  * ;  and  (2)  that  the  meeting  caUs  the 
attention  of  the  Council  to  the  urgency  of  the  question  at  the  present  time,  and 
begs  that  the  Council  will  again  give  attention  to  the  subject. 

From  Section  B. 

That  Section  B  requests  the  Council  to  recommend  to  the  appropriate  autho- 
rities the  great  desirability  of  continuing  the  experiments  on  the  production  of 
industrial  alcohol  now  in  progress,  by  aid  of  the  installations  now  existing  in 
Government  establishments. 

From  Section  C. 

That  the  Committee  of  Section  C  intimate  to  the  Council  that  it  regards  the 
forecasting  of  the  length  of  Committee  reports  as  in  many  cases  impossible. 

From  Section  D. 

Unanimously  agreed  by  the  Committee  of  Section  D  (thirty-nine  present)  that 
it  be  a  recommendation  to  the  Zoology  Organisation  Committee  that  no  scheme 
of  payment  of  professional  zoologists  in  the  service  of  the  State  is  satisfactory 
which  places  them  on  a  lower  level  than  that  of  the  higher  grade  of  the  Civil 

(The  above  Resolution  received  the  support  of  representatives  of  other 
Sections,  and  the  General  Committee  directed  that  its  consideration  and  any 
action  upon  it  should  take  account  of  the  position  of  workers  in  other  branches 
of  science.) 

From  Section  D. 

That  Section  D  is  profoundly  impressed  with  the  importance  of  urging  the 
initiation  of  a  further  National  Expedition  for  the  Exploration  of  the  Ocean, 
and  requests  the  Council  of  the  British  Association  to  appoint  a  Committee  to 
take  the  necessary  steps  to  impress  this  need  upon  His  Majesty's  Government 
and  the  nation. 

(The  above  Resolution  was  supported  by  the  Committees  of  all  Sections 

*  This  Recommendation  was  sanctioned  by  the  General  Committee. 


From  Section  E. 

That  this  meeting  of  Section  E  of  the  British  Association,  being  convinced 
by  the  results  already  obtained  of  the  value  as  an  educational  instrument  and 
as  a  work  of  national  importance  of  the  scheme  recently  initiated  by  the  Welsh 
Department  of  the  Board  of  Education  for  the  collection  of  Rural  Lore  and 
Regional  Survey  material  through  the  medium  of  the  elementary  and  secondary 
schools  and  colleges,  heartily  approves  the  same,  and  expresses  the  earnest  hope 
that  the  scheme  may  be  widely  taken  up  throughout  the  country. 

From  Section  H  {see  preceding  Resolution). 

That  the  Committee  of  Section  H,  Cardiff,  August  1920,  views  with  interest 
and  appreciation  the  scheme  of  the  Welsh  Department  of  the  Board  of  Educa- 
tion for  the  collection  of  Rural  Lore  through  the  ag«ncy  of  the  schools,  and  hopes 
that  stepe  may  be  taken  to  apply  the  scheme,  mutatis  mutandis,  to  other  parts 
of  Great  Britain. 

From  SeiiCtion  E. 

That  the  Committee  of  Section  E  (Geography)  of  the  British  Association  for 
the  Advancement  of  Science  begs  leave  to  ask  the  President  of  the  Board  of 
Education  to  give  schools  permission  to  include  geography  as  a  subject  on  a 
level  with  the  other  subjects  in  advanced  courses  of  suitable  type  in  mathematics 
and  science,  in  classics,  and  in  modern  studies. 

From  S action  E. 

The  Committee  of  Section  E  of  the  British  Association  meeting  at  Cardiff 
(1920)  expresses  its  appreciation  of  the  opportunity  of  co-operation  in  the  work 
of  the  National  Committee  on  Geographical  Research  afforded  by  the  Royal 
Society,  but  it  begs  leave  to  suggest  that  the  purpose  might  be  served  more  fully 
if  the  Section  were  permitted  to  nominate  a  representative  for  a  period  of  two 
or  three  years  in  place  of  the  nomination  of  the  President  of  the  Section  who 

retires  annually.  j     i  j     xu  * 

The  Committee  begs  to  suggest,  if  their  recommendation  be  adopted,  that 
Prof.  J.  L.  Myres  be  nominated  as  their  representative. 

From  Section  H. 

That  the  following  Committees  be  authorised  to  obtain  financial  assistance 
from  eouroes  other  than  the  Association  *  : 

(a)  Archaeological  Investigations  in  Malta. 

(b)  Bronze  J^  Implements. 

(c)  Palaeolithic  Site  in  Jersey. 

(d)  Rude  Stone  Monuments. 

From  Section  H. 

That  this  Association  urges  iipon  the  Government  of  the  Union  of  South 
Africa  the  desirability  of  instituting  an  Ethnological  Bureau  for  the  purpose 
of  studyino-  the  racial  characteristics,  languages,  institutions,  and  beliefs  of  the 
native  population  of  South  Africa,  in  order  that  any  attempt  which  may  be  made 
to  bring  this  population  into  closer  touch  -with  the  course  of  social  and  economic 
development  in  South  Africa  may  be  based  upon  a  scientific  knowledge  and  an 
understanding  of  its  psychology,  mode  of  life,  and  institutions. 

*  This    Recommendation   was   sanctioned   by   the  General   Committee. 


From  Section  H. 

That  this  Aseociation  would  urge  upon  the  Government  of  Western  Australia 
the  desirability  of  instituting  forthwith  an  anthropological  survey  of  the 
aboriginal  population  now  living  under  Government  protection  on  Government 
reservations,  stations,  and  elsewhere  in  Western  Australia,  in  order  that  a  record 
may  be  made  of  the  physical  measurements,  languages,  customs,  and  beliefs  of 
theee  tribes,  before  this  material,  of  great  scientific  importance,  is  lost  by  the 
death  of  the  older  members  of  the  tribes  or  impaired  in  value  by  contact  with 

From  Section  H. 

That  the  attention  of  this  Association  havinig  been  called  to  the  present 
deplorable  condition  of  the  aboriginal  population  of  Central  Australia,  it  would 
urge  upon  the  Federal  Government  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Australia,  the 
Government  of  South  Australia,  and  the  Government  of  Western  Australia  the 
necessity  for  (1)  the  declaration  of  an  absolute  reservation  on  some  part  of  the 
lands  at  present  inhabited  by  these  tribes,  such  as,  for  instance,  the  Musgrave, 
Mann,  and  Tomkinson  Ranges,  upon  which  all  may  be  located  under  State  pro- 
tection and  siipervision ;  and  (2)  the  institution  of  a  medical  service  for  the 
aborigines  to  check  the  ravages  of  tuberculosis  and  other  diseases  now  rife 
among  them. 

From  Section  H. 

That  in  future  years  Associations  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  in  the 
Dominions  and  in  Foreign  Countries  be  invited  to  send  official  representatives  to 
attend  the  annual  meetings  of  this  Association. 

From  Section  H. 

Recommendations  *  in  reference  to  printing  of  reports  of  Research  Committees 
1919-20  : 

(a)  Archaeological  Investigations  in  Malta  : — That  the  Government  of  Malta 
be  asked  to  contribute  £50  towards  the  cost  of  printing  this  report  in  the  Journal 
of  the  Royal  Anthropological  Institute  on  the  condition  that  copies  of  the  report 
will  be  available  for  sale  in  the  Island  of  Malta. 

(h)  That  Mr.  Willoughby  Gardner's  report  on  the  Excavations  at  Dinorben 
in  1919-20  be  printed,  in  abstract  only,  as  an  appendix  to  the  report  of  the 
Roman  Sites  Committee  for  1919-20. 

From  Sections  H  and  L. 

That  this  Association,  while  viewing  with  approbation  the  recent  regulation 
of  the  Board  of  Education  (Circular  1153,  March  31,  1908),  where  anthropo- 
metric observations  may  be  included  in  the  medical  inspection  of  Continuation 
Schools,  would  urge  upon  the  Board  the  desirability  of  extending  this  provision 
to  all  schools  in  receipt  of  Government  grant  for  a  limited  period  of,  say,  five 
years,  in  order  that,  as  a  result  of  such  a  survey,  standards  of  comparison  may 
be  available  in  the  future  for  the  purpose  of  both  medical  inspection  and 
scientific  investigation. 

From  Section  I. 

The  Committee  of  Section  I  recommend  to  the  General  Committee  of  the 
British  Association  that  a  separate  Section  of  Psychology  be  formed. 

(The  above  Recommendation  was  supported  by  representatives  of  Section  L, 
and  was  approved  by  the  General  Committee  subject  to  the  approval  of  the 

*  These  Recommeiidatiofis  were  sanctioned  by  the  General  Committee. 


From  Section  K. 

That  Government  support  is  desired  for  the  afforestation  experiments  on 
pit-mounds  being  conducted  by  the  Midland  Eeafforesting  Committee. 

From  Section  L. 

Section  L  ask  the  Council  to  give  power  to  the  Organising  Committee  of 
Section  L,  if  they  think  fit,  to  allow  a  book  upon  Citizenship,  based  upon  the 
syllabus  in  Appendix  I.  of  the  1920  Eeport  of  the  Committee  iipon  Training 
in  Citizenship,  to  be  published,  with  a  foreword  to  the  effect  that  the  book  has 
the  approval  of  the  Organising  Committee  of  Section  L  of  the  British  Asso- 

From  Section  L. 

That  500  short  copies  of  the  Reports  on  Museums  and  on  Training  in  Citizen- 
ship (1920)   be  printed   from  the  standing  type.* 

*  Thia   Recommendation   was   sanctioned   by   the   General    Committee. 



An  unconditional  gift  of  lO.OOOZ.  was  made  to  the  Association  at  the 
Dundee  Meeting,  1912,  by  Mr.  (afterwards  Sir)  J.  K.  Caird,  LL.D.,  of 

The  Council,  in  its  report  to  the  General  Committee  at  the  Bir- 
mingham Meeting,  made  certain  recommendations  as  to  the  administra- 
tion of  this  Fund.  These  recommendations  were  adopted,  with  the 
Eeport,  by  the  General  Committee  at  its  meeting  on  September  10,  1913. 

The  following  allocations  have  been  made  from  the  Fund  by  the 
Council  to  August  1920  : — 

Naples  Zoological  Station  Committee  (p.  xxiv). — 501.  (1912-13) ;  lOOL 
(1913-14)  ;  100/.  annually  in  future,  subject  to  the  adoption  of  the  Com- 
mittee's report.     (Reduced  to  60/.  during  war.) 

Seismology  Committee  (p.  xx). — 100/.  (1913-14) ;  lOOZ.  annually  in 
future,  subject  to  the  adoption  of  the  Committee's  report. 

Badiotelegraphic  Committee  (p.  xxiii). — 500/.  (1913-14). 

Magnetic  Be-survey  of  the  British  Isles  (in  collaboration  with  the 
Eoyal  Society).— 250/. 

Committee  on  Determination  of  Gravity  at  Sea  (p.  xx). — lOOZ. 

Mr.  F,  Sargent,  Bristol  University,  in  connection  tvith  his  Astro- 
nomical Work.— 101.  (1914). 

Organising  Committee  of  Section  F  (Economics),  toiuards  expenses  of 
an  Inquiry  iyito  Outlets  for  Labour  after  the  War. — 100/.  (1915). 

Bev.  T.  E.  B.  Phillips,  for  aid  in  transplanting  his  private  observa- 
tory.—201.  (1915). 

Committee  on  Fuel  Economy  (p.  xx).— 25/.  (1915-16),  10/.  (1919-20). 

Committee  on  Training  in  Citizenship  (p.  xxiii). — 10/.  (1919-20). 

Geophysical  Committee  of  Boyal  Astronomical  Society. — 10/.  (1920). 

Conjoint  Board  of  Scientific  Societies. — 10/.  (1920). 

Sir  J.  K.  Caird,  on  September  10,  1913,  made  a  further  gift  of  1,000Z. 
to  the  Association,  to  be  devoted  to  the  study  of  Radio-activity. 



Tuesday,  August  24,  1920. 

In  the  course  of  his  speech  introducing  his  successor,  the  President, 
the  Hon.  Sir  Charles  Parsons,  K.C.B.,  F.R.S.,   said:  — 

Tiie  General  Committee  have  authorised  me  to  send  the  following  telegram 
to  His  Majesty  the  King  : — 

YouB  Majesty, 

The  members  of  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science 
desire  to  express  their  loyal  devotion  to  your  Majesty,  and  at  this  their  meeting 
in  the  Principality  of  Wales  hope  that  they  may  be  permitted  to  congratulate 
your  Majesty  on  the  splendid  work  done  by  the  Prince  of  Wales,  which  has 
drawn  towards  him  the  thoughts  and  the  hearts  of  the  whole  Empire. 

We  have  to  record  with  deep  regret  that  since  our  meeting  at  Bournemouth 
last  year  the  Association  has  lost  two  of  its  most  devoted  and  valued  officers. 

Prof essor  John  Perry,  F.R.S.,  General  Treasurer  of  the  Association  since  1904, 
died  at  his  London  residence  on  August  4  at  the  age  of  seventy.  He  had  only 
returned  two  months  ago  from  a  long  voyage  round  South  America,  undertaken 
for  the  benefit  of  his  health.  It  had,  however,  not  produced  the  desired  result; 
the  affection  of  his  heart  increased,  and  the  end  came  suddenly.  Professor 
Perry  was  widely  known  as  an  eminent  mathematician,  and  as  one  who  had 
directed  most  of  his  life  to  introducing  mathematics  as  a  practical  science— 
his  numerous  books  are  well  known  in  this  country  and  America,  and  have 
been  translated  into  many  foreign  languages.  He  was  at  one  time  assistant 
to  Lord  Kelvin,  and  helped  in  the  perfecting  of  the  Kelvin  electrostatic  volt- 
meter. In  association  with  Ayrton  tie  was  a  pioneer  in  the  early  developments 
of  electrical  instruments,  storage  batteries,  and  on  the  applications  of  elec- 
tricity. He  was  a  Past-President  of  the  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers  and 
of  the  Physical  Society.  One  of  his  most  famous  lectures  was  on  '  Spinning 
Tops,'  delivered  at  the  British  Association  meeting  at  Leeds  in  1890,  and  his 
recent  work  in  the  perfecting  of  the  gyroscopic  compass  is  well  known.  His 
genial,  warm-hearted  kindness  endeared  him  not  only  to  his  wide  circle  of 
friends,  but  also  to  his  colleagues  and  students,  and  there  are  few  members  of 
this  Association  who  do  not  feel  a  blank  that  it  is  difficult  to  fill. 

Henry  Charles  Stewardson,  Assistant  Treasurer  of  the  British  Association 
for  many  years,  entered  the  services  of  the  Association  in  1873  in  a  clerical 
capacity,  but,  through  his  ability  for  finance,  soon  became  Assistant  Treasurer, 
and  the  Association  undoubtedly  owes  much  to  his  careful  economies  and  to 
his  accurate  forecasts  of  the  balance  available  for  grants  to  research,  which 
guided  the  Committee  of  Recommendations  each  year.  He  missed  no  annual 
meeting,  and  many  members  gratefully  remember  his  help  and  courtesy  in  the 
Reception  Room.  His  health  was  failing  at  the  last  meeting,  but  he  continued 
to  discharge  his  duties  until  within  four  days  of  his  death,  on  May  1  last, 
in  his  eightieth  year. 

The  death  of  Sir  Norman  Lockyer,  F.R.S.,  on  Monday  of  last  week,  deprives 
the  world  of  a  great  astronomer,  and  the  nation  of  a  force  which  it  can  ill 
afford  to  lose.  By  applying  the  spectroscope  to  the  sun  he  furnished  the  means 
of  studying  its  surface  without  waiting  for  an  eclipse;  revealed  in  1868  the 
prominences  as  local  disturbances  in  the  chromosphere;  and  observed  in  the 
sun  the  gas,  named  by  him  helium,  and  afterwards  identified  on  the  earth  by 
Sir  William  Ramsay.  More  than  half  a  century  ago  Sir  Norman  founded  that 
admirable  scientific   journal   '  Nature.'     He   also   founded   the    British    Science 


Guild  in  1905.  His  Presidential  Address  to  the  British.  Association  at  South- 
port  sixteen  years  ago,  on  '  The  Influence  of  Brain  Power  on  History,'  attracted 
wide  attention,  but  it  has  taken  the  greatest  war  in  history  to  awaken  national 
consciousness  to  its  significance. 

I  have  now  the  pleasure  of  introducing  to  you  my  successor  in  this  chair, 
an  eminent  biologist  who  has  directed  his  great  talents  with  indefatigable 
energy  to  the  study  of  the  life  that  exists  in  the  vast  spaces  and  depths  of  the 
ocean,  which  covers  nearly  three-fourths  of  our  globe.  Few  people  give  much 
thought  to  the  ocean  beyond  the  fact  that  it  carries  onr  ships  and  is  the  source 
of  most  of  the  fish  which  we  eat.  But  the  work  of  investigating  what  goes  on 
within  the  ocean,  a  work  in  which  Professor  Herdman  has  taken  so  arduous 
and  prominent  a  part,  has  revealed  a  life  within  it,  both  vegetable  and  animal, 
of  great  complexity  and  of  enormous  magnitude,  but  governed  by  laws  chemical 
and  physical  which  are  being  gradually  discovered.  It  is  indeed  difficult  to 
I'ealise,  as  Professor  Herdman  has  stated,  that  in  some  seas  a  cubic  mile  of 
water  may  contain  as  much  as  30,000  tons  of  living  organisms  whose  life  history 
depends  on  the  light  of  the  sun,  thermal  currents  in  the  ocean,  and  seasonal 
changes,  and  that  those  organisms  form  the  staple  food  of  the  fishes  which  we 
eat.  The  difficulties  of  these  investigations  must  have  been  enormous,  requir- 
ing the  resources  of  science,  consummate  skill,  and  indefatigable  energy  to 
overcome  them.  Many  years  ago  Professor  Herdman  created  a  fisheries  labora- 
tory in  the  University  of  Liverpool,  created  and  brought  into  co-operation  with 
it  a  biological  station  at  Port  Erin,  and  arranged  periodical  ocean  trips  for 
dredging  and  collecting  marine  organisms.  A  year  ago  he  endowed  a  chair  of 
oceanogi'aphy  at  Liverpool,  the  first  on  this  subject  in  the  British  Isles.  He 
also  founded,  two  years  earlier,  the  chair  of  geology  in  memory  of  his  only 
son  George  Herdman,  one  of  those  young  men  of  brilliant  promise  killed  in  the 
war.  His  enthusiasm  and  sj-mpathy  have  made  him  beloved  by  his  pupils,  as 
indeed  by  zoologists  in  general,  and  his  work  has  led  to  the  throwing  of  much 
additional  light  on  the  marine  life  of  our  globe. 

The  President-Elect,  Professor  W.  A.  Herdman,  C.B.E.,  D.Sc, 
LL.D.,  F.E.S.,  then  took  the  chair,  and  delivered  the  Presidential 
Address,  which  is  printed  below  (pp.  1-33). 

The  following  gi'acious  reply  was  received  from  His  Majesty  the 
King  to  the  telegram  quoted  on  p.  xxxi:  — 

I  have  received  with  much  pleasure  and  satisfaction  the  message  which  you 
have  addressed  to  me  on  behalf  of  the  members  of  the  British  Association, 
and  in  thanking  them  for  their  loyal  assurances  to  myself  I  feel  greatly  touched 
at  the  kind  references  to  my  son,  which  are  the  more  appreciated  coming  as 
these  do  from  the  members  of  this  distinguished  Society  assembled  in  the 
Principality  of  Wales.  I  shall  follow  your  deliberations  with  close  interest, 
and  I  gi-atefully  recognise  all  that  is  being  done  for  tlie  advancement  of 
civilisation  by  the  men  of  science.  George  E.I. 

j{\f.H  «(/.9r^,^ 

CAEDIFF:    1  9  2  0 . /^^H«5iJ> 

K#^      4,  / 

AD  D  E  E  S  S  '^^oZr'T^d^ 

WILLIAM  A.  HEEDMAN,  C.B.E.,  D.Sc,  Sc.D.,  LL.D.,  F.E.S., 
Professor  of  Oceanography  in  the  University  of  Liverpool, 

Oceanography  and  the  Sea-Fisheries. 

It  has  been  customary,  when  occasion  requured,  for  the  President  to 
offer  a  brief  tribute  to  the  memory  of  distinguished  members  of  the 
Association  lost  to  Science  during  the  preceding  year.  These,  for  the 
most  part,  have  been  men  of  advanced  years  and  high  reputation,  who 
had  completed  their  life-work  and  served  well  in  their  day  the  Associa- 
tion and  the  sciences  which  it  represents.  Sucli  are  our  late  General 
Treasurer,  Professor  Perry,  and  our  Past-President,  Sir  Norman 
Lockyer,  of  whom  the  retiring  President  has  just  spoken.^  We  have 
this  year  no  other  such  losses  to  record;  but  it  seems  fitting  on 
the  present  occasion  to  pause  for  a  moment  and  devote  a  grateful 
thought  to  that  glorious  band  of  fine  young  men  of  high  promise  in 
science  who,  in  the  years  since  our  Australian  meeting  in  1914, 
gave,  it  may  be,  in  brief  days  and  months  of  sacrifice,  greater  service 
to  humanity  and  the  advance  of  civilisation  than  would  have  been 
possible  in  years  of  normal  time  and  work.  A  few  names  stand 
out  already  known  and  highly  honoured — Moseley,  Jenkinson,  Geoffrey 
Smith,  Keith  Lucas,  Hopkinson,  Gregory,  and  more  recently  Leonard 
Doncaster — all  grievous  losses;  but  there  are  also  others,  younger 
members  of  our  Association,  who  had  not  yet  had  opportunity  for 
showing  accomplished  work,  but  who  equally  gave  up  all  for  a  great 
ideal.  I  prefer  to  offer  a  collective  rather  than  an  individual  tribute. 
Other  young  men  of  science  will  arise  and  carry  on  their  work — ^but 
the  gap  in  our  ranks  remains.  Let  their  successors  remember  that  it 
serves  as  a  reminder  of  a  great  example  and  of  high  endeavour  worthy 
of  our  gratitude  and  of  permanent  record  in  the  annals  of  Science. 

At  tlie  last  Cardiff  Meeting  of  the  British  Association  in  1891  you  had 

as  your  President  the  eminent  astronomer  Sir  William  Huggins,  who 

discoursed  upon  the  then  recent  discoveries    of    the    spectroscope    in 

relation  to  the  chemical  nature,  density,  temperature,  pressure  and.  even 

the  motions  of  the  stars.     From  the  sky  to  the  sea  is  a  long  drop ;  but 

the   sciences    of    both    have    this    in    common,    that  they  deal  with 

>  See  p,  XXX.,  ante, 
1920  B 

pbesident's  address. 

fundamental  principles  and  with  vast  numbers.  Over  three  hundred 
years  ago  Spenser  in  the  '  Faerie  Queene  '  compared  '  the  seas  abundant 
progeny  '  with  '  the  starres  on  hy,'  and  recent  investigations  show  that  a 
litre  of  sea-water  may  contain  more  than  a  hundred  times  as  many  living 
organisms  as  there  are  stars  visible  to  the  eye  on  a  clear  night. 

During  the  past  quarter  of  a  century  great  advances  have  been 
made  in  the  science  of  the  sea,  and  the  aspects  and  prospects  of  sea- 
fisheries  research  have  undergone  changes  which  encourage  the  hope 
that  a  combination  of  the  work  now  carried  on  by  hydrographers  and 
biologists  in  most  civilised  countries  on  fundamental  problems  of  the 
ocean  may  result  in  a  more  rational  exploitation  and  administration 
of  the  fishing  industries. 

And  yet  even  at  your  former  Cardiff  Meeting  thirty  years  ago  there 
were  at  least  three  papers  of  oceanographic  interest — one  by  Professor 
Osborne  Eeynolds  on  the  action  of  waves  and  currents,  another  by 
Dr.  H.  E.  Mill  on  seasonal  variation  in  the  temperature  of  lochs  and 
estuaries,  and  the  third  by  our  Honorary  Local  Secretary  for  the  present 
meeting,  Dr.  Evans  Hoyle,  on  a  deep-sea  tow-net  capable  of  being  opened 
and  closed  under  water  by  the  electric  current. 

It  was  a  notable  meeting  in  several  other  respects,  of  which  I  shall 
merely  mention  two.  In  Section  A,  Su-  Oliver  Lodge  gave  the  historic 
address  in  which  he  expounded  the  urgent  need,  in  the  interests  of  both 
science  and  the  industries,  of  a  national  institution  for  the  promotion 
of  physical  research  on  a  large  scale.  Lodge's  pregnant  idea  put  forward 
at  this  Cardiff  Meeting,  supported  and  still  further  elaborated  by  Sir 
Douglas  Galton  as  President  of  the  Association  at  Ipswich,  has  since 
borne  notable  fiiiit  in  the  establishment  and  rapid  development  of  the 
National  Physical  Laboratory.  The  other  outstanding  event  of  that 
meeting  is  that  you  then  appointed  a  committee  of  eminent  geologists 
and  naturalists  to  consider  a  project  for  boring  through  a  coral  reef,  and 
that  led  during  following  years  to  the  successive  expeditions  to  the 
atoll  of  Funafuti  in  the  Central  Pacific,  the  results  of  which,  reported 
upon  eventually  by  the  Royal  Society,  were  of  great  interest  alike  to 
geologists,  biologists,  and  oceanographers. 

Dr.  Huggins,  on  taking  the  Chair  in  1891,  remarked  that  it  was  over 
thirty  years  since  the  Association  had  honoured  Astronomy  in  the 
selection  of  its  President.  It  might  be  said  that  the  case  of  Oceano- 
graphy is  harder,  as  the  Association  has  never  had  an  Oceanographer 
as  President — and  the  Association  might  well  reply  '  Because  until  very 
recent  years  there  has  been  no  Oceanographer  to  have. '  If  Astronomy 
is  the  oldest  of  the  sciences,  Oceanography  is  probably  the  youngest. 
Depending  as  it  does  upon  the  methods  and  results  of  other  sciences, 
it  was  not  until  our  knowledge  of  Physics,  Chemistry,  and  Biology  was 

president's  address.  3 

relatively  far  advanced  that  it  became  possible  to  apply  that  knowledge 
to  the  investigation  and  explanation  of  the  phenomena  of  the  ocean. 
No  one  man  has  done  more  to  apply  such  knowledge  derived  from  various 
other  subjects  and  to  organise  the  results  as  a  definite  branch  of 
science  than  the  late  Sir  John  Murray,  who  may  therefore  be  regarded 
as  the  founder  of  modern  Oceanography. 

It  is,  to  me,  a  matter  of  regret  that  Sir  John  Murray  was  never 
President  of  the  British  Association.  I  am  revealing  no  secret  when  I 
tell  you  that  he  might  have  been.  On  more  than  one  occasion  he  was 
invited  by  the  Council  to  accept  nomination,  and  he  declined  for  reasons 
that  were  good  and  commanded  our  respect.  He  felt  that  the 
necessary  duties  of  this  post  would  interfere  with  what  he  regarded 
as  his  primary  life-work — oceanographical  explorations  already  planned, 
the  last  of  which  he  actually  carried  out  in  the  North  Atlantic  in 
1912,  when  over  seventy  years  of  age,  in  the  Norwegian  steamer 
Wchael  Sars,  along  with  his  friend  Dr.  Johan  Hjort. 

Anyone  considering  the  subject-matter  of  this  new  science  must  be 
struck  by  its  wide  range,  overlapping  as  it  does  the  borderlands  of  several 
other  sciences  and  making  use  of  their  methods  and  facts  in  the  solution 
of  its  problems.  It  is  not  only  world-wide  in  its  scope  but  extends 
beyond  our  globe  and  includes  astronomical  data  in  their  relation  to  tidal 
and  certain  other  oceanographical  phenomena.  No  man  in  his  work, 
or  even  thought,  can  attempt  to  cover  the  whole  ground — although  Sir 
John  Murray,  in  his  remarkably  comprehensive  '  Summary  '  volumes 
of  the  Challenger  Expedition  and  other  writings,  went  far  towards 
doing  so.  He,  in  his  combination  of  physicist,  chemist,  geologist  and 
biologist,  was  the  nearest  approach  we  have  had  to  an  all-round  Oceano- 
grapher.  The  International  Eesearch  Council  probably  acted  wisely 
at  the  recent  Brussels  Conference  in  recommending  the  institution  of 
two  International  Sections  in  our  subject,  the  one  of  physical  and  the 
other  of  biological  Oceanography — although  the  two  overlap  and  are  so 
interdependent  that  no  investigator  on  the  one  side  can  afford  to  neglect 
the  other. ^ 

On  the  present  occasion  I  must  restrict  myself  almost  wholly  to  the 
latter  division  of  the  subject,  and  be  content,  after  brief  reference  to  the 

-  The  following  classification  of  the  primary   divisions  of   the   subject  may 
possibly  be  found  acceptable  : — 


Oceanography  Geography 

Hydrography         Metabolism         Bionomics    Tidology 

(Physics,  &c.)  (Blo-Chemistiy)  (Biology)         (Mathematics) 

B  3 


founders  and  pioneers  of  our  science,  to  outline  a  few  of  those  investi- 
gations and  problems  which  have  appeared  to  me  to  be  of  fundamental 
importance,  of  economic  value,  or  of  general  interest. 

Although  the  name  Oceanography  was  only  given  to  this  branch  of 
science  by  Sir  John  Murray  in  1880,  and  although  according  to  that 
veteran  oceanographer  Mr.  J.  Y.  Buchanan,  the  last  surviving  member 
of  the  civilian  staff  of  the  Challenger,  the  science  of  Oceanography 
was  born  at  sea  on  February  15,  1873,^  when,  at  the  first  official 
dredging  station  of  the  expedition,  to  the  westward  of  Teneriffe,  at 
1525  fathoms,  everything  that  came  up  in  the  dredge  was  new  and  led  to 
fundamental  discoveries  as  to  the  deposits  forming  on  the  floor  of  the 
ocean,  still  it  may  be  claimed  that  the  foundations  of  the  science  were 
laid  by  various  explorers  of  the  ocean  at  much  earlier  dates.  Aristotle, 
who  took  all  knowledge  for  his  province,  was  an  early  oceanographer  on 
the  shores  of  Asia  Minor.  When  Pytheas  passed  between  the  Pillars 
of  Hercules  into  the  unknown  Atlantic  and  penetrated  to  British  seas  in 
the  fourth  century  B.C.,  and  brought  back  reports  of  Ultima  Thule  and 
of  a  sea  to  the  North  thick  and  sluggish  like  a  jelly-fish,  he  may  have 
been  recording  an  early  planktonic  observation.  But  passing  over  all 
such  and  many  other  early  records  of  phenomena  of  the  sea,  we  come 
to  surer  ground  in  claiming,  as  founders  of  Oceanography,  Count 
Marsili,  an  early  investigator  of  the  Mediterranean,  and  that  truly 
scientific  navigator  Captain  James  Cook,  who  sailed  to  the  South  Pacific 
on  a  Transit  of  Venus  expedition  in  1769  with  Sir  Joseph  Banks  as 
naturalist,  and  by  subsequently  circumnavigating  the  South  Sea  about 
latitude  60°  finally  disproved  the  existence  ol  a  great  southern 
continent;  and  Sir  James  Clerk  Eoss,  who,  with  Sir  Joseph  Hooker  as 
naturalist,  first  dredged  the  Antarctic  in  1840. 

The  use  of  the  naturalist's  dredge  (introduced  by  0.  F.  Miiller,  the 
Dane,  in  1799)  for  exploring  the  sea-bottom  was  brought  into  promin- 
ence almost  simultaneously  in  several  countries  of  North-West  Europe 
— by  Henri  Milne-Edwards  in  France  in  1830,  Michael  Sars  in  Norway 
in  1835,  and  our  own  Edward  Forbes  about  1832. 

The  last-mentioned  genial  and  many-sided  genius  was  a  notable 
figure  in  several  sections  of  the  British  Association  from  about  1836 
onwards,  and  may  fairly  be  claimed  as  a  pioneer  of  Oceanography. 
In  1839  he  and  liis  friend  the  anatomist,  John  Goodsir,  were  dredging 

'  Others  might  put  the  date  later.  Significant  publications  are  Sir  John 
Murray's  Summary  Volumes  of  the  Challe.nger  (189S),  the  inaugui-ation  of 
the  '  Musee  Oc^anographique  '  at  Monaco  in  1910,  the  foundation  of  the 
•  Institut  Oceanographique '  at  Paris  in  1906  (see  the  Prince  of  Monaco's 
letter  to  the  Minister  of  Public  Instruction),  and  Sir  John  Murray's  little  book 
The  Ocean  (1913),  where  the  superiority  of  the  term  '  Oceanography  '  to 
'  ThS'lsssography  '  (us^d  by  Alexander  Agaesiz)  is  digcusged. 


president's  address.  ,6 

in  the  Shetland  seas,  with  results  which  Forbes  made  known  to  the 
meeting  of  the  British  Association  at  Birmingham  that  summer,  with 
such  good  effect  that  a  '  Dredging  Committee  '  ■*  of  the  Association  was 
formed  to  continue  the  good  work.  Valuable  reports  on  the  discoveries 
of  that  Committee  appear  in  our  volumes  at  intervals  during  tlie  subse- 
quent twenty-five  years. 

It  has  happened  over  and  over  again  in  history  that  the  British 
Association,  by  means  of  one  of  its  research  committees,  has  led  the 
way  in  some  important  new  research  or  development  of  science  and  has 
shown  the  Government  or  an  industry  what  wants  doing  and  how  it 
can  be  done.  We  may  fairly  claim  that  the  British  Association  has 
inspired  and  fostered  that  exploration  of  British  seas  which  through 
marine  biological  investigations  and  deep-sea  expeditions  has  led  on  to 
modern  Oceanography.  Edward  Forbes  and  the  British  Association 
Dredging  Committee,  Wyville  Thomson,  Carpenter,  Gwyn  Jeffreys, 
Norman,  and  other  naturalists  of  the  pre-Challeiiger  days — all  these  men 
in  the  quarter-century  from  1840  onwards  worked  under  research  com- 
mittees of  the  British  Association,  bringing  their  results  before  successive 
meetings ;  and  some  of  our  older  volumes  enshrine  classic  reports  on 
dredging  by  Forbes,  McAndrew,  Norman,  Brady,  Alder,  and  other 
notable  naturalists  of  that  day.  These  local  researches  paved  the  way 
for  the  Challenger  and  other  national  deep-sea  expeditions.  Here, 
as  in  other  cases,  it  required  private  enterprise  to  precede  and  stimulate 
Government  action. 

It  is  probable  that  Forbes  and  his  fellow-workers  on  this  '  Dredging 
Committee  '  in  their  marine  explorations  did  not  fully  realise  that  they 
were  opening  up  a  most  comprehensive  and  important  department  of 
knowledge.  But  it  is  also  true  that  in  all  his  expeditions — in  the  British 
seas  from  the  Channel  Islands  to  the  Shetlands,  in  Norway,  in  the 
Mediterranean  as  far  as  the  ^gean  Sea — ^his  broad  outlook  on  the 
problems  of  nature  was  that  of  the  modern  oceanographer,  and  he  was 
the  spiritual  ancestor  of  men  like  Sir  Wyville  Thomson  of  the 
Challenger  Expedition  and  Sir  John  Murray,  whose  accidental  death 
a  few  years  ago,  while  still  in  the  midst  of  active  work,  was  a  grievous 
loss  to  this  new  and  rapidly  advancing  science  of  the  sea. 

Forbes  in  these  marine  investigations  worked  at  border-line 
problems,  dealing  for  example  with  the  relations  of  Geology  to  Zoology. 

■*  '  For  researches  with  the  dredge,  with  a  view  to  the  investigation  of 
the  marine  zoology  of  Great  Britain,  the  illustration  of  the  geographical  distri- 
bution of  marine  animals,  and  the  more  accurate  determination  of  the 
fossils  of  the  pleistocene  period  :  under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  Gray,  Mr. 
Forbes,  Mr.  Goodsir,  Mr.  Patterson,  Mr.  Thompson  of  Belfast,  Mr.  Ball  of 
Dublin,  Dr.  George  Johnston,  Mr.  Smith  of  Jordan  Hill,  and  Mr.  A.  Striclcland, 
£60.'     Eeport  for  1839,  p.   xxvi. 

6  president's  address,  ,, 

and  the  effect  of  the  past  history  of  the  land  and  sea  upon  the  distri- 
bution of  plants  and  animals  at  the  present  day,  and  in  these  respects 
he  was  an  early  oceanographer.  For  the  essence  of  that  new  subject  is 
that  it  also  investigates  border-line  problems  and  is  based  upon  and 
makes  use  of  all  the  older  fundamental  sciences — Physics,  Chemistry 
and  Biology — and  shows  for  example  how  variations  in  the  great  ocean 
currents  may  account  for  the  movements  and  abundance  of  the  migratory 
fishes,  and  how  periodic  changes  in  the  physico-chemical  characters 
of  the  sea,  such  as  A'ariations  in  the  hydrogen-ion  and  hydroxyl-ion 
concentration,  are  correlated  with  the  distribution  at  the  different  seasons 
of  the  all-important  microscopic  organisms  that  render  our  oceanic 
waters  as  prolific  a  source  of  food  as  the  pastures  of  the  land. 

Another  pioneer  of  the  nineteenth  century  who,  I  sometimes  think, 
has  not  yet  received  sufi&cient  credit  for  his  foresight  and  initiative,  is 
Sir  Wyville  Thomson,  whose  name  ought  to  go  down  through  the  ages 
as  the  leader  of  the  scientific  staff  on  the  famous  Challenger  Deep-Sea 
Exploring  Expedition.  It  is  due  chiefly  to  him  and  to  his  friend 
Br.  W.  B.  Carpenter  that  the  British  Government,  through  the 
influence  of  the  Eoyal  Society,  was  induced  to  place  at  the  disposal  of 
a  committee  of  scientific  experts  first  the  small  sui'veying  steamer 
Lightning  in  1868,  and  then  the  more  efficient  steamer  Porcupine 
in  the  two  succeeding  years,  for  the  purpose  of  exploring  the  deep  water 
of  the  Atlantic  from  the  Faroes  in  the  North  to  Gibraltar  and  beyond 
in  the  South,  in  the  course  of  which  expeditions  they  got  successful 
hauls  from  the  then  unprecedented  depth  of  2435  fathoms,  nearly  three 
statute  miles. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  Edward  Forbes,  from  his  observations  in 
the  Mediterranean  (an  abnormal  sea  in  some  respects),  regarded  depths 
of  over  300  fathoms  as  an  azoic  zone.  It  was  the  work  of  Wyville 
Thomson  and  his  colleagues  Carpenter  and  Gwyn  Jeffreys  on  these 
successive  dredging  expeditions  to  prove  conclusively  what  was 
beginning  to  be  suspected  by  naturalists,  that  there  is  no  azoic  zone  in 
the  sea,  but  that  abundant  life  belonging  to  many  groups  of  animals 
extends  down  to  the  greatest  depths  of  from  four  to  five  thousand 
fathoms — nearly  six  statute  miles  from  the  surface. 

These  pioneering  expeditions  in  the  Lightning  and  Porcupine — 
the  results  of  which  are  not  even  yet  fully  made  known  to  science^ 
were  epoch-making,  inasmuch  as  they  not  only  opened  up  this  new 
region  to  the  systematic  marine  biologist,  but  gave  glimpses  of  world- 
wide problems  in  connection  with  the  physics,  the  chemistry  and  the 
biology  of  the  sea  which  are  only  now  being  adequately  investigated  by 
the  modern  oceanographer.  These  results,  which  aroused  intense 
interest  amongst  the  leading  scientific  men  of  the  time,  were  so  rapidly 
surpassed  and  overshadowed  by  the  still  greater  achievements  of  the 

president's  address. 

Challenger  and  other  national  exploring  expeditions  that  followed 
in  the  'seventies  and  'eighties  of  last  centuiy,  that  there  is  some  danger 
of  their  real  importance  being  lost  sight  of;  but  it  ought  never  to  be 
forgotten  that  they  first  demonstrated  the  abundance  of  life  of  a  varied 
nature  in  depths  formerly  supposed  to  be  azoic,  and,  moreover,  that 
some  of  the  new  deep-sea  animals  obtained  were  related  to  extinct  forms 
belonging  to  the  Jurassic,  Cretaceous  and  Tertiary  periods. 

It  is  interesting  to  recall  that  our  Association  played  its  part  in 
promoting  the  movement  that  led  to  the  Challenger  Expedition. 
Our  General  Committee  at  the  Edinburgh  Meeting  of  1871  recom- 
mended that  the  President  and  Council  be  authorised  to  co-operate  with 
the  Eoyal  Society  in  promoting  '  a  Circumnavigation  Expedition, 
specially  fitted  out  to  carry  the  Physical  and  Biological  Exploration  of 
the  Deep  Sea  into  all  the  Great  Oceanic  Areas  ' ;  and  our  Council  subse- 
quently appointed  a  committee  consisting  of  Dr.  Carpenter,  Professor 
Huxley  and  others  to  co-operate  with  the  Royal  Society  in  caiTying  out 
these  objects. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  Challenger  Expedition  will  rank  in  history 
with  the  voyages  of  Vasco  da  Gama,  Columbus,  Magellan  and  Cook. 
Like  these  it  added  new  regions  of  the  globe  to  our  knowledge,  and  the 
wide  expanses  thus  opened  up  for  the  first  time,  the  floors  of  the  oceans, 
though  less  accessible,  are  vaster  than  the  discoveries  of  any  previous 
exploration.     Has  not  the  time  come  for  a  new  Challenger  expedition? 

Sir  Wyville  Thomson,  although  leader  of  the  expedition,  did  not  live 
to  see  the  completed  results,  and  Sir  John  Murray  will  be  remembered 
in  the  history  of  science  as  the  Challenger  naturalist  who  brought 
to  a  successful  issue  the  investigation  of  the  enormous  collections  and 
the  publication  of  the  scientific  results  of  that  memorable  voyage :  these 
two  Scots  share  the  honour  of  having  guided  the  destinies  of  what  is  still 
the  greatest  oceanographic  exploration  of  all  times. 

In  addition  to  taking  his  part  in  the  general  work  of  the  expedition, 
Murray  devoted  special  attention  to  three  subjects  of  primary  import- 
ance  in  the  science  of  the  sea,  viz.  :  (1)  the  plankton  or  floating  life 
of  the  oceans,  (2)  the  deposits  forming  on  the  sea  bottoms,  and  (3)  the 
origin  and  mode  of  formation  of  coral  reefs  and  islands.  It  was 
characteristic  of  his  broad  and  synthetic  outlook  on  nature  that,  in  place 
of  working  at  the  speciography  and  anatomy  of  some  group  of 
organisms,  however  novel,  interesting  and  attractive  to  the  naturalisfc 
the  deep-sea  organisms  might  seem  to  be,  he  took  up  wide-reaching 
general  problems  with  economic  and  geological  as  well  as  biological 

Each  of  the  three  main  lines  of  investigation — deposits,  plankton 
and  coral  reefs — which  Murray  undertook  on  board  the  Challenger 
has  been  most  fruitful  of  results  both  in  his  own  Hands  and  those  of 


others.  His  plankton  work  has  led  on  to  those  modern  planktonic 
researches  which  are  closely  bound  up  with  the  scientific  investigation 
of  our  sea-fisheries. 

His  work  on  the  deposits  accumulating  on  the  floor  of  the  ocean 
resulted,  after  years  of  study  in  the  laboratory  as  well  as  in  the  field, 
in  collaboration  with  the  Abbe  Benard  of  the  Biiissels  Museum,  after- 
wards Professor  at  Ghent,  in  the  production  of  the  monumental '  Deep- 
Sea  Deposits  '  volume,  one  of  the  Challe^iger  Eeports,  which  first 
revealed  to  the  scientific  world  the  detailed  nature  and  distribution 
of  the  varied  submarine  deposits  of  the  globe  and  their  relation  to  the 
rocks  forming  the  crust  of  the  earth. 

These  studies  led,  moreover,  to  one  of  the  romances  of  science 
which  deeply  influenced  Murray's  future  life  and  work.  In  accumu- 
lating material  from  all  parts  of  the  world  and  all  deep-sea  exploring 
expeditions  for  comparison  with  the  Challenger  series,  some  ten 
years  later,  Murray  found  that  a  sample  of  rock  from  Christmas  Island 
in  the  Indian  Ocean,  which  had  been  sent  to  him  by  Commander  (now 
Admiral)  Aldrich,  of  H.M.S.  Egeria,  was  composed  of  a  valuable 
phosphatic  material.  This  discovery  in  Mun-ay's  hands  gave  rise  to  a 
profitable  commercial  undertaking,  and  he  was  able  to  show  that  some 
years  ago  the  British  Treasury  had  already  received  in  royalties  and 
taxes  from  the  island  considerably  more  than  the  total  cost  of  the 
Challenger  Expedition. 

That  first  British  circumnavigating  expedition  on  the  Challenger 
was  followed  by  other  national  expeditions  (the  American  Tuscarora 
and  Albatross,  the  French  Travailleur,  the  German  Gauss, 
National,  and  Valdivia,  the  Italian  Veitor  Pisani,  the  Dutch 
Siboga,  the  Danish  Thor  and  others)  and  by  almost  equally  cele- 
brated and  important  work  by  unofiicial  oceanogi'aphers  such  as 
Alexander  Agassiz,  Sir  John  Murray  with  Dr.  Hjort  in  the  Michael 
Sars,  and  the  Prince  of  Monaco  in  his  magnificent  ocean-going  yacht, 
and  by  much  other  good  work  by  many  investigators  in  smaller  and 
humbler  vessels.  One  of  these  supplementary  expeditions  I  must  refer 
to  briefly  because  of  its  connection  with  sea-fisheries.  The  Triton, 
under  Tizard  and  Mun-ay,  in  1882,  while  exploring  the  cold  and  warm 
areas  of  the  Faroe  Channel  separated  by  the  Wyville-Thomson  ridge, 
incidentally  discovered  the  famous  Dubh-Artach  fishing-grounds,  which 
have  been  worked  by  British  trawlers  ever  since. 

Notwithstanding  all  this  activity  during  the  last  forty  years  since 
Oceanography  became  a  science,  much  has  still  to  be  investigated  in 
all  seas  in  all  branches  of  the  subject.  On  pursuing  any  line  of  investi- 
gation one  very  soon  comes  up  against  a  wall  of  the  unknown  or  a  maze 
of    controversy.       Peculiar    difficulties    surround    the    subject.       The 

president's  address.  9 

matters  investigated  are  often  renaote  and  almost  inaccessible. 
Unknown  factors  may  enter  into  every  problem.  The  samples  required 
may  be  at  the  other  end  of  a  rope  or  a  wire  eight  or  ten  miles  long, 
and  the  oceanographer  may  have  to  grope  for  them  literally  in  the  dark 
and  under  other  difficult  conditions  which  make  it  uncertain  whether 
his  samples  when  obtained  are  adequate  and  representative,  and  whether 
they  have  undergone  any  change  since  leaving  their  natural  environ- 
ment. It  is  not  surprising  then  that  in  the  progress  of  knowledge 
mistakes  have  been  made  and  corrected,  that  views  have  been  held  on 
what  seemed  good  scientific  grounds  which  later  on  were  proved  to 
be  en-oneous.  For  example,  Edward  Forbes,  in  his  division  of  life  in 
the  sea  into  zones,  on  what  then  seemed  to  be  sufficiently  good  obser- 
vations in  the  ^gean,  but  which  we  now  know  to  be  exceptional,  placed 
the  limit  of  life  at  300  fathoms,  while  Wyville  Thomson  and  his  fellow- 
workers  on  the  Porcupine  and  the  Challenger  showed  that  there  is  no 
azoic  zone  even  in  the  great  abysses. 

Or,  lagain,  take  the  celebrated  ^myth  of  '  Bathybius. '  In  Jthe 
'sixties  of  last  century  samples  of  Atlantic  mud,  taken  when  surveying 
the  bottom  for  the  fust  telegraph  cables  and  preserved  in  alcohol,  were 
found  when  examined  by  Huxley,  Haeckel  and  others  to  contain  what 
seemed  to  be  an  exceedingly  primitive  protoplasmic  organism,  which 
was  supposed  on  good  evidence  to  be  widely  extended  over  the  floor  of  the 
ocean.  The  discovei'y  of  this  Bathybius  was  said  to  solve  the  problem 
of  how  the  deep-sea  animals  were  nourished  in  the  absence  of  sea- 
weeds. Here  was  a  widespread  protoplasmic  meadow  upon  which  other 
organisms  could  graze.  Belief  in  Bathybius  seemed  to  be  confumed 
and  established  by  Wyville  Thomson's  results  in  the  Porcupine 
Expedition  of  1869,  but  was  exploded  by  the  naturalists  on  the  Chal- 
ieng^er  some  five  years  later.  Buchanan  in  his  recently  published 
'  Accounts  Bendered  '  tells  us  how  he  and  his  colleague  Murray  were 
keenly  on  the  look-out  for  hours  at  a  time  on  all  possible  occasions 
for  traces  of  this  organism,  and  how  they  finally  proved,  in  the  spring 
of  1875  on  the  voyage  between  Hong-Kong  and  Yokohama,  that  the 
all-pervading  substance  like  coagiilated  mucus  was  an  amorphous 
precipitate  of  sulphate  of  lime  thrown  down  from  the  sea-water  in  the 
mud  on  the  addition  of  a  certain  proportion  of  alcohol.  He  wrote  to 
this  effect  from  Japan  to  Professor  Crum  Brown,  and  it  is  in  evidence 
that  after  receiving  this  letter  Crum  Brown  interested  his  friends  in 
Edinburgh  by  showing  them  how  to  make  Bathybius  in  the 
chemical  laboratory.  Huxley  at  the  Sheffield  Meeting  of  the  British 
Association  in  1879  handsomely  admitted  that  he  had  been  mistaken,  and 
it  is  said  that  he  characterised  Bathybius  as  '  not  having  fulfilled  the 
promise  of  its  youth.'     Will  any  of  our  present  oceanographic  beliefs 

10  president's  address. 

share  the  fate  of  Bathybius  in  the  future?  Some  may,  but  even  if  they 
do  they  may  well  have  been  useful  steps  in  the  progress  of  science. 
Although  like  Bathybius  they  may  not  have  fulfilled  the  promise  of  their 
youth,  yet,  we  may  add,  they  will  not  have  hved  in  the  minds  of  man 
in  vain. 

Many  of  the  phenomena  we  encounter  in  oceanographic  investi- 
gations are  so  complex,  are  or  may  be  affected  by  so  many  diverse 
factors,  that  it  is  difficult,  if  indeed  possible,  to  be  sure  that  we  are 
imravelling  them  aright  and  that  we  see  the  real  causes  of  what  we 

Some  few  things  we  know  approximately — nothing  completely.  We 
know  that  the  greatest  depths  of  the  ocean,  about  six  miles,  are  a 
little  greater  than  the  highest  mountains  on  land,  and  Sir  John  Murray 
has  calculated  that  if  all  the  land  were  washed  down  into  the  sea  the 
whole  globe  would  be  covered  by  an  ocean  averaging  about  two  miles  in 
depth. ^  We  know  the  disti'ibution  of  temperatures  and  salinities  over 
a  great  part  of  the  surface  and  a  good  deal  of  the  bottom  of  the  oceans, 
and  some  of  the  more  important  oceanic  currents  have  been  charted 
and  their  periodic  variations,  such  as  those  of  the  Gulf  Stream,  are  being 
studied.  We  know  a  good  deal  about  the  organisms  floating  or 
swimming  in  the  surface  waters  (the  epi-plankton),  and  also  those 
brought  up  by  our  dredges  and  trav/ls  from  the  bottom  in  many  parts 
of  the  world — although  every  expedition  still  makes  large  additions 
to  knowledge.  The  region  that  is  least  known  to  us,  both  in  its  physical 
conditions  and  also  its  inhabitants,  is  the  vast  zone  of  intermediate 
waters  lying  between  the  upper  few  hundred  fathoms  and  the  bottom. 
That  is  the  region  that  Alexander  Agassiz  from  his  observations  with 
closing  tow-nets  on  the  Blake  Expedition  supposed  to  be  destitute  of 
life,  or  at  least,  as  modified  by  his  later  observations  on  the  Albatross, 
to  be  relatively  destitute  compared  with  the  surface  and  the  bottom,  in 
opposition  to  the  contention  of  Murray  and  other  oceanographers  that 
an  abundant  meso-plankton  was  present,  and  that  certain  groups  of 
animals,  such  as  the  Ohallengerida  and  some  kinds  of  Medusae,  were 
characteristic  of  these  deeper  zones.  I  believe  that,  as  sometimes 
happens  in  scientific  controversies,  both  sides  were  right  up  to  a  point, 
and  both  could  support  their  views  upon  observations  from  particular 
regions  of  the  ocean  under  certain  circumstances. 

But  much  still  remains  unknown  or  only  imperfectly  known  even 
in  matters  that  have  long  been  studied  and  where  practical  applications 

^  It  vfae  possibly  in  such  a  former  world-wide  ocean  of  ionised  water  that 
according  to  the  recent  speculations  of  A.  H.  Church  (Thalassiofhyta,  1919)  the 
first  living  organisms  were  evolved  to  become  later  the  floating  unicellular 
plants  of  the  primitive  plankton. 

president's  address.  .    ^  l   ,  11 

of  great  value  are  obtained — such  as  the  investigation  and  prediction 
of  tidal  phenomena.  We  are  now  told  that  theories  require  re-investi- 
gation and  that  published  tables  are  not  sufficiently  accurate.  To 
take  another  practical  application  of  oceanographic  work,  the  ultimate 
causes  of  variations  in  the  abundance,  in  the  sizes,  in  the  movements 
and  in  the  qualities  of  the  fishes  of  our  coastal  industries  are  still  to 
seek,  and  notwithstanding  volumes  of  investigation  and  a  still  greater 
volume  of  discussion,  no  man  who  knows  anything  of  the  matter  is 
satisfied  with  our  present  knowledge  of  even  the  best-known  and 
economically  most  important  of  our  fishes,  such  as  the  Herring,  the 
Cod,  the  Plaice  and  the  Salmon. 

Take  the  case  of  our  common  fresh-water  eel  as  an  example  of  how 
little  we  know  and  at  the  same  time  of  how  much  has  been  discovered. 
All  the  eels  of  our  streams  and  lakes  of  N.-W.  Europe  live  and  feed 
and  grow  under  our  eyes  without  reproducing  their  kind — no  spawning 
eel  has  ever  been  seen.  After  living  for  years  in  immaturity,  at  last 
near  the  end  of  their  lives  the  large  male  and  female  yellow  eels 
undergo  a  change  in  appearance  and  in  nature.  They  acquire  a  silvery 
colour  and  their  eyes  enlarge,  and  in  this  bridal  attire  they  commence 
the  long  journey  which  ends  in  maturity,  reproduction  and  death.  From 
all  the  fresh  waters  they  migi'ate  in  the  autumn  to  the  coast,  from 
the  inshore  seas  to  the  open  ocean  and  still  westward  and  south  to  the 
mid-Atlantic  and  we  know  not  how  much  further — for  the  exact 
locality  and  manner  of  spawning  has  still  to  be  discovered.  The 
youngest  known  stages  of  the  Leptocephalus,  the  larval  stage  of  eels, 
have  been  found  by  the  Dane,  Dr.  Jobs.  Schmidt,  to  the  west  of 
the  Azores  where  the  water  is  over  2000  fathoms  in  depth.  These 
were  about  one-third  of  an  inch  in  length  and  were  probably  not  long 
hatched.  I  cannot  now  refer  to  all  the  able  investigators — Grassi, 
Hjort  and  others — who  have  discovered  and  traced  the  stages  of  growth 
of  the  Leptocephalus  and  its  metamorphosis  into  the  '  elvers  '  or  young 
eels  which  are  carried  by  the  North  Atlantic  drift  back  to  the  coasts  of 
Europe  and  ascend  our  rivers  in  spring  in  countless  myriads;  but  no 
man  has  been  more  indefatigable  and  successful  in  the  quest  than 
Dr.  Schmidt,  who  in  the  various  expeditions  of  the  Danish  Investigation 
Steamer  Thor  from  1904  onwards  found  successively  younger  ajid 
younger  stages,  and  who  is  during  the  present  summer  engaged  in  a 
traverse  of  the  Atlantic  to  the  West  Indies  in  the  hope  of  finding  the 
missing  Hnk  in  the  chain,  the  actual  spawning  fresh-water  eel  in  the 
intermediate  waters  somewhere  above  the  abysses  of  the  open  ocean." 

°  According  to  Schmidt's  results  the  European  fresh-water  eel,  in  order  to 
be  able  to  propagate,  requires  a  depth  of  at  least  500  fathoms,  a  salinity  of 
more  than  35.20  per  mille  and  a  temperature  of  more  than  7°  C.  in  the  required 


Again,  take  the  case  of  an  interesting  oceanographic  observation 
which,  if  estabUshed,  may  be  found  to  explain  the  variations  in  time 
and  amount  of  important  fisheries.  Otto  Pettersson  in  1910  discovered 
by  his  observations  in  the  GuUmar  Fjord  the  presence  of  periodic  sub- 
marine waves  of  deeper  Salter  water  in  the  Kattegat  and  the  fjords 
of  the  west  coast  of  Sweden,  which  draw  in  with  them  from  the  Jutland 
banks  vast  shoals  of  the  herrings  which  congregate  there  in  autumn. 
The  deeper  layer  consists  of  '  bankwater  '  of  salinity  32  to  34  per 
thousand,  and  as  this  rolls  in  along  the  bottom  as  a  series  of  huge 
undulations  it  forces  out  the  overlying  fresher  water,  and  so  the 
herrings  living  in  the  bankwater  outside  are  sucked  into  the  Kattegat 
and  neighbouring  fjords  and  give  rise  to  important  local  fisheries. 
Pettersson  connects  the  crests  of  the  submarine  waves  with  the  phases 
of  the  moon.  Two  great  waves  of  salter  water  which  reached  up  to  the 
surface  took  place  in  November  1910,  one  near  the  time  of  full  moon 
and  the  other  about  new  moon,  and  the  latter  was  at  the  time  when 
the  shoals  of  herring  appeared  inshore  and  provided  a  profitable  fishery. 
The  coincidence  of  the  oceanic  phenomena  with  the  lunar  phases  is 
not,  however,  very  exact,  and  doubts  have  been  expressed  as  to  the 
connection ;  but  if  established,  and  even  if  found  to  be  due  not  to  the 
moon  but  to  prevalent  winds  or  the  influence  of  ocean  currents,  this 
would  be  a  case  of  the  migration  of  fishes  depending  upon  mechanical 
causes,  while  in  other  cases  it  is  known  that  migrations  are  due  to 
spawning  needs  or  for  the  purpose  of  feeding,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
cod  and  the  herring  in  the  west  and  north  of  Norway  and  in  the 
Barents  Sea. 

Then,  turning  to  a  very  fundamental  matter  of  purely  scientific 
investigation,  we  do  not  know  with  any  certainty  what  causes  the  great 
and  all-important  seasonal  variations  in  the  plankton  (or  floating  minute 
life  of  the  sea)  as  seen,  for  example,  in  our  own  home  seas,  where  there 
is  a  sudden  awakening  of  microscopic  plant  life,  the  Diatoms,  in  early 
spring  when  the  water  is  at  its  coldest.  In  the  course  of  a  few  days 
the  upper  layers  of  the  sea  may  become  so  filled  with  organisms  that  a 
small  silk  net  towed  for  a  few  minutes  may  capture  hundreds  of 
millions  of  individuals.  And  these  myriads  of  microscopic  forms,  after 
persisting  for  a  few  weeks,  may  disappear  as  suddenly  as  they  came, 
to  be  followed  by  swarms  of  Copepoda  and  many  other  kinds  of  minute 
animals,  and  these  again  may  give  place  in  the  autumn  to  a  second 
maximum  of  Diatoms  or  of  the  closely  related  Peridiniales.  Of  course 
there  are  theories  as  to  all  these  more  or  less  periodic  changes  in  the 
plankton,  such  as  Liebig's  '  law  of  the  minimum,'  which  limits  the 
production  of  an  organism  by  the  amount  of  that  necessity  of  existence 
which  is  present  in  least  quantity,  it  may  be  nitrogen  or  silicon  or 

president's  address.  13 

phosphoi'us.  According  to  Eaben  it  is  the  accumulation  of  silicio  acid 
in  the  sea-water  that  determines  the  great  increase  of  Diatoms  in  spring 
and  again  in  autumn.  Some  writers  have  considered  these  variations 
in  the  plankton  to  be  caused  largely  by  changes  in  temperature  supple- 
mented, according  to  Ostwald,  by  the  resulting  changes  in  the  viscosity 
of  the  water;  but  Murray  and  others  are  more  probably  coiTect  in 
attributing  the  spring  development  of  phyto-plankton  to  the  increasing 
power  of  the  sunlight  and  its  value  in  photosynthesis. 

Let  us  take  next  the  fa/ct — if  it  be  a  fact — that  the  genial  warm 
waters  of  the  tropics  support  a  less  abundant  plankton  than  the  cold 
polar  seas.  The  statement  has  been  made  and  supported  by  some 
investigators  and  disputed  by  others,  both  on  a  certain  amount  of  evi- 
dence. This  is  possibly  a  case  like  some  other  scientific  controversies 
where  both  sides  are  partly  in  the  right,  or  right  under  certain  con- 
ditions. At  any  rate  there  are  marked  exceptions  to  the  generalisation. 
The  Gennan  Plankton  Expedition  in  1889  showed  in  its  results  that 
much  larger  hauls  of  plankton  per  unit  volume  of  water  were  obtained 
in  the  temperate  North  and  South  Atlantic  than  in  the  tropics  between, 
and  that  the  warm  Sargasso  Sea  had  a  remarkably  scanty  microflora. 
Other  investigators  have  since  reported  more  or  less  similar  results. 
Lohmann  found  the  Mediterranean  plankton  to  be  less  abundant  than 
that  of  the  Baltic,  gatherings  brought  back  from  tropical  seas  are  fre- 
quently very  scanty,  and  enormous  hauls  on  the  other  hand  have  been 
recoi'ded  from  Arctic  and  Antarctic  seas.  There  is  no  doubt  about  the 
large  gatherings  obtained  in  northern  waters.  I  have  myself  in  a 
few  minutes'  haul  of  a  small  horizontal  net  in  the  North  of  Norway 
collected  a  mass  of  the  large  Copepod  Calanus  finmarchicus  sufficient 
to  be  cooked  and  eaten  like  potted  shrimps  by  half  a  dozen  of  the 
yacht's  company,  and  I  have  obtained  similar  large  hauls  in  the  cold 
Labrador  current  near  Newfoundland.  On  the  other  hand,  Kofoid  and 
Alexander  Agassiz  have  recorded  large  hauls  of  plankton  in  the  Humboldt 
current  off  the  west  coast  of  America,  and  during  the  Challenger 
Expedition  some  of  the  largest  quantities  of  plankton  were  found  in  the 
equatorial  Pacific.  Moreover,  it  is  common  knowledge  that  on  occa- 
sions vast  swarms  of  some  planktonic  organism  may  be  seen  in  tropical 
waters.  The  yellow  alga  Trichodesmium,  which  is  said  to  have  given 
its  name  to  the  Eed  Sea  and  has  been  familiarly  known  as  '  sea-sawdust  ' 
since  the  days  of  Cook's  first  voyage,'  may  cover  the  entire  surface  over 
considerable  areas  of  the  Indian  and  South  Atlantic  Oceans ;  and  some 
pelagic  animals  such  as  Salpae,  Medusae  and  Ctenophores  are  also 
commonly  present  in  abundance  in  the  tropics.     Then,  again,  American 

^  See    Journal  of    Sir    Joseph    Banks.     This    and    other    swarms    were   also 
jioticed  by  Darwin  during  the  voyage  of  the  Beagle. 


14  president's  address. 

biologists  *  have  pointed  out  that  the  warm  waters  of  the  West  Indies 
and  Florida  may  be  noted  for  the  richness  of  their  floating  life  for 
periods  of  years,  while  at  other  times  the  pelagic  organisms  become 
rare  and  the  region  is  almost  a  desert  sea. 

It  is  probable,  on  the  whole,  that  the  distribution  and  variations 
of  oceanic  currents  have  more  than  latitude  or  temperature  alone  to  do 
with  any  observed  scantiness  of  tropical  plankton.  These  mighty 
rivers  of  the  ocean  in  places  teem  with  animal  and  plant  life,  and  may 
sweep  abundance  of  food  from  one  region  to  another  in  the  open  sea. 

But  even  if  it  be  a  fact  that  there  is  this  alleged  deficiency  in  tropical 
plankton  there  is  by  no  means  agreement  as  to  the  cause  thereof. 
Brandt  first  attributed  the  poverty  of  the  plankton  in  the  tropics  to  the 
destruction  of  nitrates  in  the  sea  as  a  result  of  the  greater  intensity  of 
the  metabolism  of  denitrifying  bacteria  in  the  wanner  water;  and 
various  other  writers  since  then  have  more  or  less  agi'eed  that  the 
presence  of  these  denitrifying  bacteria,  by  keeping  down  to  a  minimum 
the  nitrogen  concentration  in  tropical  waters,  may  account  for  the 
relative  scarcity  of  the  phyto-plankton,  and  consequently  of  the 
zoo-plankton,  that  has  been  observed.  But  Gran,  Nathansohn,  Murray, 
Hjort  and  others  have  shown  that  such  bacteria  are  rare  or  absent 
in  the  open  sea,  that  their  action  must  be  negligible,  and  that  Brandt's 
hypothesis  is  untenable.  It  seems  clear,  moreover,  that  the  plankton 
does  not  vary  directly  with  the  temperature  of  the  water.  Furthermore, 
Nathansohn  has  shown  the  influence  of  the  vertical  circulation  in  the 
water  upon  the  nourishment  of  the  phyto-plankton — by  rising  currents 
bringing  up  necessary  nutrient  materials,  and  especially  carbon  dioxide 
from  the  bottom  layers ;  and  also  possibly  by  conveying  the  products  of 
the  drainage  of  tropical  lands  to  more  polar  seas  so  as  to  maintain  the 
more  abundant  life  in  the  colder  water. 

Piitter's  view  is  that  the  increased  metabolism  in  the  warmer  water 
causes  all  the  available  food  materials  to  be  rapidly  used  up,  and  so 
puts  a  check  to  the  reproduction  of  the  plankton. 

According  to  Van't  Hoff's  law  in  Chemistry,  the  rate  at  which  a 
reaction  takes  place  is  increased  by  raising  the  temperature,  and  this 
probably  holds  good  for  all  bio-chemical  phenomena,  and  therefore  for 
the  metabolism  of  animals  and  plants  in  the  sea.  This  has  been 
verified  experimentally  in  some  cases  by  J.  Loeb.  The  contrast 
between  the  plankton  of  Arctic  and  Antarctic  zones,  consisting  of  large 
numbers  of  small  Crustaceans  belonging  to  comparatively  few  species, 
and  that  of  tropical  waters,  containing  a  great  many  more  species 
generally  of  smaller  size  and  fewer  in  number  of  individuals,  is  to  be 

'  A.  Agassiz,  A.  G.  Mayer,  and  H.  B.  Bigelow. 

president's  address.  15 

accounted  for,  according  to  Sir  John  Murray  and  others,  by  the  rate 
of  metaboUsm  in  the  organisms.  The  assemblages  captured  in  cold 
polar  waters  are  of  different  ages  and  stages,  young  and  adults  of 
several  generations  occurring  together  in  profusion,'  and  it  is  supposed 
that  the  adults  '  may  be  ten,  twenty  or  more  years  of  age.'  At  the 
low  temperature  the  action  of  putrefactive  bacteria  and  of  enzymes 
is  very  slow  or  in  abeyance,  and  the  vital  actions  of  the  Crustacea 
take  place  more  slowly  and  the  individual  lives  are  longer.  On  the 
other  hand,  in  the  warmer  waters  of  the  tropics  the  action  of  the 
bacteria  is  more  rapid,  metabolism  in  general  is  more  active,  and  the 
various  stages  in  the  life-history  are  passed  through  more  rapidly, 
so  that  the  smaller  organisms  of  equatorial  seas  probably  only  live  for 
days  or  weeks  in  place  of  years. 

This  explanation  may  account  also  for  the  much  greater  quantity 
of  living  organisms  which  has  been  found  so  often  on  the  sea  floor 
in  polar  waters.  It  is  a  curious  fact  that  the  development  of  the 
polar  marine  animals  is  in  general '  direct '  without  lai-val  pelagic  stages, 
the  result  being  that  the  young  settle  down  on  the  floor  of  the  ocean 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  parent  forms,  so  that  there  come  to  be 
enormous  congregations  of  the  same  kind  of  animal  within  a  limited 
area,  and  the  dredge  will  in  a  particular  haul  come  up  filled  with 
hundreds,  it  may  be,  of  an  Echinoderm,  a  Sponge,  a  Crustacean,  a 
Brachiopod,  or  an  Ascidian;  whereas  in  warmer  seas  the  young  pass 
through  a  pelagic  stage  and  so  become  more  widely  distributed  over 
the  floor  of  the  ocean.  The  Challenger  Expedition  found  in  the 
Antarctic .  certain  Echinoderms,  for  example,  which  had  young  in 
various  stages  of  development  attached  to  some  part  of  the  body  of  the 
parents,  whereas  in  temperate  or  tropical  regions  the  same  class  of 
animals  set  free  their  eggs  and  the  development  proceeds  in  the  open 
water  quite  independently  of,  and  it  may  be  far  distant  from,  the 

Another  characteristic  result  of  the  difference  in  temperature  is  that 
the  secretion  of  carbonate  of  lime  in  the  form  of  shells  and  skeletons 
proceeds  more  rapidly  in  warm  than  in  cold  water.  The  massive  shells 
of  molluscs,  the  vast  deposits  of  carbonate  of  lime  formed  by  corals 
and  by  calcareous  seaweeds,  are  characteristic  of  the  tropics;  whereas 
in  polar  seas,  while  the  animals  may  be  large,  they  are  for  the  most 
part  soft-bodied  and  destitute  of  calcareous  secretions.  The  calcareous 
pelagic  Foraminifera  are  characteristic  of  tropical  and  sub-tropical 
plankton,   and   few,   if  any,   are  found  in   polar  waters.     Globigerina 

'  Whether,   however,  the  low  temperature  may  not  also  retard  reproduction 
is  worthy  of  consideration. 

16  president's  address. 

ooze,  a  calcareous  deposit,  is  abundant  in  equatorial  seas,  while  in  the 
Antarctic  the  characteristic  deposit  is  siliceous  Diatomaceous  ooze. 

The  part  played  by  bacteria  in  the  metabolism  of  the  sea  is  very 
important  and  probably  of  wide-reaching  effect,  but  we  still  know  very 
little  about  it.  A  most  promising  young  Cambridge  biologist,  the  late 
Mr.  G.  Harold  Drew,  now  unfortunately  lost  to  science,  had  already 
done  notable  work  at  Jamaica  and  at  Tortugas,  Florida,  on  the  effects 
produced  by  a  bacillus  which  is  found  in  the  surface  waters  of  these 
shallow  tropical  seas  and  in  the  mud  at  the  bottom  ;  and  which  denitrifies 
nitrates  and  nitrites,  giving  off  free  nitrogen.  He  found  that  this 
Bacillus  colds  also  caused  the  precipitation  of  soluble  calcium  salts 
in  the  form  of  calcium  carbonate  ('  drewite  ')  on  a  large  scale,  in  the 
warm  shallow  waters.  Drew's  observations  tend  to  show  that  the 
great  calcareous  deposits  of  Florida  and  the  Bahamas  previously  known 
as  '  coral  muds  '  are  not,  as  was  supposed  by  Murray  and  others, 
derived  from  broken-up  corals,  shells,  nullipores,  &c.,  but  are  minute 
particles  of  carbonate  of  lime  which  have  been  precipitated  by  the 
action  of  these  bacteria.^" 

The  bearing  of  these  observations  upon  the  formation  of  oolitic 
limestones  and  the  fine-grained  unfossiliferous  Lower  Palaeozoic  lime- 
stones of  New  York  State,  recently  studied  in  this  connection  by  E.  M. 
Field,''  must  be  of  peculiar  interest  to  geologists,  and  foiTns  a  notable 
instance  of  the  annectant  character  of  Oceanography,  bringing  the 
metabolism  of  living  organisms  in  the  modern  sea  into  relation  with 
palaeozoic  rocks. 

The  work  of  marine  biologists  on  the  plankton  has  been  in  the 
main  qualitative,  the  identification  of  species,  the  observation  of  struc- 
ture, and  the  tracing  of  life-histories.  The  oceanographer  adds  to  that 
the  quantitative  aspect  when  he  attempts  to  estimate  numbers  and 
masses  per  unit  volume  of  water  or  of  area.  Let  me  lay  before  you 
a  few  thoughts  in  regard  to  some  such  attempts,  mainly  for  the 
purpose  of  showing  the  difficulties  of  the  investigation.  Modern  quanti- 
tative methods  owe  their  origin  to  the  ingenious  and  laborious  work 
of  Victor  Hensen,  followed  by  Brandt,  Apstein,  Lohmann,  and  others 
of  the  Kiel  school  of  quantitative  planktologists.  We  may  take  their 
well-known  estimations  of  fish  eggs  in  the  North  Sea  as  an  example 
of  the  method. 

The  floating  eggs  and  embryos  of  our  more  important  food  fishes 
may  occur  in  quantities  in  the  plankton  during  certain  months  in 
spring,  and  Hensen  and  Apstein  have  made  some  notable  calculations 

"  Journ.  Mar.  Biol.  Assoc,  October  1911. 

»  Carnpgie  Institute  of  Washington.,     Year  Book  for  1919,  p.  197, 

president's  address.  17 

Based  on  the  occurrence  of  these  in  certain  hauls  taken  at  intervals 
across  the  North  Sea,  which  led  them  to  the  conclusion  that,  taking 
six  of  our  most  abundant  fish,  such  as  the  cod  and  some  of  the  flat 
fish,  the  eggs  present  were  probably  produced  by  about  1200  milHon 
spawners,  enabling  them  to  calculate  that  the  total  fish  population 
of  the  North  Sea  (of  these  six  species),  at  that  time  (spring  of  1895), 
amounted  to  about  10,000  millions.  Further  calculations  led  them 
to  the  result  that  the  fishermen's  catch  of  these  fishes  amounted 
to  about  one-quarter  of  the  total  population.  Now  all  this  is  not  only 
of  scientific  interest,  but  also  of  great  practical  importance  if  we  could 
be  sure  that  the  samples  upon  which  the  calculations  are  based  were 
adequate  and  representative,  but  it  will  be  noted  that  these  samples 
only  represent  one  square  metre  in  3,465,568,354.  Hensen's  state- 
ment, repeated  in  various  works  in  slightly  differing  words,  is  to  the 
effect  that,  using  a  net  of  which  the  constants  are  known  hauled 
vertically  through  a  column  of  water  from  a  certain  depth  to  the 
surface,  he  can  calculate  the  volume  of  water  filtered  by  the  net  and 
so  estimate  the  quantity  of  plankton  under  each  square  metre  of  the 
surface;  and  his  whole  results  depend  upon  the  assumption,  which 
Ee  considers  justified,  that  the  plankton  is  evenly  distributed  over 
large  areas  of  water  which  are  under  similar  conditions.  In  these 
calculations  in  regard  to  the  fish  eggs  he  takes  the  whole  of  the  North 
Sea  as  being  an  area  under  similar  conditions,  but  we  have  known 
since  the  days  of  P.  T.  Cleve  and  from  the  observations  of  Hensen's 
own  colleagues  that  this  is  not  the  case,  and  they  have  published  chart- 
diagrams  showing  that  at  least  three  different  kinds  of  water  under 
different  conditions  are  found  in  the  North  Sea,  and  that  at  least  five 
different  planktonic  areas  may  be  encountered  in  making  a  traverse 
from  Germany  to  the  British  Isles.  If  the  argument  be  used  that 
wherever  the  plankton  is  found  to  vary  there  the  conditions  cannot 
be  uniform,  then  few  areas  of  the  ocean  of  any  considerable  size  remain 
as  cases  suitable  for  population-computation  fi'om  random  samples. 
It  may  be  doubted  whether  even  the  Sargasso  Sea,  which  is  an  area 
of  more  than  usually  uniform  character,  has  a  sufficiently  evenly 
distributed  plankton  to  be  treated  by  Hensen's  method  of  estimation 
of  the  population. 

In  the  German  Plankton  Expedition  of  1889  Schiitt  reports  that 
in  the  Sargasso  Sea,  with  its  relatively  high  temperature,  the  twenty- 
four  catches  obtained  were  uniformly  small  in  quantity.  His  analysis 
of  the  volumes  of  these  catches  shows  that  the  average  was  3"33  c.c, 
but  the  individual  catches  ranged  from  1-5  c.c.  to  6'5  c.c,  and  the  diver- 
gence from  the  average  may  be  as  great  as  -f-3'2  c.c. ;  and,  after  deduct- 
ing 20  per  cent,  of  the  divergence  as  due  to  errors  of  the  experiment, 

1920  c 

18  prksident's  address. 

Schiitt  estimates  the  mean  variation  of  the  plankton  at  about  16  per 
cent,  above  or  below.  This  does  not  seem  to  me  to  indicate  the 
uniformity  that  might  be  expected  in  this  '  halistatic  '  area  occupying 
the  centre  of  the  North  Atlantic  Gulf  Stream  circulation.  Hensen 
also  made  almost  simultaneous  hauls  with  the  same  net  in  quick 
succession  to  test  the  amount  of  variation,  and  found  that  the  average 
error  was  about  13  per  cent. 

As  so  much  depends  in  all  work  at  sea  upon  the  weather,  the  con- 
ditions under  which  the  ship  is  working,  and  the  care  taken  in  the 
experiment,  with  the  view  of  getting  further  evidence  under  known 
conditions  I  carried  out  some  similar  experiments  at  Port  Erin  on  four 
occasions  during  last  April  and  on  a  further  occasion  a  month  later, 
choosing  favourable  weather  and  conditions  of  tide  and  wind,  so  as 
to  be  able  to  maintain  an  approximate  position.  On  each  of  four  days 
in  April  the  Nansen  net,  with  No.  20  silk,  was  hauled  six  times  from 
the  same  depth  fon  two  occasions  8  fathoms  and  on  two  occasions 
20  fathoms)',  the  hauls  being  taken  in  rapid  succession  and  the  catches 
being  emptied  from  the  net  into  bottles  of  5  per  cent,  formaline,  in 
which  they  remained  until  examined  microscopically. 

The  results  were  of  interest,  for  although  they  showed  considerable 
uniformity  in  the  amount  of  the  catch — for  example,  six  successive 
hauls  from  8  fathoms  being  all  of  them  0-2  c.c.  and  four  out  of  five 
from  20  fathoms  being  0"6  c.c. — the  volume  was  made  up  rather 
differently  in  the  successive  hauls.  The  same  organisms  are  present 
for  the  most  part  in  each  haul,  and  the  chief  groups  of  organisms  are 
present  in  much  the  same  proportion.  For  example,  in  a  series  where 
the  Copepoda  average  about  100  the  Dinoflagellates  average  about  300 
and  the  Diatoms  about  8000,  but  the  percentage  deviation  of  indi- 
vidual hauls  from  the  average  may  be  as  much  as  plus  or  viinus  50. 
The  numbers  for  each  organism  (about  40)  in  each  of  the  twenty-six 
hauls  have  been  worked  out,  and  the  details  will  be  published  elsewhere, 
but  the  conclusion  I  come  to  is  that  if  on  each  occasion  one  haul  only, 
in  place  of  six,  had  been  taken,  and  if  one  had  used  tbat  haul  to 
estimate  the  abundance  of  any  one  organism  in  that  sea-area,  one 
might  have  been  about  60  per  cent,  wrong  in  either  direction. 

Successive  improvements  and  additions  to  Hensen 's  methods  in 
collecting  plankton  have  been  made  by  Lohmann,  Apstein,  Gran,  and 
others,  such  as  pumping  up  water  of  different  layers  through  a  hose- 
pipe and  filtering  it  through  felt,  filter-paper,  and  other  materials 
which  retain  much  of  the  micro-plankton  that  escapes  through  the 
meshes  of  the  finest  silk.  Use  has  even  been  made  of  the  extraordinarily 
minute  and  beautifully  regular  natural  filter  spun  by  the  pelagic  animal 
Appendinilaria  for  the  capture  of  its  own  food.     This  giid-like  trap. 

president's  address.  19 

when  dissected  out  and  examined  under  the  microscope,  reveals  a 
surprising  assemblage  of  the  smallest  protozoa  and  protophyta,  less 
than  30  micro-millimetres  in  diameter,  which  would  all  pass  easily 
through  the  meshes  of  our  finest  silk  nets. 

The  latest  refinement  in  capturing  the  minutest-known  organisms 
of  the  plankton  (excepting  the  bacteria)  is  a  culture  method  devised 
by  Dr.  E.  J.  Allen,  Director  of  the  Plymouth  Laboratory."  By  diluting 
half  a  cubic  centimetre  of  the  sea-water  with  a  considerable  amount 
(1500  c.c.)  of  sterilised  water  treated  with  a  nutrient  solution,  and 
distributing  that  over  a  large  number  (70)  of  small  flasks  in  which 
after  an  interval  of  some  days  the  number  of  different  kinds  of  organisms 
which  had  developed  in  each  flask  were  counted,  he  calculates  that 
the  sea  contains  464,000  of  such  organisms  per  litre;  and  he  gives 
reasons  why  his  cultivations  must  be  regarded  as  minimum  results, 
and  states  that  the  total  per  litre  may  well  be  something  like  a  million. 
Thus  every  new  method  devised  seems  to  multiply  many  times  the 
probable  total  population  of  the  sea.  As  further  results  of  the  quan- 
titative method  it  may  be  recorded  that  Brandt  found  about  200  diatoms 
per  drop  of  water  in  Kiel  Bay,  and  Hensen  estimated  that  there  are 
several  hundred  millions  of  diatoms  under  each  square  metre  of  the 
North  Sea  or  the  Baltic.  It  has  been  calculated  that  there  is  approxi- 
mately one  Copepod  in  each  cubic  inch  of  Baltic  water,  and  that  the 
annual  consumption  of  these  Copepoda  by  herring  is  about  a  thousand 
billion ;  and  that  in  the  16  square  miles  of  a  certain  Baltic  fishery 
there  is  Copepod  food  for  over  530  millions  of  herring  of  an  average 
weight  of  60  grammes. 

There  are  many  other  problems  of  the  plankton  in  addition  to 
quantitative  estimates — probably  some  that  we  have  not  yet  recognised — 
and  various  interesting  conclusions  may  be  drawn  from  recent  planktonic 
observations.  Here  is  a  case  of  the  introduction  and  rapid  spread  of 
a  form  new  to  British  seas. 

Biddulphia  sinensis  is  an  exotic  diatom  which,  according  to  Osten- 
feld,  made  its  appearance  at  the  mouth  of  the  Elbe  in  1903,  and  spread 
during  successive  years  in  several  directions.  It  appeared  suddenly 
in  our  plankton  gatherings  at  Port  Erin  in  November  1909,  and  has 
been  present  in  abundance  each  year  since.  Ostenfeld,  in  1908,  when 
tracing  its  spread  in  the  North  Sea,  found  that  the  migration  to  the 
north  along  the  coast  of  Denmark  to  Norway  corr-esponded  with  the 
rate  of  flow  of  the  Jutland  current  to  the  Skagerrak — viz. ,  about  17  cm. 
per  second — a  case  of  plankton  distribution  throwing  light  on  hydro- 
graphy— and  he  predicted  that  it  would  soon  be  found  in  the  English 

"  Jorirn.  Mar.   Biol.  Assoc,  xii.   1,  July  1919. 

c  2 

20  president's  address. 

Channel.  Dr.  Marie  Lebour,  who  recently  examined  the  store  of 
plankton  gatherings  at  the  Plymouth  Laboratory,  finds  that  as  a  matter 
of  fact  this  form  did  appear  in  abundance  in  the  collections  of  October 
1909,  within  a  month  of  the  time  when  according  to  our  records  it 
reached  Port  Erin.  "Whether  or  not  this  is  an  Indo-Pacific  species 
brought  accidentally  by  a  ship  from  the  Far  East,  or  whether  it  is 
possibly  a  new  mutation  which  appeared  suddenly  in  our  seas,  there 
is  no  doubt  that  it  was  not  present  in  our  Irish  Sea  plankton  gatherings 
previous  to  1909,  but  has  been  abundant  since  that  year,  and  has 
completely  adopted  the  habits  of  its  English  relations — appearing  with 
B.  mobiliensis  in  late  autumn,  persisting  during  the  winter,  reaching  a 
maximum  in  spring,  and  dying  out  before  summer. 

The  Nauplius  and  Cypris  stages  of  Balanus  in  the  plankton  fonn 
an  interesting  study.  The  adult  barnacles  are  present  in  enormous 
abundance  on  the  rocks  round  the  coast,  and  they  reproduce  in  winter, 
at  the  beginning  of  the  year.  The  newly  emitted  young  are  sometimes 
so  abundant  as  to  make  the  water  in  the  shore  pools  and  in  the  sea 
close  to  shore  appear  muddy.  The  Nauplii  first  appeared  at  Port  Erin, 
in  1907,  in  the  bay  gatherings  on  February  22  (in  1908  on  Feb- 
ruary 13),  and  increased  with  ups  and  downs  to  their  maximum  on 
April  15,  and  then  decreased  until  their  disappearance  on  April  26. 
None  were  taken  at  any  other  time  of  the  year.  The  Cypris  stage 
follows  on  after  the  Nauplius.  It  was  first  taken  in  the  bay  on 
April  6,  rose  to  its  maximum  on  the  same  day  with  the  Nauplii,  and 
was  last  caught  on  May  24.  Throughout,  the  Cypris  curve  keeps 
below  that  of  the  Nauplius,  the  maxima  being  1740  and  10,500  respec- 
tively. Probably  the  difference  between  the  two  curves  represents  the 
death-rate  of  Balanus  during  the  Nauplius  stage.  That  conclusion  I 
think  we  are  justified  in  drawing,  but  I  would  not  venture  to  use  the 
result  of  any  haul,  or  the  average  of  a  number  of  hauls,  to  multiply  by 
the  number  of  square  yards  in  a  zone  round  our  coast  in  order  to 
obtain  an  estimate  of  the  number  of  young  barnacles,  or  of  the  old 
barnacles  that  produced  them — the  irregularities  are  too  great. 

To  my  mind  it  seems  clear  that  there  must  be  three  factors  making 
for  irregularity  in  the  distribution  of  a  plankton  organism:  — 

1.  The  sequence  of  stages  in  its  life-history — such  as  the  Nauplius 
and  Cypris  stages  of  Balanus. 

2.  The  results  of  interaction  with    other    organisms— as   when  a 
swarm  of  Calanus  is  pursued  and  devoured  by  a  shoal  of  herring. 

3.  Abnormalities  in  time  or  abundance  due  to  the  physical  environ- 
ment— as  in  favourable  or  unfavourable  seasons. 

And  these  factors  must  be  at  work  in  the  open  ocean  as  well  as  in 
coastal  waters. 

president's  address.  21 

In  many  oceanographical  inquiries  there  is  a  double  object.  There 
is  the  scientific  interest  and  there  is  the  practical  utiUty — the  interest, 
for  example,  of  tracing  a  particular  swarm  of  a  Copepod  like  Calanus, 
and  of  making  out  why  it  is  where  it  is  at  a  particular  time,  tracing  it 
back  to  its  place  of  origin,  finding  that  it  has  come  with  a  particular 
body  of  water,  and  perhaps  that  it  is  feeding  upon  a  particular  assem- 
blage of  Diatoms ;  endeavouring  to  give  a  scientific  explanation  of  every 
stage  in  its  progress.  Then  there  is  the  utility — the  demonstration 
that  the  migration  of  the  Calanus  has  determined  the  presence  of  a 
shoal  of  herrings  or  mackerel  that  are  feeding  upon  it,  and  so  have 
been  brought  within  the  range  of  the  fisherman  and  have  constituted 
a  commercial  fishery. 

We  have  evidence  that  pelagic  fish  which  congregate  in  shoals, 
such  as  herring  and  mackerel,  feed  upon  the  Crustacea  of  the  plankton 
and  especially  upon  Copepoda.  A  few  years  ago  when  the  summer 
herring  fishery  off  the  south  end  of  the  Isle  of  Man  was  unusually  near 
the  land,  the  fishermen  found  large  red  patches  in  the  sea  where  the 
fish  were  specially  abundant.  Some  of  the  red  stuff,  brought  ashore 
by  the  men,  was  examined  at  the  Port  Erin  Laboratory  and  found  to 
be  swarms  of  the  Copepod  Teviora  longicornis ;  and  the  stomachs  of 
the  herring  caught  at  the  same  time  were  engorged  with  the  same 
organism.  It  is  not  possible  to  doubt  that  dm'ing  these  weeks  of  the 
herring  fishery  in  the  Irish  Sea  the  fish  were  feeding  mainly  upon  this 
species  of  Copepod.  Some  ten  years  ago  Dr.  E.  J.  Allen  and  Mr. 
G.  E.  BuUen  published  '^  some  interesting  work,  from  the  Plymouth 
Marine  Laboratory,  demonstrating  the  connection  between  mackerel 
and  Copepoda  and  sunshine  in  the  English  Channel;  and  Farran''' 
states  that  in  the  spring  fishery  on  the  West  of  Ireland  the  food  of  the 
mackerel  is  mainly  composed  of  Calarms. 

Then  again  at  the  height  of  the  summer  mackerel  fishery  in  the 
Hebrides,  in  1913,  we  found  ^^  the  fish  feeding  upon  the  large  Copepod 
Calanus  finmarchicus ,  which  was  caught  in  the  tow-net  at  the  rate  of 
about  60(X)  in  a  five-minutes'  haul,  and  6000  was  also  the  aver-age 
number  found  in  the  stomachs  of  the  fish  caught  at  the  same  time. 

These  were  cases  where  the  fish  were  feeding  upon  the  organism 
that  was  present  in  swarms — a  monotonic  plankton — but  in  other  cases 
the  fish  are  clearly  selective  in  their  diet.  If  the  sardine  of  the  French 
coast  can  pick  out  from  the  micro-plankton  the  minute  Peridiniales  in 
preference  to  the  equally  minute  Diatoms  which  are  present  in  the  sea 
at  the  same   time,  there  seems  no  reason  why  the  herring   and  the 

'^  Journ.  Mar.  Biol.  Assoc,  vol.  viii.  (1909),  pp.  394-406. 

"  Vonseil  Internat.  Bull.  Trimestr.  1902-8,  '  Planktonique,'  p.  89. 

'^  '  Spolia  Runiana/  iii.  Linn.  Soc.  .Journ.,  Zoology,  vol.  xxxiv.  p.  95,  1918. 

22    .  president's  address. 

mackerel  should  not  be  able  to  select  particular  species  of  Copepoda 
or  other  large  organisms  from  the  ma<;ro-plankton,  and  we  have 
evidence  that  they  do.  Nearly  thirty  years  ago  the  late  Mr.  Isaac 
Thompson,  a  constant  supporter  of  the  Zoological  Section  of  this  Asso- 
ciation and  one  of  the  Honorary  Local  Secretaries  for  the  last  Liver- 
pool meeting,  showed  me  in  1893  that  young  plaice  at  Port  Erin  were 
selecting  one  particular  Copepod,  a  species  of  Jonesiella,  out  of  many 
others  caught  in  our  tow-nets  at  the  time.  H.  Blegvad  '^  showed  in 
1916  that  young  food  fishes  and  also  small  shore  fishes  pick  out  certain 
species  of  Copepoda  (such  as  Harpacticoids)  and  catch  them  individually 
— either  lying  in  wait  or  searching  for  them.  A  couple  of  years  later '' 
Dr.  Marie  Lebour  published  a  detailed  account  of  her  work  at  Plymouth 
on  the  food  of  young  fishes,  proving  that  certain  fish  undoubtedly  do 
prefer  certain  planktonic  food. 

These  Crustacea  of  the  plankton  feed  upon  smaller  and  simpler 
organisms — the  Diatoms,  the  Peridinians,  and  the  Flagellates — and  the 
fish  themselves  in  their  youngest  post-larval  stages  are  nourished  by 
the  same  minute  forms  of  the  plankton.  Thus  it  appears  that  our  sea- 
fisheries  ultimately  depend  upon  the  living  plankton  which  no  doubt 
in  its  turn  is  affected  by  hydrographic  conditions.  A  correlation  seems 
to  be  established  between  the  Cornish  pilchard  fisheries  and  periodic 
variations  in  the  physical  characters  (probably  the  salinity)  of  the 
water  of  the  English  Channel  between  Plymouth  and  Jersey."  Appa- 
rently a  diminished  intensity  in  the  Atlantic  current  corresponds  with 
a  diminished  fishery  in  the  following  summer.  Possibly  the  connection 
in  these  cases  is  through  an  organism  of  the  plankton. 

It  is  only  a  comparatively  small  number  of  different  kinds  of 
organisms — both  plants  and  animals — that  make  up  the  bulk  of  the 
plankton  that  is  of  real  importance  to  fish.  One  can  select  about  half- 
a-dozen  species  of  Copepoda  which  constitute  the  greater  part  of  the 
summer  zoo-plankton  suitable  as  food  for  larval  or  adult  fishes,  and 
about  the  same  number  of  generic  types  of  Diatoms  which  similarly 
make  up  the  bulk  of  the  available  spring  phyto-plankton  year  after 
year.  This  fact  gives  great  economic  importance  to  the  attempt  to 
determine  with  as  much  precision  as  possible  the  times  and  conditions 
of  oc-currence  of  these  dominant  factors  of  the  plankton  in  an  average 
year.  An  obvious  further  extension  of  this  investigation  is  an  inquiry 
into  the  degree  of  coincidence  between  the  times  of  appearance  in  the 
sea  of  the  plankton  organisms  and  of  the  young  fish,  and  the  possible 
effect  of  any  marked  absence  of  correlation  in  time  and  quantity. 

Just  before  the  war  the  International  Council  for  the  Exploration 

*'  Bep.  Danish  Biol.  Stat.  xxiv.  1916. 

"  JouTii.  Mar.  Biol.    Assoc.  May  1918. 

"  See  E.    C.  Jee,  Hydrografliy  of  the  English  Channel,   1904-17. 

president's  address.  23 

of  the  Sea  ''^  arrived  afc  the  conclusion  that  fishery  investigations  indi- 
cated the  probabiUty  that  the  great  periodic  fluctuations  in  the  fisheries 
are  connected  with  the  fish  larvae  being  developed  in  great  quantities 
only  in  certain  years.  Consequently  they  advised  that  plankton  work 
should  be  dix'eoted  primarily  to  the  question  whether  these  fluctuations 
depend  upon  differences  in  the  plankton  production  in  different  years. 
It  was  then  proposed  to  begin  systematic  investigation  of  the  fish 
larvae  and  the  plankton  in  spring  and  to  determine  more  definitely  the 
food  of  the  larval  fish  at  various  stages. 

About  thei  same  time  Dr.  Hjort""  made  the  interesting  suggestion 
that  possibly  the  great  fluctuations  in  the  number  of  young  fish  observed 
from  year  to  year  may  not  depend  wholly  upon  the  number  of  eggs 
produced,  but  also  upon  the  relation  in  time  between  the  hatching  of 
these  eggs  and  the  appearance  in  the  water  of  the  enormous  quantity 
of  Diatoms  and  other  plant  plankton  upon  which  the  larval  fish  after 
the  absorption  of  their  yolk  depend  for  food.  He  points  out  that  if 
even  a  brief  interval  occurs  between  the  time  when  the  larvae  first 
require  extraneous  nourishment  and  the  period  when  such  food  is 
available,  it  is  highly  probable  that  an  enormous  mortality  would  result. 
In  that  case  even  a  rich  spawning  season  might  yield  but  a  poor  result 
in  fish  in  the  commercial  fisheries  of  successive  years  for  some  time  to 
come.  So  that,  in  fact,  the  numbers  of  a  year-class  may  depend  not 
so  much  upon  a  favourable  spawning  season  as  upon  a  coincidence 
between  the  hatching  of  the  larvae  and  the  presence  of  abundance  of 
phyto-plankton  available  as  food.'^ 

The  curve  for  the  spring  maximum  of  Diatoms  corresponds  in  a 
general  way  with  the  curve  representing  the  occurrence  of  pelagic  fish 
eggs  in  our  seas.  But  is  the  correspondence  sufficiently  exact  and 
constant  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  case?  The  phyto-plankton  may  still 
be  relatively  small  in  amount  during  February  and  part  of  March  in 
some  years,  and  it  is  not  easy  to  determine  exactly  when,  in  the  open 
sea,  the  fish  eggs  have  hatched  out  in  quantity  and  the  larvae  have 
absorbed  their  food-yolk  and  started  feeding  on  Diatoms. 

If,  however,  we  take  the  case  of  one  important  fish — the  plaice — we 
can  get  some  data  from  our  hatching  experiments  at  the  Port  Erin 
Biological  Station  which  have  now  been  carried  on  for  a  period  of 
seventeen  years.  An  examination  of  the  hatchery  records  for  these 
years  in  comparison  with  the  plankton  records  of  the  neighbouring  sea, 
which  have  been  kept  systematically  for  the  fourteen  years  from  1907 

"  Eapports  et  Proc.  Verb.  xix.     December  1913. 

=>»  Rapports  et  Proc.  Verb.  xx.  1914,  p.  204. 

^1  For  the  purpose  of  this  argument  we  may  include  in  '  phyto-plankton  ' 
the  various  groups  of  Flagellata  and  other  minute  organisms  which  may  be 
present  with  the  Diatoms. 


to  1920  inclusive,  shows  that  in  most  of  these  years  the  Diatoms  were 
present  in  abundance  in  the  sea  a  few  days  at  least  before  the  fish 
larvae  fi'om  the  hatchery  were  set  free,  and  that  it  was  only  in  four 
years  (1908,  '09,  '13,  and  '14)  that  there  was  apparently  some  I'isk  of 
the  larvae  finding  no  phyto-planktcn  food,  or  very  little.  The  evidence 
so  far  seems  to  show  that  if  fish  larvte  are  set  free  in  the  sea  as  late  as 
March  20,  they  are  fairly  sure  of  finding  suitable  food ;  ^^  but  if  they 
are  hatched  as  early  as  Febiniary  they  run  some  chance  of  being 

But  this  does  not  exhaust  the  risks  to  the  future  fishery.  C.  G. 
JoR.  Petersen  and  Boysen-Jensei\  in  their  valuation  of  the  Limfjord"' 
have  shown  that  in  the  case  not  only  of  some  fish  but  also  of  the  larger 
invertebrates  on  which  they  feed  there  are  marked  fluctuations  in  the 
number  of  young  produced  in  different  seasons,  and  that  it  is  only  at 
intervals  of  years  that  a  really  large  stock  of  young  is  added  to  the 

The  prospects  of  a  year's  fishery  may  therefore  depend  primarily 
upon  the  rate  of  spawning  of  the  fish,  affected  no  doubt  by  hydrographic 
and  other  environmental  conditions,  secondarily  upon  the  presence  of  a 
sufficient  supply  of  phyto-plankton  in  the  surface  layers  of  the  sea  at 
the  time  when  the  fish  larvae  are  hatched,  and  that  in  its  turn  depends 
upon  photosynthesis  and  physico-chemical  changes  in  the  water,  and 
finally  upon  the  reproduction  of  the  stock  of  molluscs  or  worms  at  the 
bottom  which  constitute  the  fish  food  at  later  stages  of  growth  and 

The  question  has  been  raised  of  recent  years — Is  there  enough 
plankton  in  the  sea  to  provide  sufficient  nourishment  for  the  larger 
animals,  and  especially  for  those  fixed  forms  such  as  sponges  that  are 
supposed  to  feed  by  drawing  currents  of  plankton-laden  water  through 
the  body  ?  In  a  series  of  remarkable  papers  from  1907  onwards  Putter 
and  his  followers  put  forward  the  views  (1)  that  the  carbon  require- 
ments of  such  animals  could  not  be  met  by  the  amount  of  plankton 
m  the  volume  of  water  that  could  be  passed  through  the  body  in  a 
given  time,  and  (2)  that  sea-water  contained  a  large  amount  of  dis- 
solved organic  carbon  compounds  which  constitute  the  chief  if  not 
the  only  food  of  a  large  number  of  marine  animals.  These  views 
have  given  rise  to  much  controversy  and  have  been  useful  in  stimu- 
lating further  research,  but  I  believe  it  is  now  admitted  that  Piitter's 
samples  of  water  from  the  Bay  of  Naples  and  at  Kiel  were  probably 
polluted,   that  his  figures  were  eiToneous,    and  that   his  conclusions 

^-  All  dates  and  statements  as  to  occurrence  refer  to  the  Irish  Sea  round 
the  south  end  of  the  Isle  of  Man.  For  further  details  see  Eeport  Lanes.  Sea- 
Fish.   Lab.  for  1919. 

-^  Report  of  Danish  Biol.  Station  for  1919. 

president's  address.  25 

must  be  rejected,  or  at  least  greatly  modified.  His  estimates  of  the 
plankton  were  minimum  ones,  while  it  seems  probable  that  his  figures 
for  the  organic  carbon  present  represent  a  variable  amount  of  organic 
matter  arising  from  one  of  the  reagents  used  in  the  analysis.-*  The 
later  experimental  work  of  Henze,  of  Eaben,  and  of  Moore  shows  that 
the  organic  carbon  dissolved  in  sea-water  is  an  exceedingly  minute 
quantity,  well  within  the  limits  of  experimental  error.  Moore  puts  it, 
at  the  most,  at  one-millionth  part,  or  1  mgm.  in  a  litre.  At  the  Dundee 
meeting  of  the  Association  in  1912  a  discussion  on  this  subject  took 
place,  at  which  Piitter  still  adhered  to  a  modified  form  of  his  hypothesis 
of  the  inadequacy  of  the  plankton  and  the  nutrition  of  lower  marine 
animals  by  the  direct  absorption  of  dissolved  organic  matter.  Further 
work  at  Port  Erin  since  has  shown  that,  while  the  plankton  supply 
as  found  generally  distributed  would  prove  sufficient  for  the  nutrition 
of  such  sedentary  animals  as  Sponges  and  Ascidians,  which  require  tc 
filter  only  about  fifteen  times  their  own  volume  of  water  per  hour, 
it  is  quite  inadequate  for  active  animals  such  as  Crustaceans  and  Fishes. 
These  latter  are,  however,  able  to  seek  out  and  capture  their  food,  and 
are  not  dependent  on  what  they  may  filter  or  absorb  from  the  sear 
water.  This  result  accords  well  with  recorded  observations  on  the 
irregularity  in  the  distribution  of  the  plankton,  and  with  the  variations 
in  the  occurrence  of  the  migratory  fishes  which  may  be  regarded  as 
following  and  feeding  upon  the  swarms  of  planktonic  organisms. 

This  then,  like  most  of  the  subjects  I  am  dealing  with,  is  still  a 
matter  of  controversy,  still  not  completely  imderstood.  Our  need,  then, 
is  Research,  more  Research,  and  still  more  Research. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  relations  between  plankton  productivity  and 
variation  and  the  physico-chemical  environment  is  still  in  its  infancy, 
but  gives  promise  of  great  results  in  the  hands  of  the  bio-chemist  and 
the  physical  chemist. 

Recent  papers  by  Sorensen,  Palitzsch,  Witting,  Moore,  and  others 
ha\ie  made  clear  that  the  amount  of  hydrogen-ion  concentration  as 
indicated  by  the  relative  degree  of  alkalinity  and  acidity  in  the  sea- 
water  may  undergo  local  and  periodic  variations  and  that  these  have 
an  effect  upon  the  living  organisms  in  the  water  and  can  be  correlated 
with  their  presence  and  abundance.  To  take  an  example  from  our 
own  seas.  Professor  Benjamin  Moore  and  his  assistants  in  their  work 
at  the  Port  Erin  Biological  Station  in  successive  years  from  1912 
onwards  have  shown"'  that  the  sea  around  the  Isle  of  Man  is  a  good 
deal  more  alkaline  in  spring  (say  April)  than   it  is  in  summer  (say 

^*  See  Moore,  etc.,  Bio.-Chem.  Journ.  vi.  p.  266,  1912. 

"^  '  Photosynthetic    phenomena    in   sea-water,'    Trans.    Liverpool   Biol.    Soc. 
xxix.  233,  1915. 

26  president's  address. 

July).  The  alkalinity,  which  gets  low  in  summer,  increases  somewhat 
in  autumn,  and  then  decreases  rapidly,  to  disappear  dmng  the  winter; 
and  then  once  more,  after  several  months  of  a  minimum,  begins  to 
come  into  evidence  again  in  March,  and  rapidly  rises  to  its  maximum 
in  April  or  May.  This  periodic  change  in  alkalinity  will  be  seen  to 
correspond  roughly  with  the  changes  in  the  living  microscopic  contents 
of  the  sea  represented  by  the  phyto-plankton  annual  curve,  and  the 
connection  between  the  two  will  be  seen  when  we  realise  that  the 
alkalinity  of  the  sea  is  due  to  the  relative  absence  of  carbon  dioxide. 
In  early  spring,  then,  the  developing  myriads  of  diatoms  in  their 
metabolic  processes  gradually  use  up  the  store  of  carbon  dioxide  accumu- 
lated during  the  winter,  or  derived  from  the  bi-carbonates  of  calcium 
and  magnesium,  and  so  increase  the  alkalinity  of  the  water,  till  the 
maximum  of  alkalinity,  due  to  the  fixation  of  the  carbon  and  the  reduc- 
tion in  amount  of  carbon  dioxide,  corresponds  with  the  crest  of  the 
phyto-plankton  curve  in,  say,  April.  Moore  has  calculated  that  the 
annual  turnover  in  the  form  of  carbon  which  is  used  up  or  converted 
from  the  inorganic  into  an  organic  form  probably  amounts  to  some- 
thing of  the  order  of  20,000  or  30,000  tons  of  carbon  per  cubic  mile 
of  sea-water,  or,  say,  over  an  area  of  the  Irish  Sea  measuring  16  square 
miles  and  a  depth  of  50  fathoms ;  and  this  probably  means  a  production 
each  season  of  about  two  tons  of  dry  organic  matter,  corresponding  to 
at  least  ten  tons  of  moist  vegetation,  per  acre — which  suggests  that 
we  may  still  be  very  far  from  getting  from  our  seas  anything  like  the 
amount  of  possible  food-matters  that  are  produced  annually. 

Testing  the  alkalinity  of  the  sea-water  may  therefore  be  said  to  be 
merely  ascertaining  and  measuring  the  results  of  the  photosynthetic 
activity  of  the  great  phyto-plankton  rise  in  spring  due  to  the  daily 
increase  of  sunlight. 

The  marine  biologists  of  the  Carnegie  Institute,  Washington,  have 
made  a  recent  contribution  to  the  subject  in  certain  observations  on 
the  alkalinity  of  the  sea  (as  determined  by  hydrogen-ion  concentration), 
during  which  they  found  in  tropical  mid-Pacific  a  sudden  change  to 
acidity  in  a  current  running  eastwards.  Now  in  the  Atlantic  the  Gulf 
Stream,  and  tropical  Atlantic  waters  generally,  are  much  more  alkaline 
than  the  colder  coastal  water  running  south  from  the  Gulf  of  St. 
Lawrence.  That  is,  the  colder  Arctic  water  has  more  carbon  dioxide. 
This  suggests  that  the  Pacific  easterly  set  may  be  due  to  deeper  water, 
containing  more  carbon  dioxide  (  =  acidity),  coming  to  the  surface  at 
that  point.  The  alkalinity  of  the  sea-water  can  be  determined  rapidly 
by  mixing  the  sample  with  a  few  drops  of  an  indicator  and  observing 
the  change  of  colour;  and  this  method  of  detecting  ocean  currents  by 
observing  the  hydrogen-ion  concentration  of  the  water  might  be  useful 
to  navigators  as  showing  the  time  of  entrance  to  a  known  current. 

president's  address.  27 

Oceanography  has  many  practical  applications — chiefly,  but  by  no 
means  wholly,  on  the  biological  side.  The  great  fishing  industries  of 
the  world  deal  with  living  organisms,  of  which  all  the  vital  activities 
and  the  inter-relations  with  the  environment  are  matters  of  scientific 
investio'ation.  Aquiculture  is  as  susceptible  of  scientific  treatment  as 
agriculture  can  be;  and  the  fisherman  who  has  been  in  the  past  too 
much  the  nomad  and  the  hunter — if  not,  indeed,  the  devastating  raider — 
must  become  in  the  future  the  settled  farmer  of  the  sea  if  his  harvest 
is  to  be  less  precarious.  Perhaps  the  nearest  approach  to  cultivation 
of  a  marine  product,  and  of  the  fisherman  reaping  what  he  has  actually 
sown,  is  seen  in  the  case  of  the  oyster  and  mussel  industries  on  the 
west  coast  of  France,  in  Holland,  America,  and  to  a  less  extent  on 
our  own  coast.  Much  Jias  been  done  by  scientific  men  for  these  and 
other  similar  coastal  fisheries  since  the  days  when  Professor  Coste 
in  France  in  1859  introduced  oysters  from  the  Scottish  oyster-beds  to 
start  the  great  industry  at  Arcachon  and  elsewhere.  Now  we  buy 
back  the  descendants  of  our  own  oysters  from  the  French  ostreicul- 
turists  to  replenish  our  depleted  beds. 

It  is  no  small  matter  to  have  introduced  a  new  and  important  food- 
fisli  to  the  markets  of  the  world.  The  remarkable  deep-water  '  tile- 
fish,'  new  to  science  and  described  as  Lopholatilus  ch^ni(Eleonticeps, 
was  discovered  in  1879  by  one  of  the  United  States  fishing  schooners 
to  the  south  of  Nantucket,  near  the  100-fathom  line.  Several  thousand 
pounds  weight  were  caught,  and  the  matter  was  duly  investigated  by 
the  United  States  Fish  Commission.  For  a  couple  of  years  after  that 
the  fish  was  brought  to  market  in  quantity,  and  then  something  unusual 
happened  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea,  and  in  1882  millions  of  dead  tile- 
fish  were  found  floating  on  the  surface  over  an  area  of  thousands  of 
square  miles.  The  schooner  Navarino  sailed  for  two  days  and  a  night 
through  at  least  150  miles  of  sea,  thickly  covered  as  far  as  the  eye 
could  reach  with  dead  fish,  estimated  at  256,000  to  the  square  mile. 
The  Fish  Commission  sent  a  vessel  to  fish  systematically  over  the 
grounds  known  as  the  '  Gulf  Stream  slope,'  where  the  tile-fish  had 
been  so  abundant  during  the  two  previous  years,  but  she  did  not  catch 
a  single  fish,  and  the  associated  sub-tropical  invertebrate  fauna  was 
also  practically  obliterated. 

This  wholesale  destruction  was  attributed  by  the  American  oceano- 
graphers  to  a  sudden  change  in  the  temperatm-e  of  the  water  at  the 
bottom,  due  in  all  probability  to  a  withdrawal  southwards  of  the  warm 
Gulf  Stream  water  and  a  flooding  of  the  area  by  the  cold  Labrador 

I  am  indebted  to  Dr.  C.  H.  Townsend,  Director  of  the  celebrated 
New  York  Aquarium,    for    the    latest   information  in  regard  to  the 

28  president's  address. 

reappearance  in  quantity  of  this  valuable  fish  upon  the  old  fishing  grounds 
off  Nantucket  and  Long  Island,  at  about  100  miles  from  the  coast  to 
the  east  and  south-east  of  New  York.  It  is  believed  that  the  tile-fish 
IS  now  abundant  enough  to  maintain  an  important  fishery,  which  will 
add  an  excellent  food-fish  to  the  markets  of  the  United  States.  It  is 
easily  caught  with  lines  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  and  reaches  a 
length  of  over  three  feet  and  a  weight  of  40  to  50  pounds.  During 
July  1915  the  product  of  the  fishery  was  about  two  and  a  half  million 
pounds  weight,  valued  at  55,000  dollars,  and  in  the  first  few  months 
of  1917  the  catch  was  four  and  a  half  million  pounds,  for  which  the 
fishermen  received  247,000  dollars. 

We  can  scarcely  hope  in  European  seas  to  add  new  food-fishes  to  our 
markets,  but  much  may  be  done  through  the  (^-operation  of  scientific 
investigators  of  the  ocean  with  the  Administrative  Departments  to  bring- 
about  a  more  rational  conservation  and    exploitation  of  the    national 

Earlier  in  this  address  I  referred  to  the  pioneer  work  of  the  dis- 
tinguished Manx  naturalist.  Professor  Edward  Forbes.  There  are 
many  of  his  writings  and  of  his  lectures  which  I  have  no  space  to 
refer  to  which  have  points  of  oceanographic  interest.  Take  this,  for 
example,  in  reference  to  our  national  sea  fisheries.  We  find  him  in 
1847  writing  to  a  friend :  '  On  Friday  night  I  lectured  at  the  Eoyal 
Institution.  The  subject  was  the  bearing  of  submarine  researches  and 
distribution  matters  on  the  fishery  question.  I  pitched  into  Govern- 
ment mismanagement  pretty  strong,  and  made  a  fair  case  of  it.  It 
seems  to  me  that  at  a  time  when  half  the  country  is  starving  we  are 
utterly  neglecting  or  grossly  mismanaging  great  sources  of  wealth 
and  food.  .  .  .  Were  I  a  rich  man  I  would  make  the  subject  a  hobby, 
for  the  good  of  the  country  and  for  the  better  proving  that  the  tnie 
interests  of  Government  are  those  linked  with  and  inseparable  from 
Science.'  We  must  still  cordially  approve  of  these  last  words,  while 
recognising  that  our  Government  Department  of  Fisheries  is  now  being 
organised  on  better  lines,  is  itself  carrying  on  scientific  work  of  national 
importance,  and  is,  I  am  happy  to  think,  in  complete  sympathy  with 
the  work  of  independent  scientific  investigators  of  the  sea  and  desirous 
of  closer  co-operation  with  University  laboratoiies  and  biological 

During  recent  years  one  of  the  most  important  and  most  frequently 
discussed  of  applications  of  fisheries  investigation  has  been  the  pro- 
ductivity of  the  trawling  grounds,  and  especially  those  of  the  North 
Sea.  It  has  been  generally  agreed  that  the  enormous  increase  of  fishing 
power  during  the  last  forty  years  or  so  has  reduced  the  number  of 
large  plaice,  so  that  the  average  size  of  that  fish  caught  in  our  home 

president's  address.  29 

waters  has  become  smaller,  although  the  total  number  of  plaice  landed 
had  continued  to  increase  up  to  the  year  of  the  outbreak  of  war.  Since 
then,  from  1914  to  1919,  there  has  of  necessity  been  what  may  be 
described  as  the  most  gigantic  experiment  ever  seen  in  the  closing  of 
extensive  fishing  grounds.  It  is  still  too  early  to  say  with  any  certainty 
exactly  what  the  results  of  that  experiment  have  been,  although  some 
indications  of  an  increase  of  the  fish  population  in  certain  areas  have 
been  recorded.  For  example,  the  Danes,  A.  C.  Johansen  and  Kirstine 
Smith,  find  that  large  plaice  landed  in  Denmark  are  now  more  abun- 
dant, and  they  attribute  this  to  a  reversal  of  the  pre-war  tendency, 
due  to  less  intensive  fishing.  But  Dr.  James  Johnstone  has  pointed  out 
that  there  is  some  evidence  of  a  natural  periodicity  in  abundance  of  such 
fish  and  that  the  results  noticed  may  represent  phases  in  a  cyclic  change. 
If  the  periodicity  noted  in  Liverpool  Bay='  holds  good  for  other 
grounds  it  will  be  necessary  in  any  comparison  of  pre-war  and  post- 
war statistics  to  take  this  natural  variation  in  abundance  into  very 
careful  consideration. 

In  the  application  of  oceanographic  investigations  to  sea-fisheries 
problems,  one  ultimate  aim,  whether  frankly  admitted  or  not,  must 
be  to  obtain  some  kind  of  a  rough  approximation  to  a  census  or  valua- 
tion of  the  sea — of  the  fishes  that  form  the  food  of  man,  of  the  lower 
animals  of  the  sea-bottom  on  which  many  of  the  fishes  feed,  and  of 
the  planktonic  contents  of  the  upper  waters  which  form  the  ultimate 
organised  food  of  the  sea — and  many  attempts  have  been  made  in 
different  ways  to  attain  the  desired  end. 

Our  knowledge  of  the  number  of  animals  living  in  different  regions 
of  the  sea  is  for  the  most  part  relative  only.  "We  know  that  one  haul 
of  the  dredge  is  larger  than  another,  or  that  one  locality  seems  richer 
than  another,  but  we  have  very  little  information  as  to  the  actual 
numbers  of  any  kind  of  animal  per  square  foot  or  per  acre  in  the  sea. 
Hensen,  as  we  have  seen,  attempted  to  estimate  the  number  of  food- 
fishes  in  the  North  Sea  from  the  number  of  their  eggs  caught  in  a 
comparatively  small  series  of  hauls  of  the  tow-net,  but  the  data  were 
probably  quite  insufficient  and  the  conclusions  may  be  erroneous.  It 
is  an  interesting  speculation  to  which  we  cannot  attach  any  economic 
importance.  Heincke  says  of  it :  '  This  method  appears  theoretically 
feasible,  but  presents  in  practice  so  many  serious  difficulties  that  no 
positive  results  of  real  value  have  as  yet  been  obtained.' 

All  biologists  must  agree  that  to  determine  even  approximately  the 
number  of  individuals  of  any  particular  species  living  in  a  known  area 
is  a  contribution  to  knowledge  which  may  be  of  great  economic  value 

"  See  Johnstone,  Rfport  Lanes.  Sea-Fish  Lub.  for  1917,  p.  60;  and  Daniel, 
Report  for  1919,  p.  51. 

30  president's  address. 

in  tHe  case  of  the  edible  fisHes,  but  it  may  be  doubted  whether  Hensen's 
methods,  even  with  greatly  increased  data,  will  ever  give  us  the 
required  information.  Petersen's  method,  of  setting  free  marked  plaice 
and  then  assuming  that  the  proportion  of  these  recaught  is  to  the  total 
number  marked  as  the  fishermen's  catch  in  the  same  district  is  to  the 
total  population,  will  only  hold  good  in  circumscribed  areas  where  there 
is  practically  no  migration  and  where  the  fish  are  fairly  evenly  dis- 
tributed. This  method  gives  us  what  has  been  called  '  the  fishing 
coefficient,'  and  this  has  been  estimated  for  the  North  Sea  to  have  a 
probable  value  of  about  0'33  for  those  sizes  of  fish  which  are  caught  by 
the  trawl.  Heincke,"  from  an  actual  examination  of  samples  of  the 
stock  on  the  ground  obtained  by  experimental  trawling  ('  the  catch 
coefficient  '),  supplemented  by  the  market  returns  of  the  various 
countries,  estimates  the  adult  plaice  at  about  1,500  millions,  of  which 
about  500  millions  are  caught  or  destroyed  by  the  fishermen  annually. 

It  is  difficult  to  imagine  any  further  metliod  which  will  enable  us 
to  estimate  any  such  case  as,  say,  the  number  of  plaice  in  the  North 
Sea  where  the  individuals  are  so  far  beyond  our  direct  observation  and 
are  liable  to  change  their  positions  at  any  moment.  But  a  beginning 
can  be  made  on  more  accessible  ground  with  more  sedentary  animals, 
and  Dr.  C.  G.  Job.  Petersen,  of  the  Danish  Biological  Station,  has 
for  some  years  been  pursuing  the  subject  in  a  series  of  interesting 
Reports  on  the  '  Evaluation  of  the  Sea.'^'  He  uses  a  bottom-sampler, 
or  grab,  which  can  be  lowered  down  open  and  then  closed  on  the 
bottom  so  as  to  bring  up  a  sample  square  foot  or  square  metre  (or  in 
deep  water  one-tenth  of  a  square  metre)  of  the  sand  or  mud  and  its 
inhabitants.  With  this  apparatus,  modified  in  size  and  weight  for 
different  depths  and  bottoms,  Petersen  and  his  fellow-workers  have 
made  a  very  thorough  examination  of  the  Danish  waters,  and  especially 
of  the  Kattegat  and  the  Limfjord,  have  described  a  series  of  '  animal 
communities  '  characteristic  of  different  zones  and  regions  of  shallow 
water,  and  have  arrived  at  certain  numerical  results  as  to  the  quantity 
of  animals  in  the  Kattegat  expressed  in  tons — such  as  5,000  tons  of 
plaice  requiring  as  food  50,000  tons  of  '  useful  animals  '  (mollusca  and 
polychaet  worms),  and  25,000  tons  of  starfish  using  up  200,000  tons 
of  useful  animals  which  might  otherwise  serve  as  food  for  fishes,  and 
the  dependence  of  all  these  animals  directly  or  indirectly  upon  the 
great  beds  of  Zostera,  which  make  up  24,000,000  tons  in  the  Kattegat. 
Such  estima;tes  are  obviously  of  great  biological  interest,  and  even  if 
only  rough  approximations  are  a  valuable  contribution  to  our  under- 

"  F.  Heincke,  Cons.  Per.  Internat.  Explor.  de  la  Mer,  '  Investigations  on 
the  Plaice,'  Copenhagen,  1913. 

="  See  Reports  of  the  Danish  Biological  Station,  and  especially  the  Report 
for  1918  '  The  Sea  Bottom  and  its  Production  of  Fish  Food.' 

president's  address.  31 

standing  of  the  metabolism  of  the  sea  and  of  the  possibility  of  increasing 
the  yield  of  local  fisheries. 

But  on  studying  these  Danish  results  in  the  light  of  what  we  know 
of  our  own  marine  fauna,  although  none  of  our  seas  have  been  examined 
in  the  same  detail  by  the  bottom-sampler  method,  it  seems  probable  that 
the  animal  communities  as  defined  by  Petersen  are  not  exactly  applicable 
on  our  coasts  and  that  the  estimates  of  relative  and  absolute  abundance 
may  be  very  different  in  different  seas  under  different  conditions.  The 
work  will  have  to  be  done  in  each  great  area,  such  as  the  North  Sea,  the 
English  Channel,  and  the  Irish  Sea,  independently.  This  is  a  necessary 
investigation,  both  biological  and  physical,  which  Hes  before  the  oceano- 
graphers  of  the  future,  upon  the  results  of  which  the  future  preservation 
and  further  cultivation  of  our  national  sea-fisheries  may  depend. 

It  has  been  shown  by  Johnstone  and  others  that  the  common  edible 
animals  of  the  shore  may  exist  in  such  abundance  that  an  area  of  the 
sea  may  be  more  productive  of  food  for  man  than  a  similar  area  of 
pasture  or  crops  on  land.  A  Lancashire  mussel  bed  has  been  shown 
to  have  as  many  as  16,000  young  mussels  per  square  foot,  and  it  is 
estimated  that  in  the  shallow  waters  of  Liverpool  Bay  there  are  from 
twenty  to  200  animals  of  sizes  varying  from  an  amphipod  to  a  plaice 
on  each  square  metre  of  the  bottom.^' 

From  these  and  similar  data  which  can  be  readily  obtained,  it  is 
not  difficult  to  calculate  totals  by  estimating  the  number  of  square 
yards  in  areas  of  similar  character  between  tide-marks  or  in  shallow 
water.  And  from  weighings  of  samples  some  approximation  to  the 
number  of  tons  of  available  food  may  be  computed.  But  one  must 
not  go  too  far.  Let  all  the  figures  be  based  upon  actual  observation. 
Imagination  is  necessary  in  science,  but  in  calculating  a  population 
of  even  a  very  limited  area  it  is  best  to  believe  only  what  one  can 
see  and  measure. 

Countings  and  weighings,  however,  do  not  give  us  all  the  informa- 
tion we  need.  It  is  something  to  know  even  approximately  the  number 
of  millions  of  animals  on  a  mile  of  shore  and  the  number  of  milHons 
of  tons  of  possible  food  in  a  sea-area,  but  that  is  not  sufficient.  All 
food-fishes  are  not  equally  nourishing  to  man,  and  all  plankton  and 
bottom  invertebrata  are  not  equally  nourishing  to  a  fish.  At  this 
point  the  biologist  requires  the  assistance  of  the  physiologist  and  the 
bio-chemist.  We  want  to  know  next  the  value  of  our  food  matters 
in  proteids,  carbohydrates,  and  fats,  and  the  resulting  calories.  Dr. 
Johnstone,  of  the  Oceanography  Department  of  the  University  of 
Liverpool,  has  already  shown  us  how  markedly  a  fat  summer  herring 

-"  Conditions  of  Life,  in  the  Sea,  Cambridge  Univ.  Press.  1908 

32  president's  address. 

differs  in  essential  constitution  from  the  ordinary  white  fish,  such  as 
the  cod,  which  is  almost  destitute  of  fat. 

Professor  Brandt,  at  Kiel,  Professor  Benjamin  Moore,  at  Port 
Erin,  and  others  have  similarly  shown  that  plankton  gatherings  may 
vary  greatly  in  their  nutrient  value  according  as  they  are  composed 
mainly  of  Diatoms,  of  Dinoflagellates,  or  of  Copepoda.  And,  no  doubt, 
the  animals  of  the  '  benthos,'  the  common  invertebrates  of  our  shores, 
will  show  similar  differences  in  analysis.^"  It  is  obvious  that  some 
contain  more  solid  flesh,  others  more  water  in  their  tissues,  others 
more  calcareous  matter  in  the  exoskeleton,  and  that  therefore  weight 
for  v/eight  we  may  be  sure  that  some  are  more  nutritious  than  the  others  ; 
and  this  is  pi'obably  at  least  one  cause  of  that  preference  we  see  in 
some  of  our  bottom-feeding  fish  for  certain  kinds  of  food,  such  as 
polychaet  worms,  in  which  there  is  relatively  little  waste,  and  thin- 
shelled  lamellibranch  molluscs,  such  as  young  mussels,  which  have  a 
highly  nutrient  body  in  a  comparatively  thin  and  brittle  shell. 

My  object  in  referring  to  these  still  incomplete  investigations  is  to 
direct  attention  to  what  seems  a  natural  and  useful  extension  of  faunistic 
work,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  some  approximation  to  a  quantitative 
estimate  of  the  more  important  animals  of  our  shores  and  shallow 
water  and  their  relative  values  as  either  the  immediate  or  the  ultimate 
food  of  marketable  fishes. 

Each  such  fish  has  its  '  food-chain  '  or  series  of  alternative  chains, 
leading  back  from  the  food  of  man  to  the  invertebrates  upon  which  it 
preys  and  then  to  the  food  of  these,  and  so  down  to  the  smallest  and 
simplest  organisms  in  the  sea,  and  each  such  chain  must  have  all 
its  links  fully  worked  out  as  to  seasonal  and  quantitative  occurrence 
back  to  the  Diatoms  and  Flagellates  which  depend  upon  physical  con- 
ditions and  take  us  beyond  the  range  of  biology — but  not  beyond  that 
of  oceanography.  The  Diatoms  and  the  Flagellates  are  probably  more 
important  than  the  more  obvious  sea- weeds  not  only  as  food,  but  also 
in  supplying  to  the  water  the  oxygen  necessary  for  the  respiration 
of  living  protoplasm.  Our  object  must  be  to  estimate  the  rate  of  pro- 
duction and  rate  of  destruction  of  all  organic  substances  in  the  sea. 

To  attain  to  an  approximate  census  and  valuation  of  the  sea — 
remote  though  it  may  seem — is  a  great  aim,  but  it  is  not  sufficient. 
We  want  not  only  to  observe  and  to  count  natural  objects,  but  also 
to  understand  them.  We  require  to  know  not  merely  what  an  organism 
is — in  the  fullest  detail  of  structm''e  and  development  and  affinities — 

'"'  Moore  and  others  have  made  analyses  of  the  protein,  fat,  etc.,  in  the  soft 
parts  of  Sponge,  Ascidian,  Aplysia,  Fusus,  Echinus  and  Cancer  at  Port  Erin, 
and  find  considerable  differences^the  protein  ranging,  for  example,  from  8  to 
51  per  cent.,  and  the  fat  from  2  to  14  per  cent,  (see  Bio-Chemical  Jown.  vi. 
p.  291). 

president's  address.  33 

and  also  where  it  occurs — again  in  full  detail — and  in  what  abundance 
under  different  circumstances,  but  also  how  it  lives  and  what  all  its 
relations  are  to  both  its  physical  and  its  biological  environment,  and  that 
is  where  the  physiologist,  and  especially  the  bio-chemist,  can  help  us. 
In  the  best  interests  of  biological  progress  the  day  of  the  naturahst 
who  merely  collects,  tlie  day  of  the  anatomist  and  histologist  who 
merely  describe,  is  over,  and  the  future  is  with  the  obsei'ver  and  the 
experimenter  animated  by  a  divine  curiosity  to  enter  into  the  life 
of  the  organism  and  understand  how  it  lives  and  moves  and  has  its 
being.  '  Happy  indeed  is  he  who  has  been  able  to  discover  the  causes 
of  things. ' 

Cardiff  is  a  sea-port,  and  a  great  sea-port,  and  the  Bristol  Channel 
is  a  notable  sea-fisheries  centre  of  growing  importance.  The  explorers 
and  merchant  venturers  of  the  South- West  of  England  are  celebrated  in 
history.  What  are  you  doing  now  in  Cai'diff  to  advance  our  knowledge 
of  the  ocean?  You  have  here  an  important  university  centre  and  a 
great  modern  national  museum,  and  either  or  both  of  these  homes  of 
research  might  do  well  to  establish  an  oceanographical  department, 
which  would  be  an  added  glory  to  your  city  and  of  practical  utility  to 
the  country.  This  is  the  obvious  centre  in  Wales  for  a  sea-fisheries 
institute  for  both  research  and  education.  Many  important  local  move- 
ments have  arisen  from  Bi-itish  Association  meetings,  and  if  such  a 
notable  scientific  development  were  to  result  from  the  Cardiff  meeting 
of  1920,  all  who  value  the  advance  of  knowledge  and  the  application  of 
science  to  industry  would  applaud  your  enlightened  action. 

But  in  a  wider  sense,  it  is  not  to  the  people  of  Cardiff  alone  that  1 
appeal,  but  to  the  whole  population  of  these  Islands,  a  maritime  people 
who  owe  everything  to  the  sea.  I  urge  them  to  become  better  informed 
in  regard  to  our  national  sea-fisheries  and  take  a  more  enlightened 
interest  in  the  basal  principles  that  underlie  a  rational  regulation  and 
exploitation  of  these  important  industries.  National  efficiency  depends 
to  a  very  great  extent  upon  the  degree  in  which  scientific  results  and 
methods  are  appreciated  by  the  people  and  scientific  investigation  is 
promoted  by  the  Government  and  other  administrative  authorities. 
The  principles  and  discoveries  of  science  apply  to  aquiculture  no  less 
than  to  agriculture.  To  increase  the  hai-vest  of  the  sea  the  fisheries 
must  be  continuously  investigated,  and  such  cultivation  as  is  possible 
must  be  applied,  and  all  this  is  clearly  a  natural  application  of  tlie 
biological  and  hydrogi'aphical  work  now  united  under  the  science  of 


SECTION  A  :   CAEDIFF,   1920. 


TO    THE 



Peofessor  a.  S.  EDDINGTON,  M.A.,   M.Sc,  F.K.S., 


The  Internal  Constitution  of  the  Stars. 

Last  year  at  Bournemouth  we  listened  to  a  proposal  from  the  President 
of  the  Association  to  bore  a  hole  in  the  crust  of  the  earth  and  discover 
the  conditions  deep  down  below  the  surface.  This  proposal  may 
remind  us  that  the  most  secret  places  of  Natm'e  are,  perhaps,  not 
10  to  the  n-th  miles  above  our  heads,  but  10  miles  below  our  feet. 
In  the  last  five  years  the  outward  march  of  astronomical  discovery  has 
been  rapid,  and  the  most  remote  worlds  are  now  scarcely  safe  from 
its  inquisition.  By  the  work  of  H.  Shapley  the  globular  clustei-s,  which 
are  found  to  be  at  distances  scarcely  dreamt  of  hitherto,  have  been 
explored,  and  our  knowledge  of  them  is  in  some  respects  more  com- 
plete than  that  of  the  local  aggregation  of  stars  which  includes  the  Sun. 
Distance  lends  not  enchantment  but  precision  to  the  view.  Moreover, 
theoretical  researches  of  Einstein  and  Weyl  make  it  probable  that  the 
space  which  remains  beyond  is  not  illimitable;  not  merely  the 
material  universe,  but  space  itself,  is  perhaps  finite;  and  the  explorer 
must  one  day  stay  his  conquering  march  for  lack  of  fresh  realms  to 
invade.  But  to-day  let  us  turn  our  thoughts  inwards  to  that  other 
region  of  mystery — a  region  cut  off  by  more  substantial  barriers,  for, 
contrary  to  many  anticipations,  even  the  discovery  of  the  fourth 
dimension  has  not  enabled  us  to  get  at  the  inside  of  a  body.  Science 
Eas  material  and  non-material  appliances  to  bore  into  the  interior,  and 
I  have  chosen  to  devote  this  address  to  what  may  be  described  as 
analytical  boring  devices — absit  omenl 

The  analytical  appHance  is  delicate  at  present,  and,  I  fear,  would 
make  little  headway  against  the  solid  crust  of  the  earth.  Instead  of 
letting  it  blunt  itself  against  the  rocks,  let  us  look  round  for  something 
easier  to  penetrate.  The  Sun?  Well,  perhaps.  Many  have  struggled 
to  penetrate  the  mystery  of  the  interior  of  the  Sun ;  but  the  difficulties 
are  great,  for  its  substance  is  denser  than  water.  It  may  not  be  quite 
6o  bad  as  Biron  makes  out  in  Love's  Labour's  Lost:  — 

The  heaven's    glorious   sun, 

That  will  not  be  deep-searched  with  saucy  looks; 

Small  have  continual  plodders  ever  won 

Save  base  authority  from  others'  books. 


But  it  is  far  better  if  we  can  deal  with  matter  in  that  state  known 
as  a  perfect  gas,  which  charms  away  difficuhies  as  by  magic.  Where 
shall  it  be  found? 

A  few  years  ago  we  should  have  been  puzzled  to  say  where,  except 
perhaps  in  certain  nebulae ;  but  now  it  is  known  that  abundant  material 
of  this  kind  awaits  investigation.  Stars  in  a  truly  gaseous  state  exist 
in  great  numbers,  although  at  first  sight  they  are  scarcely  to  be  dis- 
criminated fi-om  dense  stars  like  our  Sun.  Not  only  so,  but  the 
gaseous  stars  are  the  most  powerful  light-givers,  so  that  they  force 
themselves  on  our  attention.  Many  of  the  familiar  stars  are  of  this 
kind — Aldebaran,  Canopus,  Arcturus,  Antares;  and  it  would  be  safe 
to  say  that  three-quarters  of  the  naked-eye  stars  are  in  this  diffuse 
state.  This  remarkable  condition  has  been  made  known  through  the 
researches  of  H.  N.  RusselP  and  E.  Hertzsprung;  the  way  in  which 
their  conclusions,  which  ran  counter  to  the  prevailing  thought  of  the 
time,  have  been  substantiated  on  all  sitles  by  overwhelming  evidence », 
is  the  outstanding  feature  of  recent  progress  in  stellar  astronomy. 

The  diffuse  gaseous  stars  are  called  giants,  and  the  dense  stars  are 
called  dwarfs.  During  the  life  of  a  star  there  is  presumably  a  gradual 
-ncrease  of  density  through  contraction,  so  that  these  terms  distinguish 
the  earlier  and  later  stages  of  stellar  histoiy.  It  appeal's  that  a  star 
begins  its  effective  life  as  a  giant  of  comparatively  low  temperature — 
a  red  or  M-type  star.  As  this  diffuse  mass  of  gas  contracts  its  tem- 
perature must  rise,  a  conclusion  long  ago  pointed  out  by  Homer  Lane. 
The  rise  continues  until  the  star  becomes  toO'  dense,  and  ceases  to 
behave  as  a  perfect  gas.  A  maximum  temperature  is  attained,  depend- 
ing on  the  mass,  after  which  the  star,  which  has  now  become  a  dwai'f, 
cools  and  further  contracts.  Thus  each  temperatui'e-level  is  passed 
through  twice,  once  in  an  ascending  and  once  in  a  descending  stage — 
once  as  a  giant,  once  as  a  dwarf.  Temperature  plays  so  predominant 
a  part  in  the  usual  spectral  classification  that  tlie  ascending  and 
descending  stars  were  not  originally  discriminated,  and  the  customary 
classification  led  to  some  perplexities.  The  separation  of  the  two  series 
was  discovered  through  their  great  difference  in  luminosity,  particularly 
striking  in  the  case  of  the  red  and  yellow  stars,  where  the  two  stages 
fall  widely  apart  in  the  star's  history.  The  bloated  giant  has  a  far 
larger  surface  than  the  compact  dwarf,  and  gives  correspondingly 
greater  light.  The  distinction  was  also  revealed  by  direct  determina- 
tions of  stellar  densities,  which  are  possible  in  the  case  of  eclipsing 
variables  like  Algol.  Finally,  Adams  and  Kohlschiitter  have  set  the 
seal  on  this  discussion  by  showing  that  there  are  actual  spectral  differ- 
ences between  the  ascending  and  descending  stars  at  the  same  tem- 
perature-level, which  are  conspicuous  enough — when  they  are  looked 

Perhaps  we  should  not  too  hastily  assume  that  the  direction  of 
evolution  is  necessarily  in  the  order  of  increasing  density,  in  view  of 
our  ignorance  of  the  origin  of  a  star's  heat,  to  which  I  must  allude 
later.     But,  at  any  rate,  it  is  a  great  advance  to  have  disentangled  what 

'  Nature,  vol.  93,  pp.   227,  252,  281. 


is  the  true  order  of  continuous  increase  of  density,  which  was  hidden 
by  superficial  resemblances. 

The  giant  stars,  representing  the  first  half  of  a  star's  hfe,  are 
taken  as  material  for  our  first  boring  experiment.  Probably,  measured 
in  time,  this  stage  corresponds  to  much  less  than  half  the  life,  for 
here  it  is  the  ascent  which  is  easy  and  the  way  down  is  long  and  slow, 
Let  us  try  to  picture  the  conditions  inside  a  giant  star.  We  need  not 
dwell  on  the  vast  dimensions — a  mass  hke  that  of  the  Sun,  but  swollen 
to  much  greater  volume  on  account  of  the  low  density,  often  below 
that  of  our  own  atmosphere.  It  is  the  star  as  a  storehouse  of  heat 
which  especially  engages  our  attention.  In  the  hot  bodies  famihar  to 
us  the  heat  consists  in  the  energy  of  motion  of  the  ultimate  particles, 
flying  at  great  speeds  hither  and  thither.  So  too  in  the  stars  a  great 
store  of  heat  exists  in  this  form;  but  a  new  feature  arises.  A  large 
proportion,  sometimes  more  than  half  the  total  heat,  consists  of 
imprisoned  radiant  energy — ether-waves  travelling  in  all  directions 
trying  to  break  through  the  material  which  encages  them.  The  star 
is  like  a  sieve,  which  can  only  retain  them  temporarily ;  they  are  turned 
aside,  scattered,  absorbed  for  a  moment,  and  flung  out  again  in  a  new 
direction.  An  element  of  energy  may  thread  the  maze  for  hundreds 
of  years  before  it  attains  the  freedom  of  outer  space.  Nevertheless  the 
sieve  leaks,  and  a  steady  stream  permeates  outwards,  supplying  the 
light  and  heat  which  the  star  radiates  all  round. 

That  some  ethereal  heat  as  well  as  material  heat  exists  in  any  hot 
body  would  naturally  be  admitted;  but  the  point  on  which  we  have 
here  to  lay  stress  is  that  in  the  stars,  particularly  in  the  giant  stars, 
the  ethereal  portion  rises  to  an  importance  which  quite  transcends  our 
ordinary  experience,  so  that  we  are  confronted  with  a  new  type  of 
jjroblem.  In  a  red-hot  mass  of  iron  the  ethereal  energy  constitutes 
less  than  a  billionth  part  of  the  whole ;  but  in  the  tussle  between  matter 
and  ether  the  ether  gains  a  larger  and  larger  proportion  of  the  energy 
as  the  temperature  rises.  This  change  in  proportion  is  rapid,  the 
ethereal  energy  increasing  rigorously  as  the  fomih  power  of  the  tem- 
perature, and  the  material  energy  roughly  as  the  first  power.  But  even 
at  the  temperature  of  some  millions  of  degrees  attained  inside  the  stars 
there  would  still  remain  a  great  disproportion ;  and  it  is  the  low  density 
of  material,  and  accordingly  reduced  material  energy  per  unit  volume 
in  the  giant  stars,  which  wipes  out  the  last  few  powers  of  10.  In  all 
the  giant  stars  known  to  us,  widely  as  they  differ  from  one  another,  the 
conditdons  are  just  reached  at  which  these  two  varieties  of  heat-energy 
have  attained  a  rough  equality;  at  any  rate  one  cannot  be  neglected 
compared  with  the  other.  Theoretically  there  could  be  conditions  in 
which  the  disproportion  was  reversed  and  the  ethereal  far  out-weighed 
the  material  energy;  but  we  do  not  find  them  in  the  stars.  It  is  as 
though  the  stars  had  been  measured  out — that  their  sizes  had  been 
determined — with  a  view  to  this  balance  of  power;  and  one  cannot 
refrain  from  attributing  to  this  condition  a  deep  significance  in  the 
evolution  of  the  cosmos  into  separate  stars. 

To  recapitulate.     We  are  acquainted  with  heat  in  two  foi-ms — the 
energy  of  motion  of  material  atoms  and  the  energy  of  ether  waves.     In 


familiar  hot  bodies  the  second  form  exists  only  in  insignificant  quanti- 
ties. In  the  giant  stars  the  two  forms  are  present  in  more  or  less  equal 
proportions.     That  is  the  new  feature  of  the  problem. 

On  account  of  this  new  aspect  of  the  problem  the  first  attempts  to 
penetrate  the  interior  of  a  star  are  now  seen  to  need  correction.  In 
saying  this  we  do  not  depreciate  the  great  importance  of  the  early 
researches  of  Lane,  Eitter,  Emden,  and  others,  which  not  only  pointed 
the  way  for  us  to  follow,  but  achieved  conclusions  of  permanent  value. 
One  of  the  first  questions  they  had  to  consider  was  by  what  means  the 
heat  radiated  into  space  was  brought  up  to  the  surface  from  the  low 
level  where  it  was  stored.  They  imagined  a  bodily  transfer  of  the  hot 
material  to  the  isurface  by  currents  of  convection,  as  in  our  own 
atmosphere.  But  actually  the  problem  is,  not  how  the  heat  can  be 
brought  to  the  surface,  but  how  the  heat  in  the  interior  can  be  held 
back  sufficiently — how  it  can  be  ban'ed  in  and  the  leakage  reduced  to  the 
comparatively  small  radiation  emitted  by  the  stars.  Smaller  bodies 
have  to  manufacture  the  radiant  heat  which  they  emit,  living  from 
hand  to  mouth;  the  giant  stars  merely  leak  radiant  heat  from  their 
store.  I  have  put  that  much  too  crudely ;  but  perhaps  it  suggests  the 
general  idea. 

The  recognition  of  ethereal  energy  necessitates  a  twofold  modifi- 
cation in  the  calculations.  In  the  first  place,  it  abolishes  the  supposed 
convection  currents;  and  the  type  of  equilibrium  is  that  known  as 
radiative  instead  of  convective.  This  change  was  first  suggested  by 
R.  A.  Sampson  so  long  ago  as  1894.  The  detailed  theory  of  radiative 
equilibrium  is  particularly  associated  with  K.  Schwarzschild,  who 
applied  it  to  the  Sun's  atmosphere.  It  is  perhaps  still  uncertain  whether 
it  holds  strictly  for  the  atmospheric  layers,  but  the  arguments  for  its 
validity  in  the  interior  of  a  star  are  far  more  cogent.  Secondly,  the 
outflowing  stream  of  ethereal  energy  is  powerful  enough  to  exert  a 
direct  mechanical  effect  on  the  equilibrium  of  a  star.  It  is  as  though 
a  strong  wind  were  rushing  outwards.  In  fact  we  may  fairly  say  that 
the  stream  of  radiant  energy  is  a.  wind ;  for  though  ether  waves  are  not 
usually  classed  as  material,  tHey  have  the  chief  mechanical  properties 
of  matter,  viz.  mass  and  momentum.  This  wind  distends  the  star 
and  relieves  the  pressure  on  the  inner  parts.  The  pressure  on  the  gas 
in  the  interior  is  not  the  full  weight  of  the  superincumbent  columns, 
because  that  weight  is  partially  borne  by  the  force  of  the  escaping 
ether  waves  beating  their  way  out.  This  force  of  radiation-pressure, 
as  it  is  called,  makes  an  important  difference  in  the  formulation  of  the 
conditions  for  equilibrium  of  a  star. 

Having  revised  the  theoretical  investigations  in  accordance  with 
these  considerations,^  we  are  in  a  position  to  deduce  some  definite 
numerical  results.  On  the  observational  side  we  have  fairly  satis- 
factory knowledge  of  the  masses  and  densities  of  the  stai*s  and  of  the 
total  radiation  emitted  by  them  ;  this  knowledge  is  partly  individiaal  and 
partly  statistical.  The  theoretical  analysis  connects  these  observational 
data  on  the  one  hand  with  the  physical  properties  of  the  material  inside 

-  Astrophysical  Journal,  vol.   48,  p.  205. 


the  star  on  the  other  hand.  \Ye  can  thus  find  certain  information  as  to 
the  inner  material,  as  though  we  had  actually  bored  a  hole.  So  far  as 
can  be  judged  there  are  only  two  physical  properties  of  the  material 
which  can  concern  us — always  provided  that  it  is  sufficiently  rarefied 
to  behave  as  a  perfect  gas — ^viz.  the  average  molecular  weight  and 
the  transparency  or  permeability  to  radiant  energy.  In  connecting 
these  two  unknowns  with  the  quantities  given  directly  by  astronomical 
observation  we  depend  entirely  on  the  well-tried  principles  of  conserva- 
tion of  momentum  and  the  second  law  of  thermodynamics.  If  any 
element  of  speculation  remains  in  this  method  of  investigation,  I  think 
it  is  no  more  than  is  inseparable  from  every  kind  of  theoretical  advance. 

We  have,  then,  on  the  one  side  the  mass,  density  and  output  of 
heat,  quantities  as  to  which  we  have  obserA'^ational  knowledge;  on  the 
other  side,  molecular  weight  and  transparency,  quantities  which  we 
want  to  discover. 

To  find  the  transparency  of  stellar  material  to  the  radiation 
traversing  it  is  of  particular  interest  because  it  links  on  this 
astronomical  inquiry  to  physical  investigations  now  being  carried  on  in 
the  laboratory,  and  to  some  extent  it  extends  those  investigations  to 
conditions  unattainable  on  the  earth.  At  high  tempei'atures  the 
ether  waves  are  mainly  of  very  short  wave-length,  and  in  the  stars  we 
are  dealing  mainly  with  radiation  of  wave-length  3  to  30  Angstrom 
units,  which  might  be  described  as  very  soft  3"-rays.  It  is  interesting, 
therefore,  to  compare  the  results  with  the  absorption  of  the  harder 
x-rajs  dealt  with  by  physicists.  To  obtain  an  exact  measure  of  this 
absorption  in  the  stars  we  have  to  assume  a  value  of  the  molecular 
weight;  but  fortunately  the  extreme  range  possible  for  the  molecular 
weight  gives  fairly  narrow  limits  for  the  absorption.  The  average 
weight  of  the  ultimate  independent  particles  in  a  star  is  probably 
rather  low,  because  in  the  conditions  prevailing  there  the  atoms  would 
be  strongly  ionised ;  that  is  to  say,  many  of  tlie  outer  electrons  of  the 
system  of  the  atom  would  be  broken  off;  and  as  each  of  these  free 
electrons  counts  as  an  indejjendent  molecule  for  the  present  purposes, 
this  brings  down  the  average  weight.  In  the  extreme  case  (probably 
not  reached  in  a  star)  when  the  whole  of  the  electrons  outside  the 
nucleus  are  detached  the  averagte  weight  comes  down  to  about  2, 
whatever  the  material,  because  the  number  of  electrons  is  about  half 
the  atomic  weight  for  all  the  elements  (except  hydrogen).  We  may, 
then,  safely  take  2  as  the  extreme  lower  limit.  For  an  upper  limit  we 
might  perhaps  take  200 ;  but  to  avoid  controversy  we  shall  be  generous 
and  merely  assume  that  the  molecular  weight  is  not  greater  than — 
infinity.     Here  is  the  result:  — 

For    molecular    weight   2,    mass-coafficient   of     absorption  =  10 

C.G.S.  units. 
For  molecular  weight  oo  ,  mass-coefficient  of  absorption  =  130 
C.G.S.  units. 
The  true  value,  then,  must  be  between  10  and  130.  Partly  from 
thermodynamical  considerations,  and  partly  from  further  comparisons 
of  astronomical  observation  with  theory,  the  most  likely  value  seems 
to  be  about  35  C.G.S.  units,  corresponding  to  molecular  weight  3*5. 


Now  this  is  of  the  same  order  of  magnitude  as  the  absorjjtiou  of 
,T-rays  measured  in  the  lalwratory.  I  think  the  result  is  in  itself  of 
some  interest,  that  in  such  widely  different  investigations  we  should 
approach  the  same  kind  of  value  of  the  opacity  of  matter  to  radiation. 
The  penetrating  power  of  the  radiation  in  the  star  is  much  hke  that  of 
a;-rays;  more  than  half  is  absorbed  in  a  path  of  20  cms.  at  atmospheric 
density.  Incidentally,  this  very  high  opacity  explains  why  a  star  is  so 
nearly  heat  tight,  and  can  store  vast  supplies  of  heat  with  comparatively 
little  leakage. 

So  far  this  agrees  with  what  might  have  been  anticipated ;  but  there 
is  another  conclusion  which  physicists  would  probably  not  have  foreseen. 
The  giant  series  comprises  stars  differing  widely  in  their  densities  and 
temperatures,  those  at  one  end  of  the  series  being  on  the  average 
about  ten  times  hotter  throughout  than  those  at  the  other  end.  By 
the  present  investigation  we  can  compare  directly  the  opacity  of  the 
hottest  stars  with  that  of  the  coolest  stars.  The  rather  surprising 
result  emerges  that  the  opacity  is  the  same  for  all;  at  any  rate  there 
is  no  difference  large  enough  for  us  to  detect.  There  seems  no  room 
for  doubt  that  at  these  high  temperatures  the  absorption-coefficient  is 
approaching  a  limiting  value,  so  that  over  a  wide  range  it  remains 
practically  constant.  With  regard  to  this  constancy,  it  is  to  be  noted 
that  the  temperature  is  concerned  twice  over :  it  determines  the  character 
and  wave-length  of  the  radiation  to  be  absorbed,  as  well  as  the  physical 
condition  of  the  material  which  is  absorbing.  From  the  experimental 
knowledge  of  a;-rays  we  should  have  expected  the  absorption  to  vary 
very  rapidly  with  the  wave  length,  and  therefore  with  the  temperature. 
It  is  surprising,  therefore,  to  find  a  nearly  constant  value. 

The  result  becomes  a  little  less  mysterious  when  we  consider  more 
closely  the  nature  of  absorption.  Absorption  is  not  a  continuous 
pixxiess,  and  after  an  atom  has  absorbed  its  quantum  it  is  put  out  of 
action  for  a  time  until  it  can  recover  its  original  state.  We  know 
very  little  of  what  determines  the  rate  of  recovery  of  the  atom,  but  it 
seems  clear  that  there  is  a  limit  to  the  amount  of  absorption  that  can 
be  performed  by  an  atom  in  a  given  time.  When  that  limit  is  reached 
no  increase  in  the  intensity  of  the  incident  radiation  will  lead  to  any 
more  absorption.  There  is  in  fact  a  saturation  effect.  In  the 
laboratory  experiments  the  radiation  used  is  extremely  weak ;  the  atom 
is  practically  never  caught  unprepared,  and  the  absorption  is  propor- 
tional to  the  incident  radiation.  But  in  the  stars  the  radiation  is  very 
intense  and  the  saturation  effect  comes  in. 

Even,  granting  that  the  problem  of  absorption  in  the  stars  involves 
this  saturation  effect,  which  does  not  affect  laboratory  experiments,  it 
is  not  very  easy  to  understand  theoretically  how  the  various  conditions 
combine  to  give  a  constant  absorption-coefficient  independent  of  tem- 
perature and  wave-length.  But  the  astronomical  results  seem  con- 
clusive. Perhaps  the  most  hopeful  suggestion  is  one  made  to  me  a 
few  years  ago  by  C.  G.  Barkla.  He  suggested  that  the  opacity  of 
the  stars  may  depend  mainly  on  scattering  ratlier  than  on  true  atomic 
absorption.  In  that  case  the  constancy  has  a  simple  explanation,  for 
it  is  known  that  the  coefficient  of  scattering  (unlike  true  absorption) 


approaches  a  definite  constant  value  for  radiation  of  short  wave-length. 
The  value,  moreover,  is  independent  of  the  material.  Further,  scat- 
tering is  a  continuous  process,  and  there  is  no  likelihood  of  any 
saturation  effect;  thus  for  very  intense  streams  of  radiation  its  value  is 
maintained,  whilst  the  true  absorption  may  sink  to  comparative 
insignificance.  The  difficulty  in  this  suggestion  is  a  numerical  dis- 
crepancy between  the  known  theoretical  scattering  and  the  values 
already  given  as  deduced  from  the  stars.  The  theoretical  coefficient 
is  only  0"2  compared  with  the  observed  value  10  to  130.  Bai'kla  further 
pointed  out  that  the  waves  here  concerned  are  not  short  enough  to  give 
the  ideal  coefficient ;  they  would  be  scattered  more  powerfully,  because 
under  their  influence  the  electrons  in  any  atom  would  all  vibrate  in  the 
same  phase  instead  of  haphazard  phases.  This  might  help  to  bridge 
the  gap,  but  not  sufficiently.  It  must  be  remembered  that  many  of  the 
electrons  have  broken  loose  from  the  atom  and  do  not  contribute  to  the 
increase.-'  Making  all  allowances  for  uncertainties  in  the  data,  it  seems 
clear  that  the  astronomical  opacity  is  definitely  higher  than  the  theoretical 
scattering.  Very  i-ecently,  however,  a  new  possibility  has  opened  up 
which  may  possibly  effect  a  reconciliation.  Later  in  the  address  I  shall 
refer  to  it  again. 

Astronomers  must  watch  with  deep  interest  the  investigations  of 
these  short  waves,  which  are  being  pm'sued  in  the  laboratory,  as  well 
as  the  study  of  the  conditions  of  ionisation  both  by  experimental  and 
theoretical  physics,  and  I  am  glad  of  this  opportunity  of  bringing  before 
those  who  deal  with  these  problems  the  astronomical  bearing  of  their 

I  can  only  allude  very  briefly  to  the  purely  astronomical  results 
which  follow  from  this  investigation;*  it  is  hei'e  that  the  best  oppor- 
tunity occurs  for  checking  the  theory  by  comparison  with  observation, 
and  for  finding  out  in  what  respects  it  may  be  deficient.  Unfortunately, 
the  observational  data  are  generally  not  very  precise,  and  the  test  is  not 
so  stringent  as  we  could  wish.  It  turns  out  that  (the  opacity  being 
constant)  the  total  radiation  of  a  giant  star  should  be  a  function  of  its 
mass  only,  independent  of  its  temperature  or  state  of  diffuseness.  The 
total  radiation  (which  is  measured  roughly  by  the  luminosity)  of  any 
one  star  thus  remains  constant  during  the  whole  giant  stage  of  its 
history.  This  agrees  with  the  fundamental  feature,  pointed  out  by 
Russell  in  introducing  the  giant  and  dwarf  hypothesis,  that  giant  stars 
of  eveiy  spectral  type  have  nearly  the  same  luminosity.  From  the 
range  of  luminosity  of  these  stars  it  is  now  possible  to  find  their  range 
of  mass.  The  masses  are  remarkably  alike — a  fact  already  suggested 
by  work  on  double  stars.  Limits  of  mass  in  the  ratio  3  :  1  would  cover 
the  great  majority  of  the  giant  stars.  Somewhat  tentatively  we  are  able 
to   extend    the    investigation    to    dwarf    stars,  taking  account  of    the 

'  E.g.,  for  iron  non-ionised  the  theoretical  scattering  is  5.2,  against  an 
astronomical  value  120.  If  16  electrons  (2  rings)  are  broken  off  the  theoretical 
coefficient  is  0.9  against  an  astronomical  value  35.  For  different  assumptions 
as  to  ionisation  the  values  chase  one  another^  but  cannot  be  brought  within 
reasonable  range. 

*  Monthly  Notices,  vol.  77,  pp.  16,  596;  vol.  79,  p.  2. 


deviations  of  dense  gas  from  the  ideal  laws  and  using  our  own  Sun  to 
supply  a  determination  of  the  unknown  constant  involved.  We  can 
calculate  the  maximum  temperature  reached  by  different  masses;  for 
example,  a  star  must  have  at  least  \  the  mass  of  the  Sun  in  order  to 
reach  the  lowest  spectral  type,  M;  and  in  order  to  reach  the  hottest 
type,  B,  it  must  be  at  least  2J  times  as  massive  as  the  Sun.  Happily 
for  the  theory  no  star  has  yet  been  found  with  a  mass  less  than 
|-  of  the  Sun's;  and  it  is  a  well-known  fact,  discovered  from  the  study 
of  spectroscopic  binaries,  that  the  masses  of  the  B  stars  are  large  com- 
pared with  those  of  other  types.  Again,  it  is  possible  to  calculate  the 
difference  of  brightness  of  the  giant  and  dwarf  stars  of  type  M,  i.e.  at 
the  beginning  and  end  of  their  career ;  the  result  agrees  closely  with  the 
observed  difference.  In  the  case  of  a  class  of  vai-iable  stars  in  which 
the  light  changes  seem  to  depend  on  a  mechanical  pulsation  of  the 
star,  the  knowledge  we  have  obtained  of  the  internal  conditions  enables 
us  to  predict  the  period  of  pulsation  within  narrow  limits.  For  example, 
for  8  Cephei,  the  best-known  star  of  this  kind,  the  theoretical  period 
is  between  4  and  10  days,  and  the  actual  period  is  5 J  days.  Correspond- 
ing agi-eement  is  found  in  all  the  other  cases  tested. 

Our  observational  knowledge  of  the  things  here  discussed  is  chiefly 
of  a  rather  vague  kind,  and  we  can  scarcely  claim  more  than  a  general 
agreement  of  theory  and  observation.  What  we  have  been  able  to  do 
in  the  way  of  tests  is  to  offer  the  theory  a  considerable  number  of 
opportunities  to  '  make  a  fool  of  itself, '  and  so  far  it  has  not  fallen 
into  our  traps.  When  the  theory  tells  us  that  a  star  having  the  mass 
of  the  Sun  will  at  one  stage  in  its  career  reach  a  maximum  effective 
temperature  of  9,000°  (the  Sun's  effective  temperature  being  6,000°) 
we  cannot  do  much  in  the  way  of  checking  it ;  but  an  en'oneous  theory 
might  well  have  said  that  the  maximum  temperature  was  20,000°  (hotter 
than  any  known  star),  in  which  case  we  should  have  detected  its  error. 
If  we  cannot  feel  confident  that  the  answers  of  the  theory  are  true,  it 
must  be  admitted  that  it  has  shown  some  discretion  in  lying  without 
being  found  out. 

It  would  not  be  surprising  if  individual  stars  occasionally  depart 
considerably  from  the  calculated  results,  because  at  present  no  serious 
attempt  has  been  made  to  take  into  account  rotation,  which  may  modify 
the  conditions  when  sufficiently  rapid.  That  appears  to  be  the  next 
step  needed  for  a  more  exact  study  of  the  question. 

Probably  the  greatest  need  of  stellar  astronomy  at  the  present  day, 
in  order  to  make  sure  that  our  theoretical  deductions  are  starting  on  the 
right  lines,  is  some  means  of  measuring  the  apparent  angular  diameters 
of  stars.  At  present  we  can  calculate  them  approximately  from  theory, 
but  there  is  no  observational  check.  We  believe  we  know  with  fair 
accuracy  the  apparent  surface  brightness  corresponding  to  each  spectral 
type ;  then  all  that  is  necessary  is  to  divide  the  total  apparent  brightness 
by  this  surface  brightness,  and  the  result  is  the  angular  area  subtended 
by  the  star.  The  unknown  distance  is  not  involved,  because  surface 
brightness  is  independent  of  distance.  Thus  the  estimation  of  the 
angular  diameter  of  any  star  seems  to  be  a  very  simple  matter.  For 
instance,  the  star  with  the  greatest  apparent  diameter  is  almost  certainly 



Betelgeuse,  diameter  '051".  Next  to  it  comes  Antares,  '043".  Other 
examples  are  Aldebaran  '022",  Arcturus  "020",  Pollux  '013".  Sirius 
comes  rather  low  down  with  diameter  '007".  The  following  table  may 
be  of  interest  as  showing  the  angular  diameters  expected  for  stars  of 
various  types  and  visual  magnitudes:  — 

Prohahle  Angular  Biametefs  of  Sfni-s. 

Vis.  Mag. 











,,                         ' 












•0342         : 






•0136         1 

However  confidently  we  may  believe  in  these  values,  it  would  be 
an  immense  advantage  to  have  this  first  step  in  our  deductions  placed 
beyond  doubt.  If  the  direct  measurement  of  these  diameters  could  be 
made  with  any  accuracy  it  would  make  a  wonderfully  rapid  advance 
in  our  knowledge.  The  prospects  of  accomplishing  some  part  of  this 
task  are  now  quite  hopeful.  We  have  learnt  with  gi'eat  interest  this 
year  that  work  is  being  carried  out  by  interferometer  methods  with  the 
100-inch  reflector  at  Mount  Wilson,  and  the  results  are  most  promising, 
At  present  the  method  has  only  been  applied  to  measuring  the  separation 
of  close  double  stars,  but  there  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  an  angular 
diameter  of  "05"  is  well  within  reach.  Although  the  great  mirror  is 
used  for  convenience,  the  interferometer  method  does  not  in  principle 
require  great  apertures,  but  rather  two  small  apertures  widely  separated 
as  in  a  range-finder.  Prof.  Hale  has  stated,  moreover,  that  success- 
ful results  were  obtained  on  nights  of  poor  seeing.  Perhaps  it  would 
be  unsafe  to  assume  that  '  poor  seeing  '  at  Mount  Wilson  means  quite 
the  same  thing  as  it  does  for  us,  and  I  anticipate  that  atmospheric 
disturbance  will  ultimately  set  the  limit  to  what  can  be  accomplished. 
But  even  if  we  have  to  send  special  expeditions  to  the  top  of  one  of  the 
highest  mountains  in  the  world  the  attack  on  this  far-reaching  problem 
must  not  be  allowed  to  languish. 

I  spoke  earher  of  the  radiation-pressure  exerted  by  the  outflowing 
heat,  which  has  an  important  effect  on  the  equilibrium  of  a  star.  It  is 
quite  easy  to  calculate  what  proportion  of  the  weight  of  the  material 
is  supported  in  this  way ;  it  depends  neither  on  the  density  nor  opacity, 
but  solely  on  the  star's  total  mass  and  on  the  molecular  weight.  No 
astronomical  data  are  needed ;  the  calculation  involves  only  fundamental 
physical  constants  found  by  laboratory  researches.  Here  are  the 
figures,  first  for  average  molecular  weight  3'0:  — 

For  mass  i  x  Sun,  fraction  of  weight  supported  by  radiation- 
pressure  = '044. 

For  mass  5  x  Sun,  fraction  of  weight  supported  by  radiation- 
pressure  ='457. 

For  molecular  weight  5'0  the  corresponding  fractions  are  •182  and 


The  molecular  weight  can  scarcely  go  beyond  this  range,*  and 
for  the  conclusions  I  am  about  to  draw  it  does  not  much  matter  which 
limit  we  take.  Probably  90  per  cent,  of  the  giant  stars  have  masses  be- 
tween ^  and  5  times  the  Sun's,  and  we  see  that  this  is  just  the  range  in 
which  radiation-pressure  rises  from  unimportance  to  importance.  It 
seems  clear  that  a  globe  of  gas  of  larger  mass,  in  which  radiation-pres- 
sure and  gravitation  are  nearly  balancing,  would  be  likely  to  be  unstable. 
The  condition  may  not  be  strictly  unstable  in  itself,  but  a  small  rotation 
or  perturbation  would  make  it  so.  It  may  therefore  be  conjectured 
that,  if  nebulous  material  began  to  concentrate  into  a  mass  mucli  greater 
than  5  times  the  Sun's,  it  would  probably  break  up,  and  continue  to 
redivide  until  more  stable  masses  resulted.  Above  the  upper  limit  the 
chances  of  survival  are  small ;  when  the  lower  limit  is  approached  the 
danger  has  practically  disappeared,  and  there  is  little  likelihood  of  any 
further  breaking-up.  Thus  the  final  masses  are  left  distributed  almost 
entirely  between  the  limits  given.  To  put  the  matter  slightly  differently, 
we  are  able  to  predict  from  general  principles  that  the  material  of  the 
stellar  universe  Avill  aggregate  primarily  into  masses  chiefly  lying 
between  10^'  and  10="*  grams;  and  this  is  just  the  magnitude  of  the 
masses  of  the  stars  according  to  astronomical  observation.^ 

This  study  of  the  radiation  and  internal  conditions  of  a  star  brings 
foi-ward  very  pressingly  a  problem  often  debated  in  this  Section : 
What  is  the  source  of  the  heat  which  the  Sun  and  stars  are  continually 
squandering?  The  answer  given  is  almost  unanimous — that  it  is 
obtained  from  the  gravitational  energy  converted  as  the  star  steadily 
contracts.  But  almost  as  unanimously  this  answer  is  ignored  in  its 
practical  consequences.  Lord  Kelvin  showed  that  this  hypothesis,  due 
to  Helmholtz,  necessarily  dates  the  birth  of  the  Sun  about  20,000,000 
years  ago;  and  he  made  strenuous  efforts  to  induce  geologists  and 
biologists  to  accommodate  their  demands  to  this  time-scale.  I  do  not 
think  they  proved  altogether  tractable.  But  it  is  among  his  own  col- 
leagues, physicists  and  astronomers,  that  the  most  outrageous  violations 
of  this  limit  have  prevailed.  I  need  only  refer  to  Sir  George  Darwin's 
theory  of  the  earth-moon  system,  to  the  present  Lord  Eayleigh's  deter- 
mination of  the  age  of  terrestrial  rocks  from  occluded  helium,  and  to  all 
modern  discussions  of  the  statistical  equilibrium  of  the  stellar  system. 
No  one  seems  to  have  any  hesitation,  if  it  suits  him,  in  caiTying  back 
the  history  ci  the  earth  long  before  the  supposed  date  of  formation 
of  the  solar  system ;  and  in  some  cases  at  least  this  appears  to  be  justified 

^  As  an  illustration  of  these  limits,  iron  has  26  outer  electrons ;  if  10  break 
away  the  average  molecular  weight  is  5 ;  if  18  break  awav  the  molecular  weight 
is  3.  Eggert  {Phys.  Zeits.  1919,  p.  570)  has  suggested  by  thermodynamical 
reasoning  that  in  most  cases  the  two  outer  rings  (16  electrons)  would  break  away 
in  the  stars.  The  comparison  of  theory  and  observation  for  the  dwarf  stars 
also  points  to_  a_  molecular  weight  a  little  greater  than  3. 

6  By  admitting  plausible  assumptions  closer  limits  could  be  drawn.  Taking 
the  molecular  weight  as  3.5.  and  assuming  that  the  most  critical,  condition  is 
T^^  3  of  gravitation  is  counterbalanced  (by  analogy  with  the  case  of  rotating 
spheroids,  in  which  centrifugal  force  opposes  gravit^ation  and  creates  instability), 
we  find  that  the  critical  mass  is  just  twice  that  of  the  Sun,  and  stellar  masses 
may  be  expected  to  cluster  closely  round  this  value. 


by  experimental  evidence  which  it  is  difficult  to  dispute.  Lord  Kelvin's 
date  of  the  creation  of  the  Sun  is  treated  with  no  mote  respect  than 
Archbishop  Ussher's. 

The  serious  consequences  of  this  contraction  hypothesis  are  particu- 
larly prominent  in  the  case  of  giant  stars,  for  the  giants  are  prodigal 
with  their  heat  and  radiate  at  least  a  hundred  times  as  fast  as  the 
Sun.  The  supply  of  energy  which  suffices  to  maintain  the  Sun  for 
10,000,000  years  would  be  squandered  by  a  giant  star  in  less  than 
100,000  years.  The  whole  evolution  in  the  giant  stage  Avould  have  to 
be  very  rapid.  In  18,000  years  at  the  most  a  typical  st-ar  must  pass 
from  the  initial  M  stage  to  type  G.  In  80,000  years  it  has  reached  type 
A,  near  the  top  of  the  scale,  and  is  about  to  start  on  the  downward 
path.  Even  these  figures  are  probably  very  much  over-estimated.' 
Most  of  the  naked-eye  stars  are  still  in  the  giant  stage.  Dare  we 
beheve  that  they  were  all  formed  within  the  last  80,000  years?  The 
telescope  reveals  to  us  objects  not  only  remote  in  distance  but  remote 
in  time.  We  can  turn  it  on  a  globular  cluster  and  behold  what  was 
passing  20,000,  50,000,  even  200,000  years  ago — unfoi'tunately  not  all 
in  the  same  cluster,  but  different  clusters  representing  different  epochs 
of  the  past.  As  Shapley  has  pointed  out,  the  verdict  appears  to  be 
'  no  change. '  This  is  perhaps  not  conclusive,  because  it  does  not  follow 
that  individual  stars  have  suffered  no  change  in  the  interval ;  but  it  is 
difficult  to  resist  the  impression  that  the  evolution  of  the  stellar  universe 
proceeds  at  a  slow,  majestic  pace,  with  respect  to  which  these  periods  of 
time  are  insignificant. 

There  is  another  line  of  astronomical  evidence  which  appears  to 
show  more  definitely  that  the  evolution  of  the  staa's  proceeds  far  more 
slowly  than  the  contraction  hypothesis  allows ;  and  perhaps  it  may  ulti- 
mately enable  us  to  measure  the  true  rate  of  progress.  There  are 
certain  stars,  known  as  Cepheid  variables,  which  undergo  a  regular 
fluctuation  of  light  of  a  characteristic  kind,  generally  with  a  period  of  a 
few  days.  This  light  change  is  not  due  to  eclipse.  Moreover,  the 
colour  quality  of  the  light  changes  between  maximum  and  minimum, 
evidently  pointing  to  a  periodic  change  in  the  physical  condition  of  the 
tetaa-.  Although  these  objects  were  formerly  thought  to  be  double 
stars,  it  now  seems  clear  that  this  was  a  misinterpretation  of  the 
spectroscopic  evidence.  There  is  in  fact  no  room  for  the  hypothetical 
companion  star ;  the  orbit  is  so  small  that  we  should  have  to  place  it 
inside  the  principal  star.  Everything  points  to  the  period  of  the  light 
pulsation  being  something  intrinsic  in  the  star ;  and  the  hypothesis 
advocated  by  Shapley,  that  it  represents  a  mechanical  pulsation  of  the 
star,  seems  to  be  the  most  plausible.  I  have  already  mentioned  that  the 
obsei'ved  period  does  in  fact  agree  with  the  calculated  period  of 
mechanical  pulsation,  so  that  the  pulsation  explanation  survives  one 
fairly  stringent  test.  But  whatever  the  cause  of  the  variability, 
whether  pulsation  or  rotation,  provided  only  that  it  is  intrinsic  in  the 

'  I  have  taken  the  ratio  of  specific  heats  at  the  extreme  possible  value,  §  ; 
that  is  to  say,  no  allowance  has  been  made  for  the  energy  needed  for  ionisa- 
tion  and  internal  vibrations  of  the  atoms,  v/hich  makes  a  further  call  on  the 
scanty  supply  available. 


star,  and  not  forced  from  outside,  the  density  must  be  the  leading  factor 
in  detei-mining  the  period.  If  the  star  is  contracting  so  that  its  density- 
changes  appreciably,  the  period  cannot  remain  constant.  Now,  on  the 
contraction  hypothesis  the  change  of  density  must  amount  to  at  least 
1  per  cent,  in  40  years.  (I  give  the  figures  for  d  Cephei,  tlie  best- 
known  variable  of  this  class.)  The  corresponding  change  of  period 
should  be  very  easily  detectable.  For  8  Gephei  the  period  ought  to 
decrease  40  seconds  annually. 

Now  8  Cephei  has  been  under  careful  observation  since  1785,  and 
it  is  known  that  the  change  of  period,  if  any,  must  be  veiy  small. 
S.  Chandler  found  a  decrease  of  period  of  -^^  second  per  annum,  and  in  a 
recent  investigation  E.  Hertzsprung  has  found  a  decrease  of  yL  second 
per  annum.  The  evidence  that  there  is  any  decrease  at  all  rests  almost 
entirely  on  the  earliest  observations  made  before  1800,  so  that  it  is  not 
very  certain ;  but  in  any  case  the  evolution  is  proceeding  at  not  more 
than  fiy  of  the  rate  required  by  the  contraction  hypothesis.  There 
must  at  this  stage  of  the  evolution  of  the  star  be  some  other  source 
of  enei'gy  which  prolongs  the  life  of  the  star  4'00-fold.  The  time-scale 
so  enlarged  would  suffice  for  practically  all  reasonable  demands. 

I  hope  the  dilemma  is  plain.  Either  we  must  admit  that  whilst  the 
density  changes  1  per  cent,  a  certain  period  intrinsic  in  the  star  can 
change  no  more  than^fi^  of  1  per  cent.,  or  we  must  give  up  the  con- 
traction hypothesis. 

If  the  contraction  theory  were  proposed  to-day  as  a  novel  hypothesis 
I  do  not  think  it  would  stand  the  smallest  chance  of  acceptance.  From  all 
sides — biology,  geology,  physics,  astronomy — it  would  be  objected  that 
the  suggested  source  of  energy  was  hopelessly  inadequate  to  provide  the 
heat  spent  during  the  necessary  time  of  evolution ;  and,  so  far  as  it  is 
possible  to  interpret  observational  evidence  confidently,  the  theory  would 
be  held  to  be  definitely  negatived.  Only  the  inertia  of  tradition  keeps 
the  contraction  hypothesis  alive — or  rather,  not  alive,  but  an  unburied 
corpse.  But  if  we  decide  to  inter  the  corpse,  let  us  frankly  recognise 
the  position  in  which  we  are  left.  A  star  is  drawing  on  some  vast 
reservoir  of  energy  by  means  unknown  to  us.  This  resei-voir  can 
scarcely  be  other  than  the  sub-atomic  energy  which,  it  is  known,  exists 
abundantly  in  all  matter;  we  sometimes  dream  that  man  will  one  day 
learn  how  to  release  it  and  use  it  for  his  service.  The  store  is  well-nigh 
inexhaustible,  if  only  it  could  be  tapped.  There  is  sufficient  in  the  Sun 
to  maintain  its  output  of  heat  for  15  billion  years. 

Certain  physical  investigations  in  the  past  year,  which  I  hope  we 
may  hear  about  at  this  meeting,  make  it  probable  to  my  mind  that  some 
portion  of  this  sub-atomic  energy  is  actually  being  set  free  in  the  stars. 
F.  W.  Aston 's  experiments  seem  to  leave  no  room  for  doubt  that  all  the 
elements  are  constituted  out  of  hydrogen  atoms  bound  together  with 
negative  electrons.  The  nucleus  of  the  helium  atom,  for  example, 
consists  of  4  hydrogen  atoms  bound  with  2  electrons.  But  Aston  has 
further  shown  conclusively  that  the  mass  of  the  helium  atom  is  less 
than  the  sum  of  the  masses  of  the  4  hydrogen  atoms  which  enter  into 
it ;  and  in  this  at  any  rate  the  chemists  agree  with  him.  There  is  a 
'oss  of  mass  in  the  synthesis  amounting  to  about  1  part  in  120,  the. 


atomic  weight  of  hydrogen  being  I'OOS  and  that  of  hehum  just  4.  I 
will  not  dwell  on  his  beautiful  proof  of  this,  as  you  will  no  doubt  be 
able  to  hear  it  from  himself.  Now  mass  cannot  be  annihilated,  and  the 
deficit  can  only  represent  the  mass  of  the  electrical  energy  set  free  in 
the  transmutation.  We  can  therefore  at  once  calculate  the  quantity  of 
energy  liberated  when  helium  is  made  out  of  hydrogen.  If  5  per  cent, 
of  a  star's  mass  consists  initially  of  hydrogen  atoms,  which  are  gradually 
being  combined  to  form  more  complex  elements,  the  total  heat  hberated 
will  more  than  suffice  for  our  demands,  and  we  need  look  no  further 
for  the  source  of  a  star's  energy. 

But  is  it  possible  to  admit  that  such  a  transmutation  is  occurring? 
It  is  difficult  to  assert,  but  perhaps  more  difficult  to  deny,  that  this  is 
going  on.  Sir  Ernest  Eutherford  has  recently  been  breaking  down  the 
atoms  of  oxygen  and  nitrogen,  driving  out  an  isotope  of  hehum  from 
them ;  and  what  is  possible  in  the  Cavendish  laboratory  may  not  be 
too  difficult  in  the  Sun.  I  think  that  the  suspicion  has  been  generally 
entertained  that  the  stars  are  the  crucibles  in  which  the  lighter  atoms 
which  abound  in  the  nebulae  are  compounded  into  more  complex 
elements.  In  the  stars  matter  has  its  preliminary  brewing  to  prepare 
the  greater  variety  of  elements  which  are  needed  for  a  world  of  life. 
The  radio-active  elements  must  have  been  formed  at  no  very  distant 
date ;  and  their  synthesis,  unlike  the  generation  of  helium  from 
hydrogen,  is  endothermic.  If  combinations  requiring  the  addition  of 
energy  can  occur  in  the  stars,  cMnbinations  which  liberate  energy  ought 
not  to  be  impossible. 

We  need  not  bind  ourselves  to  the  formation  of  helium  from 
hydrogen  as  the  sole  reaction  which  supplies  the  energy,  although  it 
would  seem  that  the  further  stages  in  building  up  the  elements  involve 
much  less  liberation,  and  sometimes  even  absolution,  of  energy.  It  is 
a  question  of  accurate  measurement  of  the  deviations  of  atomic  weights 
from  integers,  and  up  to  the  present  hydrogen  is  the  only  element  for 
which  Mr.  Aston  has  been  able  to  detect  the  deviation.  No  doubt  we 
shall  learn  more  about  the  possibilities  in  due  time.  The  position  may 
be  summarised  in  these  terms :  the  atoms  of  all  elements  are  built  of 
hydrogen  atoms  bound  together,  and  presumably  have  at  one  time  been 
formed  from  hydrogen ;  the  interior  of  a  star  seems  as  likely  a  place 
as  any  for  the  evolution  to  have  occurred ;  whenever  it  did  occur  a  great 
amount  of  energy  must  have  been  set  free;  in  a  star  a  vast  quantity 
of  energy  is  being  set  free  which  is  hitherto  unaccounted  for.  You 
may  drav^^  a  conclusion  if  you  like. 

If,  indeed,  the  sub-atomic  energy  in  the  stars  is  being  freely  used 
to  maintain  their  great  furnaces,  it  seems  to  bring  a  little  nearer  to 
fulfilment  our  dream  of  controlling  this  latent  power  for  the  well-being- 
of  the  human  race — or  for  its  suicide. 

So  far  as  the  immediate  needs  of  astronomy  are  concerned,  it  is 
not  of  any  great  consequence  whether  in  this  suggestion -we  have  actually 
laid  a  finger  on  the  true  source  of  the  heat.  It  is  sufl&cient  if  the 
discussion  opens  our  eyes  to  the  wider  possibilities.  We  can  get  rid 
of  the  obsession  that  there  is  no  other  conceivable  supply  besides  con- 
traction, but  we  need  not  again  cramp  ourselves  by  adopting  prematurely 


what  is  perhaps  a  still  wildei-  guess.  Eathei-  we  should  admit  that  the 
source  is  not  certainly  known,  and  seek  for  any  possible  astronomical 
evidence  which  may  help  to  define  its  necessary  character.  One  piece 
of  evidence  of  this  kind  may  be  worth  mentioning.  It  seems  clear  that 
it  must  be  the  high  temperature  inside  the  stars  which  determines  the 
liberation  of  energy,  as  H.  N.  Russell  has  pointed  out.^  If  so  the 
supply  may  come  mainly  from  the  hottest  region  at  the  centre.  I  have 
already  stated  that  t-lie  general  uniformity  of  the  opacity  of  the  stars 
is  much  more  easily  intelligible  if  it  depends  on  scattering  rather  than 
on  true  absorption ;  but  it  did  not  seem  possible  to  reconcile  the  deduced 
stellar  opacity  with  the  theoretical  scattering  coefficient.  Within 
reasonable  limits  it  makes  no  great  difference  in  our  calculations  at  what 
parts  of  the  star  the  heat  energy  is  supplied,  and  it  was  assumed  that 
it  comes  more  or  less  evenly  from  all  parts,  as  would  be  the  case  on 
the  contraction  theory.  The  possibility  was  scarcely  contemplated  that 
the  energy  is  supplied  entirely  in  a  restricted  region  round  the  centre. 
Now,  the  more  concentrated  the  supply,  the  lower  is  the  opacity  requisite 
to  account  for  the  observed  radiation.  I  have  not  made  any  detailed 
calculations,  but  it  seems  possible  that  for  a  sufficiently  concentrated 
source  the  deduced  and  the  theoretical  coefficients  could  be  made  to 
agree,  and  there  does  not  seem  to  be  any  other  way  of  accomplishing 
this.  Conversely,  we  inight  perhaps  argue  that  the  present  discrepancy 
of  the  coefficients  shows  that  the  energy  supply  is  not  spread  out  in  the 
way  required  by  the  contraction  hypothesis,  but  belongs  to  some  new 
source  only  available  at  the  hottest,  central  part  of  the  star. 

I  should  not  be  surprised  if  it  is  whispered  that  this  address  has  at 
times  verged  on  being  a  little  bit  speculative ;  perhaps  some  outspoken 
friend  may  bluntly  say  that  it  has  been  highly  speculative  from 
beginning  to  end.  I  wonder  what  is  the  touchstone  by  which  we  may 
test  the  legitimate  development  of  scientific  theory  and  reject  the  idly 
speculative.  We  all  know  of  theories  which  the  scientific  mind  in- 
stinctively rejects  as  fruitless  guesses;  but  it  is  difficult  to  specify  their 
exact  defect  or  to  supply  a  rule  which  will  show  us  when  we  ourselves 
do  err.  It  is  often  supposed  that  to  speculate  and  to  make  hypotheses 
are  the  same  thing;  but  more  often  they  are  opposed.  It  is  when  we 
let  our  thoughts  stray  outside  venerable,  but  sometimes  insecure, 
hypotheses  that  we  are  said  to  speculate.  Hypothesis  limits  speculation. 
Moreover,  distrust  of  speculation  often  serves  as  a  cover  for  loose 
thinking ;  wild  ideas  take  anchorage  in  our  minds  and  influence  our  out- 
look; whilst  it  is  considered  too  speculative  to  subject  them  to  the 
scientific  scrutiny   which  would  exorcise  them. 

If  we  are  not  content  with  the  dull  accumulation  of  experimental 
facts,  if  we  make  any  deductions  or  generalisations,  if  we  seek  for  any 
theory  to  guide  us,  some  degree  of  speculation  cannot  be  avoided.  Some 
will  prefer  to  take  the  interpretation  which  seems  to  be  most  imme- 
diately indicated  and  at  once  adopt  that  as  an  hypothesis ;  others  wiU 
rather  seek  to  explore  and  classify  the  widest  possibilities  which  are 
not  definitely  inconsistent  with  the  facts.     Either  choice  has  its  dangers ;, 

»  Pub.  Act.  Soe.  Pacific.     August  1919. 


the  first  may  be  too  narrow  a  view  and  lead  progress  into  a  cul-de-sac ; 
the  second  may  be  so  broad  that  it  is  useless  as  a  guide,  and  diverges 
indefinitely  from  experimental  knowledge.  When  this  last  case 
happens,  it  must  be  concluded  that  the  knowledge  is  not  yet  ripe  for 
theoretical  ti'eatment  and  speculation  is  premature.  The  time  when 
speculative  theory  and  observational  research  may  profitably  go  hand 
in  hand  is  when  the  possibilities,  or  at  any  rate  the  probabilities,  can 
be  narrowed  down  by  experiment,  and  the  theory  can  indicate 
the  tests  by  which  the  remaining  wrong  paths  may  be  blocked  up  one 
by  one. 

The  mathematical  physicist  is  in  a  position  of  peculiar  difficulty. 
He  may  work  out  the  behaviour  of  an  ideal  model  of  material  with 
specifically  defined  properties,  obeying  mathematically  exact  laws,  and 
so  far  his  work  is  unimpeachable.  It  is  no  more  speculative  than 
the  binomial  theorem.  But  when  he  claims  a  serious  intei'est  for 
his  toy,  when  he  suggests  that  his  model  is  like  something  going  on  in 
Nature,  he  inevitably  begins  to  speculate.  Is  the  actual  body  really 
like  the  ideal  model?  May  not  other  unknown  conditions  intervene? 
He  cannot  be  sure,  but  he  cannot  suppress  the  comparison;  for  it  is  by 
looking  continually  to  Nature  that  he  is  guided  in  his  choice  of  a  sub- 
ject. A  common  fault,  to  which  he  must  often  plead  guilty,  is  to  use 
for  the  comparison  data  over  which  the  more  experienced  observer 
shakes  his  head;  they  are  too  insecure  to  build  extensively  upon.  Yet 
even  in  this,  theory  may  help  observation  by  showing  the  kind  of  data 
which  it  is  especially  important  to  improve. 

I  think  that  the  more  idle  kinds  of  speculation  will  be  avoided  if 
the  investigation  is  conducted  from  the  right  point  of  view.  "When  the 
properties  of  an  ideal  model  have  been  worked  out  by  rigorous  mathe- 
matics, all  the  underlying  assumptions  being  clearly  understood,  then 
it  becomes  possible  to  say  that  such  and  such  properties  and  laws  lead 
precisely  to  such  and  such  effects.  If  any  other  disregarded  factors 
are  present,  they  should  now  betray  themselves  when  a^  comparison  is 
made  with  Nature.  There  is  no  need  for  disappointment  at  the  failure 
of  the  model  to  give  perfect  agreement  with  observation ;  it  has  served 
its  purpose,  for  it  has  distinguished  what  are  the  features  of  the  actual 
phenomena  which  require  new  conditions  for  their  explanation.  A 
general  preliminary  agreement  with  observation  is  necessary,  otherwise 
the  model  is  hopeless ;  not  that  it  is  necessarily  wrong  so  far  as  it  goes, 
but  it  has  evidently  put  the  less  essential  properties  foremost.  We 
have  been  pulling  at  the  wrong  end  of  the  tangle,  which  has  to  be  un- 
ravelled by  a  different  approach.  But  after  a  general  agreement  with 
obsei-vation  is  established,  and  the  tangle  begins  to  loosen,  we  should 
always  make  ready  for  the  next  knot.  I  suppose  that  the  applied 
mathematician  whose  theory  has  just  passed  one  still  more  stringent  test 
by  observation  ought  not  to  feel  satisfaction,  but  rather  disappointment 
— '  Foiled  again !  This  time  I  had  hoped  to  find  a  discordance  which 
would  throw  light  on  the  points  where  my  model  could  be  improved. ' 
Perhaps  that  is  a  counsel  of  perfection;  I  own  that  I  have  never  felt 
very  keenly  a  disappointment  of  this  kind. 

Our  model  of  Nature  should  not  be  like  a  building^a  handsome 


structure  for  the  populace  to  admire,  until  in  the  course  of  time  someone 
takes  away  a  corner-stone  and  the  edifice  comes  toppling  down.  It 
should  be  like  an  engine  with  movable  parts.  We  need  not  fix  the 
position  of  any  one  lever;  that  is  to  be  adjusted  from  time  to  time  as 
the  latest  observations  indicate.  The  aim  of  the  theorist  is  to  know 
the  train  of  wheels  which  the  lever  sets  in  motion — that  binding  of  the 
parts  which  is  the  soul  of  the  engine. 

In  ancient  days  two  aviators  procured  to  themselves  wings. 
Daedalus  flew  safely  through  the  middle  air  across  the  sea,  and  was  duly 
honoured  on  his  landing.  Young  Icarus  soared  upwards  towards  the 
Sun  till  the  wax  melted  which  bound  his  wings,  and  his  flight  ended 
in  fiasco.  In  weighing  their  achievements  perhaps  there  is  something 
to  be  said  for  Icarus.  The  classic  authorities  tell  us  that  he  was  only 
'  doing  a  stunt, '  but  I  prefer  to  think  of  him  as  the  man  who  certainly 
brought  to  light  a  constructional  defect  in  the  flying-machines  of  his 
day.  So  too  in  science.  Cautious  Daedalus  will  apply  his  theories 
where  he  feels  most  confident  they  will  safely  go ;  but  by  his  excess  of 
caution  their  hidden  weaknesses  cannot  be  brought  to  light.  Icarus 
will  strain  his  theories  to  the  breaking-point  till  the  weak  joints  gape. 
For  a  spectacular  stunt?  Perhaps  partly;  he  is  often  very  human. 
But  if  he  is  not  yet  destined  to  reach  the  Sun  and  solve  for  all  time  the 
i-id'dle  of  its  constitution,  yet  he  may  hope  to  learn  from  his  journey 
some  hints  to  build  a  better  machine. 


SECTION  B  :  CARDIFF,  1920. 


TO    THE 



C.  T.  HEYCOCK,  M.A..  F.R.S., 


DuEiNG  its  past  eighty-nine  years  of  useful  life  the  British  Association 
Has,  in  the  course  of  its  ev"olution,  established  certain  traditions  ;  among 
these  is  the  expectation  that  the  sectional  President  shall  deliver  an 
adxlress  containing  a  summary  of  that  branch  of  natural  knowledge  with 
which  he  has  become  especially  acquainted. 

The  rapid  accumulation  of  experimental  observations  during  the 
last  century,  and  the  consequent  necessity  for  classifying  the  observed 
facts  with  the  aid  of  hypotheses  and  theories  of  ever-increasing  com- 
plexity, make  such  summaries  of  knowledge  essential,  not  only  to  the 
student  of  science,  but  also  to  the  person  of  non-specialised  education 
who  desires  to  realise  something  of  the  tendencies  and  of  the  results 
of  modem  science. 

At  the  present  moment,  when  the  whole  world  is  in  pause  after 
having  overcome  the  greatest  peril  which  has  ever  threatened  civilisa- 
tion; when  all  productive  effort,  social,  artistic,  and  scientific,  is  under- 
going reorganisation  preparatory  to  an  advance  which  will  eclipse  in 
importance  the  progress  made  during  the  nineteenth  century,  such 
attempts  to  visualise  the  present  condition  of  knowledge  as  are  made 
in  our  Presidential  Addresses  are  of  particular  value.  It  is,  therefore, 
hardly  necessary  for  me  to  apologise  for  an  endeavour  to  place  before 
you  a  statement  upon  the  particular  branch  of  science  to  which  I  have 
myself  paid  special  attention;  whatever  faults  may  attend  the  mode 
of  presentation,  such  a  survey  of  a  specific  field  of  knowledge  cannot 
But  be  of  value  to  some  amongst  us. 

I  propose  to  deal  to-day  with  the  manner  in  which  our  present  rather 
detailed  knowledge  of  metallic  alloys  has  been  acquired,  starting  from 
the  sparse  information  which  was  available  thirty  or  forty  years  ago; 

B. — CHEMISTRY,  51 

to  show  the  pitfalls  which  have  been  avoided  in  the  theoretical  inter- 
pretation of  the  obsei-ved  facts,  and  to  sketch  verj-  briefly  the  present 
position  of  our  knowledge. 

The  production  of  metals  and  their  alloys  undoubtedly  constitutes 
the  oldest  of  those  chemical  arts  which  ultimately  expanded  into  the 
modern  science  of  chemistry,  with  all  its  ovei-whelming  mass  of  experi- 
mental detail  and  its  intricate  interweaving  of  theoretical  interpretation 
of  the  obsei'ved  facts.  Tubal-Cain  lived  duiing  the  lifetime  of  our 
common  ai:icestor,  and  was  '  an  instructor  of  every  artificer  in  brass 
and  ii-on  ' ;  and  although  it  may  be  doubted  whether  the  philologists 
have  yet  satisfactorily  determined  whether  Tubal-Cain  was  really 
acquainted  with  the  manufacture  of  such  a  complex  metallic  alloy  as 
brass,  it  is  certain  that  chemical  science  had  its  beginnings  in  the 
reduction  of  metals  from  their  ores  and  in  the  preparation  of  useful 
alloys  from  those  metals.  In  fact,  metallic  alloys,  or  mixtures  of 
metals,  have  been  used  by  mankind  for  the  manufacture  of  implements 
of  war  and  of  agriculture,  of  coinage,  statuary,  cooking  vessels,  and  the 
like  from  the  very  earliest  times. 

In  the  course  of  past  ages  an  immense  amount  of  practical  informa- 
tion has  been  accumulated  concerning  methods  of  reducing  metals,  or 
mixtures  of  metals,  from  their  ores,  and  by  subsequent  treatment, 
usually  by  heating  and  cooling,  of  adapting  the  resulting  metallic 
product  to  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  required.  Until  quite  recent 
times,  however,  the  whole  of  this  knowledge  was  entirely  empirical 
in  character,  because  it  had  no  foundation  in  general  theoretical  prin- 
ciples ;  it  was  collected  in  haphazard  fashion  in  accordance  with  that 
method  of  trial  and  error  which  led  our  forerunners  surely,  but  with 
excessive  expenditure  of  time  and  effort,  to  valuable  results. 

To-day  I  purpose  dealing  chiefly  with  the  non-ferrous  alloys,  not 
because  any  essential  difference  in  type  exists  between  the  feiTous  and 
non-ferrous  alloys,  but  merely  because  the  whole  field  presented  by  the 
chemistiy  of  the  metals  and  their  alloys  is  too  vast  to  be  covered  in 
any  reasonable  length  of  time. 

The  earliest  recorded  scientific  investigations  on  alloys  were  made 
in  1722  by  Reaumur,  who  employed  the  microscope  to  exa.mine  the 
fractured  surfaces  of  white  and  grey  cast  iron  and  steel. 

In  1808  Widmanstatten  cut  sections  from  meteorites,  which  he 
polished  and  etched. 

The  founder,  howe\Ter,  of  modern  metallography  is  undoubtedly 
H.  C.  Sorby,  of  Sheffield.  Sorby's  early  petrographic  work  on  the 
examination  of  thin  sections  of  rock  under  the  microscope  led  him  to 
a  study  of  meteorites  and  of  iron  and  steel,  and  in  a  paper  read  before 
the  British  Association  in  1864  he  describes  briefly  (I  quote  his  own 
words)  how  sections  '  of  iron  and  steel  may  be  prepared  for  the 
microscope  so  as  to  exhibit  their  structure  to  a  perfection  that  leaves 
little  to  be  desired.  They  show  various  mixtures  of  iron,  and  two 
or  three  well-defined  compounds  of  iron  and  carbon,  graphite,  and 
slag;  these  constituents  being  present  in  different  proportions  atnd 
arranged  in  various  manners,  give  rise  to  a  large  number  of  varieties 
of  iron  and  steel,  differing  by  well-marked  and  very  striking  peculiarities 


of  structure.'  The  methods  described  by  Sorby  for  pohshing  and 
etching  alloys  and  his  method  of  vertical  illumination  (afteinvards 
improved  by  Beck)  are  employed  to-day  by  all  who  work  at  this  branch 
of  metallography. 

The  lantern-slides,  now  shown,  were  reproduced  from  his  original 
photographs;  they  form  a  lasting  memorial  to  his  skill  aa  an  investi- 
gator and  his  ability  as  a  manipulator.  In  1887  Dr.  Sorby  published 
a  paper  on  the  microscopical  structure  of  iron  and  steel  in  the  Journal 
of  the  Iron  and  Steel  Institute.  This  masterpiece  of  clear  writing 
and  expression,  even  with  our  present  knowledge,  needs  but  little 
emendation.  In  this  paper  he  describes  Free  Iron  (feiTite)  carbon  as 
graphite,  the  pearly  constituent  as  a  very  fine  laminar  structure  (pearlitic 
structure),  combined  iron  as  the  chief  constituent  of  white  cast  iron 
(cementite),  slag  inclusions,  effect  of  tempering  steel,  effect  of  working 
iron  and  steel,  cementation  of  wrought  iron,  and  the  decarbonisation 
of  cast  iron  by  haematite.  A  truly  remarkable  achievement  for  one 

From  1854-68  Mattheisen  published  in  the  Eeports  of  the  British 
Association  and  in  the  Proceedings  and  Transactions  of  the  Eoyal 
Society,  a  large  number  of  papera  on  the  electrical  conductivity, 
tenacity,  and  specific  gravity  of  pure  metals  and  alloys.  He  concluded 
that  alloys  are  either  mixtures  of  definite  chemical  compounds  with  an 
excess  of  one  or  other  metal,  or  solutions  of  the  definite  alloy  in  the 
excess  of  one  of  the  metals  employed,  forming,  in  their  solid  condition, 
what  he  called  a  solidified  solution.  This  idea  of  a  solidified  solution 
has  developed  into  a  most  fruitful  theory  upon  which  much  of  our 
modern  notions  of  alloys  depends.  Although,  at  the  time,  the  experi- 
ments on  the  electrical  conductivity  did  not  lead  to  very  definite  con- 
clusions, the  method  has  since  been  used  with  great  success  in  testing 
for  the  presence  of  minute  quantities  of  impurities  in  the  copper  used 
for  conductors. 

In  the  Philosophical  Magazine  for  1875,  F.  Guthrie,  in  a 
remarkable  paper,  quite  unconnected  with  alloys,  gave  an  account  of 
his  experiments  on  salt  solutions  and  attached  water.  He  was  led  to 
undertake  this  work  by  a  consideration  of  a  paper  by  Dr.  J.  Eea,  the 
Arctic  explorer,  on  the  comparative  saltness  of  freshly  formed  and  of 
older  ice  floes.  Guthrie  showed  that  the  freezing-point  of  solutions  was 
continuously  diminished  as  the  percentage  of  common  salt  increased, 
and  that  this  lowering  increased  up  to  23.6  per  cent,  of  salt,  when  the 
solution  solidified  as  a  whole  at  about  22°  C.  He  further  showed, 
and  this  is  of  great  importance,  that  the  substance  which  first  separated 
from  solutions  more  dilute  than  23.6  was  pure  ice.  To  the  sulDstance 
which  froze  as  a  whole,  giving  crystals  of  the  same  composition  as  the 
mother  liquor,  he  gave  the  name  cryohydrate.  At  the  time  he  thought 
that  the  cryohydrate  of  salt  containing  23.6  per  cent.  NaCl  and  76.4  per 
cent,  of  water  was  a  chemical  compound  2NaC1.21H20.  In  suc- 
ceeding years  he  showed  that  a  large  number  of  other  salts  gave  solu- 
tions which  behaved  in  a  similar  manner  to  common  salt.  He 
abandoned  the  idea  that  the  cryohydrates  were  chemical  compounds. 

How  clear  his  views   were   will  be   seen   by   quotations   from  his 

B. — CHEMISTRY.  53" 

paper  in  the  Phil.   Mag.    (5)   I.    and  II.,    1876,  in   wliich  he  states : 
(i.)  When  a  solution  weaker  than  tlie  cryohydrate  loses  heat,   ice  is 
formed,     (ii.)  Ice  continues  to  form  and  the  temperature  to  fall  until 
the  cryohydrate  is  reached,     (iii.)  At  the  point  of  saturation  ice  and. 
salt  separate  simultaneously  and    the    solid   and   liquid    portions  are 
identical  ia  composition. 

These  results  can  be  expressed  in  the  form  of  a  simple  diagram  as 
shown  in  the  slide. 

In  a  subsequent  paper,  Phil.  Mag.  (5)  17,  he  extends  his  experi-  . 
ments  to  solvents  other  than  water,  and  states  that  the  substances 
which  separate  at  the  lowest  temperature  are  neither  atomic  nor  mole- 
cular; this  lowest  melting-point  mixture  of  two  bodies  he  names  the 
eutectio  mixture.  In  the  same  paper  he  details  the  methods  of  obtain- 
ing various  eut-ectic  alloys  of  bismuth,  lead,  tin,  and  cadmium. 

We  have,  in  these  papers  of  Guthrie's,  the  first  important  clue  to 
what  occurs  on  cooling  a  fused  mixture  of  metals.  The  researches  of; 
Soi'by  and  Guthrie,  undertaken  as  they  were  for  the  sake  of  investigat- 
ing natural  phenomenal,  are  a  remarkable  example  of  how  purely 
scientific  experiment  can  lead  to  most  important  practical  results.  It  is 
not  too  much  to  claim  for  these  investigators  the  honour  of  being  the 
originators  of  all  our  modern  ideas  of  metallurgy.  Although  much 
valuable  infonnation  had  been  accumulated,  no  rapid  advance  could  be 
made  until  some  general  theory  of  solution  had  been  developed.  In 
1878  Eaoult  first  began  his  work  on  the  depression  of  the  freezing- 
point  of  solvents  due  to  the  addition  of  dissolved  substances,  and  he 
continued,  at  frequent  intervals,  to  publish  the  results  of  his  experi- 
ments up  to  the  time  of  his  death  in  1901.  He  established  for  organic' 
solvents  certain  general  laws:  (i.)  that  for  moderate  concentrations  the 
fall  of  the  freezing-point  is  proportional  to  the  weight  of  the  dissolved 
substa.noe  present  in  a  constant  weight  of  solvent;  (ii.)  that  when  the 
falls  produced  in  the  same  solvent  by  different  dissolved  substances  are 
compared,  it  is  found  that  a  molecular  weight  of  a  dissolved  substance 
produces  the  same  fall  of  the  freezing-point,  whatever  the  substance  is. 
When,  however,  he  applied  the  general  laws  which  he  had  established 
for  organic  solvents  to  aqueous  solutions  of  inorganic  acids,  bases,  and 
salts,  the  results  obtained  were  hopelessly  disci'epant.  In  a  paper  in 
the  Zeit.  Physikal.  Chem.  for  1888  on  '  Osmotic  Pressure  in  the 
analogy  between  solutions  and  gases,'  Van't  Hoff  showed  that  the 
experiments  of  Pfeffer  on  osmotic  pressure  could  be  explained  on 
the  theory  that  dissolved  substances  were,  at  any  rate  for  dilute  solu- 
tions, in  a  condition  similar  to  that  of  a  gas ;  that  they  obeyed  the  laws 
of  Boyle,  Charles,  and  Avogadro,  and  that  on  this  assumption  the 
depression  of  the  freezing-point  of  a  solvent  could  be  calculated  by 
means  of  a  simple  formula.  He  also  showed  that  the  exceptions  which 
occurred  to  Eaoult's  laws,  when  applied  to  aqueous  solutions  of 
electrolytes,  could  be  explained  by  the  assumption,  first  made  by 
Arrhenius,  that  these  latter  in  solution  are  partly  dissociated  into  their 
ions.  The  result  of  all  this  work  was  to  establish  a  general  theoiy 
applicable  to  all  solutions  which  has  been  widespread  in  its  appli- 
cations.    It  is  true  that  Van't  Hoff' s  theory  lias  been  violentlv  attacked  ; , 


but  it  enables  us  to  calculate  the  depa-ession  of  the  freezing-points  of  a 
large  number  of  solvents.  To  do  this  it  is  necessarj^  to  know  the  latent 
heat  of  fusion  of  the  pure  solvent  and  the  absolute  temperature  of  the 
freezing-point  of  the  solution.  That  the  numbers  calculated  are  in  very 
close  accord  with  the  experimental  values  constitutes  a  strong  argu- 
ment in  favour  of  the  theory.  From  this  time  the  study  of  alloys 
began  to  make  rapid  progress.  Laurie  (Chem.  Soc.  Jour.  1888),  by 
measuring  the  potential  difference  of  voltaic  cells  composed  of  plates 
of  alloy  and  the  more  negative  element  immersed  in  a  solution  of  a  salt 
of  one  of  the  component  metals,  obtained  evidence  of  the  existence 
of  compounds  such  as  CuZna.CuaSn.  In  1889  F.  H.  Neville  and  I, 
whilst  repeating  Raoult's  experiments  on  the  lowering  of  the  freezing- 
point  of  organic  solvents,  thought  that  it  was  possible  that  the  well- 
inown  fact  that  alloys  often  freeze  at  a  lower  temperature  than  either 
■of  their  constituents  might  be  explained  in  a  similar  way.  In  a  pre- 
liminary note  communicated  to  the  Chemical  Society  on  March  21, 
1889,  on  the  same  evening  that  Professor  Eamsay  read  his  paper  on  the 
Ttiolecular  weights  of  metals  as  determined  by  the  depression  of  the 
"v^apour  pressure,  we  showed  that  the  fall  produced  in  the  freezing- 
point  of  tin  by  dissolving  metals  in  it  was  for  dilute  solutions  directly 
proportional  to  the  concentration.  We  also  showed  that  the  fall  pro- 
duced in  the  freezing-point  of  tin  by  the  solution  of  one  atcsiiic  weight 
of  metal  in  100  atomic  weights  of  tin  was  a  constant. 

G.  Tannman  about  the  same  time  (Zeit.  PhysikaL  Chemie,  III.,  44, 
1889)  arrived  at  a  similar  conclusion,  using  mercury  as  a  solvent. 

These  experiments  helped  to  establish  the  similarity  between  the 
liehaviour  of  metallic  solutions  or  alloys  and  that  of  aqueous  and  other 
solutions  of  organic  compounds  in  organic  solvents.  That  our  experi- 
ments were  correct  seemed  probable  from  the  agreement  between  the 
observed  depression  of  the  freezing-point  and  the  value  calculated  from 
Van't  Hoff's  formula  for  the  case  of  those  few  metals  whose  latent 
heats  of  fusion  had  been  determined  with  any  approach  to  accuracy. 

Our  experiments,  subsequently  extended  to  other  solvents,  led  to 
the  conclusion  that  in  the  case  of  most  metals  dissolved  in  tin  the 
molecular  weight  is  identical  with  the  atomic  weight ;  in  other  words, 
that  the  metals  in  solution  are  monatomic.  This  conclusion,  however, 
involves  certain  assumptions.  Prof.  Eamsay 's  experiments  on  the 
lowering  of  the  vapour  pressure  of  certain  amalgams  point  to  a  similar 

So  far  our  work  had  been  carried  out  with  mercury-  thermometere, 
standardised  against  a  platinum  resista.nce  pjTometer,  but  it  was  evident 
that,  if  it  was  to  be  continued,  we  must  have  some  method  of  extend- 
ing our  experiments  to  alloys  which  freeze  at  high  temperatures.  The 
thermo  couple  was  not  at  this  stage  a  reUable  instrument ;  fortunately, 
however,  Callendar  and  Griffiths  had  brought  to  gi-eat  perfection  the 
electrical  resistance  pyrometer  (Phil.  Trans.  A,  1887  and  1891).  Dr. 
E.  H.  Griffiths  kindly  came  to  our  aid,  and  with  his  help  we  installed 
a  complete  electrical  resistance  set.  As  at  this  time  the  freezing-points 
of  pure  substances  above  300°  were  not  known  with  any  degi-ee  of 
accuracy,  we  began  by  making  these  measurements :  — 



Table  of  Freezing-points. 


Burgess  & 



&  Wien, 



&  Griffiths, 



&  Heycock, 




High  Tem- 




Tin     ,          . 




Zinc  .... 






Lead  .... 






Antimony   . 




630-7  & 

;  Magnesium. 


















Gold  .... 












Sulphur  B.P. 






'  Contaminated  with  silicon. 

''  Known  to  be  imiJure. 

With  the  exception  of  silver  and  gold,  these  metals  were  the  purest 
oBlainable  in  commerce. 

Two  facts  are  evident  from  the  consideration  of  this  table :  (a)  the 
remarkable  accuracy  of  Callendar's  formula  connecting  the  Tempera- 
ture Centigrade  with  the  change  of  resistance  of  a  pure  platinum  wire  ; 
(b)  the  accuracy  of  Callendar  and  Griffiths'  determination  of  the  boiling- 
point  of  sulphur.  Although  the  platinum  resistance  pyrometer  had  at 
this  time  only  been  compared  with  the  air  thermometer  up  to  600°  C, 
it  will  be  noted  that  the  exterpolation  from  600°  to  nearly  1,100  was 

I  cannot  leave  the  subject  of  high-temperature  measurements  with- 
out referring  to  the  specially  valua,ble  work  of  Burgess,  and  also  to 
Eza  Griffiths'  book  on  high-temperature  measurements,  which  contains 
an  excellent  summary  of  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge  of  this 
important  subject. 

During  the  period  that  the  above  work  on  non-ferrous  alloys  was 
being  done,  great  progress  was  being  made  in  the  study  of  iron  and 
steel  by  Osmond  and  Le  Chatelier.  In  1890  the  Institute  of  Mechanical 
Enguieers,  not  apparently  without  considerable  misgivings  on  the  part 
of  some  of  its  members,  formed  an  Alloys  Eesearch  Committee.  This 
Committee  invited  Professor  (afterwards  Sir  Wilham)  Eoberts-Austen 
to  undertake  research  work  for  them.  The  results  of  his  investigations 
are  contained  in  a  series  of  five  valuable  reports,  extending  from  1891 
to  1899,  published  in  the  Journal  of  the  Institute.  The  first  report 
eontained  a  description  of  an  improved  form  of  the  Le  Chatelier  record- 
ing pyi-ometer,  and  the  instrument  has  since  proved  a  powerful  weapon 
of  research.  In  the  second  report,  issued  in  1893,  the  effects  on  the 
properties  of  copper  of  small  quantities  of  arsenic,  bismuth,  and 
antimony  were  discussed.  Whilst  some  engineers  advocated,  others 
as  strongly  controverted,  the  beneficial  results  of  small  tjuantities  of 


arsenic  on  the  copper  used  for  the  fireboxes  of  locomotives.  The 
report  showed  that  the  presence  of  from  "S-l  per  cent,  of  arsenic  was 
highly  beneficial.  The  third  report  dealt  with  electric  welding  and 
the  production  of  alloys  of  iron  and  aluminium.  The  fourth  report 
is  particularly  valuable,  as  it  contains  a  resume  of  the  Bakerian  Lecture 
given  by  Eoberts-Austen  on  the  diffusion  of  metals  in  the  solid  state, 
in  which  he  showed  that  gold,  even  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  100°, 
could  penetrate  into  lead,  and  that  iron  became  carbonised  at  a  low 
red  heat  by  contact  with  a  diamond  in  a  vacuum.  In  1899  the  fifth 
report  appeared,  on  the  effects  of  the  addition  of  carbon  to  iron.  This 
report,  is  of  especial  importance,  because,  besides  a  description  of  the 
thermal  effects  produced  by  carbon,  which  he  carefully  plotted  and 
photographed,  he  described  the  microscopical  appearance  of  the  various 
constituents  of  iron.  The  materials  of  this  report,  together  with  the 
work  of  Osmond  and  others  on  steel  and  iron,  provided  much  of  the 
material  on  which  Professor  Bakhuis  Eoozeboom  founded  the  iron 
carbon  equilibrium  diagram.  Eeference  should  also  be  made  to  the 
very  valuable  paper  by  Stansfield  on  the  present  position  of  the  solution 
theory  of  carbonised  iron  {Journ.  Iron  and  Steel  Inst.,  11,  1900, 
p.  317).  It  may  be  said  of  this  fifth  report,  and  the  two  papers  just 
refeiTed  to,  that  they  foi^m  the  most  important  contribution  to  the  study 
of  iron  and  steel  that  has  ever  been  published.  Although  the  diagram 
for  the  equilibrium  of  iron  and  carbon  does  not  represent  the  whole 
of  the  facts,  it  affords  the  most  important  clue  to  these  alloys,  and 
undoubtedly  forms  the  basis  of  most  of  the  modern  practice  of  steel 
manufacture.     (Slide  showing  iron  carbon  diagram.) 

Many  workers,  both  at  home  and  abroad,  were  now  actively  engaged 
in  metallurgical  work — Stead,  Osmond,  Le  Chatelier,  Arnold,  Hadfield, 
Carpenter,  Ewing,  Eosenhain,  and  others  too  numerous  to  mention. 

In  1897  Neville  and  I  determined  the  complete  freezing-point  curve 
of  the  copper-tin  alloys,  confirming  and  extending  the  work  of  Eoberts- 
Austen,  Stansfield,  and  Le  Chatelier;  but  the  real  meaning  of  the 
curve  remained  as  much  of  a  mystery  as  ever.  Early  in  1900  Sir  G. 
Stokes  suggested  to  us  that  we  should  make  a  microscopic  examination 
of  a  few  bronzes  as  an  aid  to  the  interpretation  of  the  singularities 
of  the  freezing-point  curve.  An  account  of  this  Avork,  which  occupied 
us  for  more  than  two  years,  was  pubhshed  as  the  Bakerian  Lecture 
of  the  Eoyal  Society  in  February  1903.  Whilst  preparing  a  number 
of  copper-tin  alloys  of  known  composition  we  were  struck  by  the  fact 
that  the  crystalline  pattern  which  developed  on  the  free  surface  of  the 
slowly  cooled  alloys  was  entirely  unlike  the  structure  developed  by 
polishing  and  etching  sections  cmt  from  the  interior;  it  therefore 
appeared  probable  that  changes  were  going  on  within  the  alloys  as 
they  cooled.  In  the  hope  that,  as  Sorby  had  shown  in  the  case  of 
steel,  we  could  stereotype  or  fix  the  change  by  sudden  cooling,  we 
melted  small  ingots  of  the  copper-tin  alloys  and  slowly  cooled  them 
to  selected  temperatures  and  then  suddenly  chilled  them  in  water.  The 
results  of  this  treatment  were  communicated  to  the  Eoyal  Society  and 
pubhshed  in  the  Proceedings,  February  1901.  (Slides  showing  effects 
of  chilling  alloys.) 

B. — CHEMISTRY.  57 

To  apply  this  method  to  a  selected  alloy  we  first  determined  its 
cooling  curve  by  means  of  an  automatic  recorder,  the  curve  usually 
showing  several  halts  or  steps  in  it.  The  temperature  of  the  highest 
of  these  steps  corresponded  with  a  point  on  the  liquidus,  i.e.,  when 
solid  first  separated  out  from  the  molten  mass.  To  ascertain  what 
occurred  at  the  subsequent  halts,  ingots  of  the  melted  alloy  were  slowly 
cooled  to  within  a  few  degrees  above  and  below  the  halt  and  then 
chilled,  with  the  result  just  seen  on  the  screen. 

The  method  of  chilling  also  enabled  us  to  fix,  with  some  degree 
of  accuracy,  the  position  of  points  on  the  solidus.  If  an  alloy,  chilled 
when  it  is  partly  solid  and  partly  liquid,  is  polished  and  etched,  it 
will  be  seen  to  consist  of  large  primary  combs  embedded  in  a  matrix 
consisting  of  mother  liquor,  in  which  are  disseminated  numerous  small 
combs,  which  we  called  '  chilled  primaay.'  By  repeating  the  process 
at  successively  lower  and  lower  temperatures  we  obtained  a  point  at 
which  the  chilled  primary  no  longer  formed,  i.e.,  the  upper  limit  of 
the  solidus. 

Although  we  made  but  few  determinations  of  the  physical  properties 
of  the  alloys,  it  is  needless  to  say  how  much  they  vary  with  the 
temperature  and  with  the  rapidity  with  which  they  are  heated  or  cooled. 

From  a  consideration  of  the  sing-ularities  in  the  liquidus  curve, 
coupled  with  the  microscopic  examination  of  slowly  cooled  and  chilled 
alloys,  we  were  able  to  divide  the  copper- tin  alloys  into  certain  groups 
having  special  qualities.  It  would  take  far  too  long  to  discuss  these 
divisions.  In  interpreting  our  result  we  were  greatly  assisted  not  only 
by  the  application  of  the  phase  rule,  but  also  by  the  application  of 
Roozeboom's  theory  of  solid  solution  (unfortunately  Professor  Rooze- 
boom's  letters  w^ere  destroyed  by  fire  in  June  1910)  and  by  the  advice 
he  kindly  gave  us.  At  the  time  the  paper  was  published  we  expressly 
stated  that  we  did  not  regard  all  our  results  as  final,  as  m\ich  more 
work  was  required  to  clear  up  points  still  obscure.  Other  workers — 
Shepherd  and  Blough,  Giolitti  and  Tavanti— have  somewhat  modified 
the  diagram.     (Slides  shown.) 

Neither  Shepherd  and  Blough  nor  Hoyt  have  published  the  photo- 
micrographs upon  which  their  results  are  based,  so  that  it  is  impos- 
sible to  criticise  their  conclusions.  Giolitti  and  Tavanti  have  published 
some  microphotographs,  from  which  it  seems  that  they  had  not  allowed 
sufficient  time  for  equilibrium  to  be  established.  In  this  connection  I 
must  call  attention  to  the  excellent  work  of  Haughton  on  the  con- 
strtution  of  the  alloys  of  copper  and  tin  [Journ.  Institute  of  Metals, 
March  1915).  He  investigated  the  alloys  rich  in  tin,  and  illustrated 
his  conclusions  by  singularly  beautiful  microphotographs,  and  has  done 
much  to  clear  up  doubtful  points  in  this  region  of  the  diagram.  I 
have  dwelt  at  some  length  on  this  work,  for  copper-tin  is  probably  the 
first  of  the  binary  alloys  on  which  an  attempt  had  been  made  to 
determine  the  changes  which  take  place  in  passing  from  one  pure 
constituent  to  the  other.  I  would  again  call  attention  to  the  fact  that 
without  a  working  theory  of  solution  the  interpretation  of  the  results 
would  have  been  impossible. 

Smce   1900,  many  complete  equilibrium  diagrams  have  been  pub- 


lished;  amongst  them  may  be  mentioned  the  work  of  Rosenhain  and 
Tucker  on  the  lead-tin  alloys  (Phil.  Trans.,  1908),  in  which  they  describe 
hitherto  unsuspected  changes  on  the  lead  rich  side  which  go  on  when 
these  alloys  are  at  quite  low  temperatures,  also  the  constitution  of  the 
alloys  of  aluminium  and  zinc;  the  work  of  Eosenhain  and  ArchButt 
(Phil.  Trans.,  1911),  and  quite  recently  the  excellent  work  of  Vivian, 
on  the  alloys  of  tin  and  phosphorus,  which  has  thrown  an  entirely 
new  light  on  this  difficult  subject. 

So  far  I  have  called  attention  to  some  of  the  difficulties  encountered, 
in  the  examination  of  binary  alloys.  When  we  come  to  ternary  alloys 
the  difficulties  of  carrying  out  an  investigation  are  enormously  increased, 
whilst  with  quaternary  alloys  they  seem  almost  insurmountable ;  in  the 
case  of  steels  containing  always  six,  and  usually  more,  constituents,  we 
can  only  hope  to  get  information  by  purely  empirical  methods. 

Large  numbers  of  the  elements  and  their  compounds  which  originally 
were  laboriously  prepared  and  investigated  in  the  laboratory  and 
remained  dormant  as  chemical  curiosities  for  many  years  have,  in  the 
fulness  of  time,  taken  their  places  as  important  and,  indeed,  essential 
articles  of  commerce.  Passing  over  the  difficulties  encountered  by 
Davy  in  the  preparation  of  metallic  sodium  and  by  Faraday  in  the 
production  of  benzene  (both  of  which  materials  are  manufactured  in 
enormous  quantities  at  the  present  time),  I  may  remark  that  even 
during  my  own  lifetime  I  have  seen  a  vast  number  of  substances  trans- 
ferred from  the  category  of  rare  laboratory  products  to  that  which 
comprises  materials  of  the  utmost  importance  to  the  modern  metal- 
lurgical industries.  A  few  decades  ago,  aluminium,  chromium,  cerium, 
thorium,  tungsten,  manganese,  magnesium,  molybdenum,  nickel, 
calcium  and  calcium  carbide,  carborundum,  and  acetylene  were  un- 
known outside  the  chemical  laboratory  of  the  purely  scientific  investi- 
gator; to-day  these  elements,  their  compounds  and  alloys,  are 
amongst  the  most  valuable  of  our  industrial  metallic  products.  They 
are  essential  in  the  manufacture  of  high-speed  steels,  of  ai'mour-plate, 
of  filaments  for  the  electric  bulb  lamp,  of  incandescent  gas  mantles,  and 
of  countless  other  products  of  modern  scientific  industry. 

All  these  metallic  elements  and  compounds  were  discovered,  and 
their  industrial  uses  foreshadowed,  during  the  course  of  the  purelv 
academic  research  work  carried  out  in  our  Universities  and  Colleges  ;  all 
have  become  the  materials  upon  which  great  and  lucrative  industries 
have  been  built  up.  Although  the  scientific  worker  has  certainly  not  ex- 
hibited any  cupidity  in  the  past — although  he  has  been  content  to  rejoice 
in  his  own  contributions  to  knowledge,  and  to  see  great  manufacturing 
enterprises  founded  upon  his  work — it  is  clear  that  the  obhgation 
devolves  upon  those  who  have  reaped  in  the  world's  markets  the  fi-uit 
of  scientific  discovery  to  pi'ovide  from  their  harvest  the  financial  aid 
without  which  scientific  research  cannot  be  continued. 

The  truth  of  this  statement  is  well  understood  by  those  of  our  great 
industrial  leaders  who  are  engaged  in  translating  the  results  of  scientific 
research  into  technical  practice.  As  evidence  of  this  I  may  quote  the 
magnificent  donation  of  210,000Z.  by  the  British  Oil  Companies  towards 
the  endowment  of  the  School  of  Chemistry  in  the  University  of  Cam- 

B. — CHEMISTRY.  59 

bridge,  the  noble  bequest  of  the  late  Dr.  Messel,  one  of  the  most  en- 
hghtened  of  our  technical  chemists,  for  defraying  the  cost  of  scientific 
research,  the  gifts  of  the  late  Dr.  Ludwig  Mond  towards  tlie  upkeep 
and  expansion  of  the  Eoyal  Institution,  one  of  the  strongholds  of  British 
chemical  research,  and  the  financial  support  given  by  the  Goldsmiths' 
and  others  of  the  great  City  of  London  livery  Companies  (initiated 
largely  by  the  late  Sir  Frederick  Abel,  Sir  Frederick  Bramwell,  and 
Mr.  George  Matthey),  to  the  foundation  of  the  Imperial  College  of 
Science  and  Technology.  The  men  who  initiated  these  gifts  have  been 
themselves  intimately  associated  with  developments  both  in.  science 
and  industry ;  they  have  understood  that  the  field  must  be  prepared 
before  the  crop  can  be  reaped.  Fortunately  our  great  chemical  indus- 
tries are,  for  the  most  part,  controlled,  and.  administered,  by  men  fully 
conversant  with  the  mode  in  which  technical  progress  and  prosperity 
follow  upon  scientific  achievement ;  and  it  is  my  pleasant  duty  to  record 
that  within  the  last  few  weeks  the  directors  of  one  of  our  greatest 
chemical-manufacturing  concerns  have,  with  the  consent  of  their 
shareholders,  devoted  £100,000  to  research.  Doubtless  other  chemical 
industries  will  in  due  course  realise  what  they  have  to  gain  by  an  ade- 
quate appreciation  of  pure  science. 

If  the  effort  now  being  made  to  establish  a  comprehensive  scheme 
for  the  resuscitation  of  chemical  industry  within  our  Empire  is  to 
succeed,  financial  support  on  a  veiy  liberal  scale  must  be  forthcoming, 
from  the  industry  itself,  for  the  advancement  of  purely  scientific 
research.  This  question  has  been  treated  recently  in  so  able  a  fashion 
by  Lord  Moulton  that  nothing  now  remains  but  to  await  the  results  of 
his  appeal  for  funds  in  aid  of  the  advancement  of  pure  science. 

In  order  to  pi'event  disappointment,  and  a  possible  reaction  in  the 
future,  in  those  who  endow  pure  research,  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  word 
of  wai'ning.  It  must  be  remembered  that  the  history  of  science  abounds 
m  illustrations  of  discoveries,  regarded  at  the  time  as  trivial,  which  have 
In  after  years  become  epoch-making. 

In  illustration  I  would  cite  Faraday's  discovery  of  electro-magnetic 
induction.  He  found  that  when  a  bar  magnet  was  thrust  into  the 
core  of  a  bobbin  of  insulated  copper  wire,  whose  tei-minals  were  con- 
nected with  a  galvanometer,  a  momentary  current  was  produced ; 
whilst  on  withdi-awing  the  magnet  a  momentary  reverse  current 
occurred ;  a  purely  scientific  experiment  destined  in  later  years  to 
develop  into  the  dynamo  and  with  it  the  whole  electrical  industiy. 
.\nother  illustration  may  be  given :  Guyton  de  Morveau,  Northmore, 
Davy,  Faraday  and  Cagniard  Latour  between  1800  and  1850  were 
engaged  in  liquefying  many  of  the  gases.  Hydrogen,  oxygen,  nitrogen, 
marsh  gas,  cai'bon-monoxide,  and  nitric  oxide,  however,  resisted  all 
efforts,  until  the  work  of  Joule  and  .\ndrews  gave  the  clue  to  the  causes 
of  failure.  Some  thirty  years  later  by  careful  application  of  the 
theoretical  considerations  all  the  gases  were  liquefied.  The  liquefaction 
of  oxygen  and  nitrogen  now  forms  the  basis  of  a  very  large  and 
important  industry. 

Such  cases  can  be  multiplied  indefinitely  in  all  branches  of 


Perhaps  the  most  pressing  need  of  the  present  day  lies  in  the 
cultivation  of  a  better  understanding  between  our  great  masters  of 
productive  industry,  the  shareholders  to  whom  they  are  in  the  first 
degree  responsible,  and  our  scientific  workers ;  if,  by  reason  of  any 
turbidity  of  vision,  our  large  manufacturing  corporations  fail  to  discern 
that,  in  their  own  interest,  the  financial  support  of  purely  scientific 
research  should  be  one  of  their  first  cares,  technical  advance  will  slacken 
and  other  nations,  adopting  a  more  far-sighted  policy,  will  forge  ahead 
in  science  and  technology.  It  should,  I  venture  to  think,  be  the 
bounden  duty  of  everyone  who  has  at  heart  the  aims  and  objects  of 
the  British  Association  to  preach  the  doctrine  that  in  closer  sympathy 
between  all  classes  of  productive  labour,  manual  and  intellectual,  lies 
our  only  hope  for  the  future.  I  cannot  do  better  than  conclude  by 
quoting  the  words  of  Pope,  one  of  our  most  characteristically  British 
poets : 

'  By  mutual  confidence  and  mutual  aid 
Great  deeds  are  done  and  great  discoveries  made.' 









Of  the  many  distinguished  men  who  have  preceded  me  in  this  chair 
only  eight  can  be  described  as  essentially  palaeontologists ;  and  among 
them  few  seized  the  occasion  to  expound  the  broader  principles  of  their 
science.  I  propose,  then,  to  consider  the  Relations  of  Palaeontology  to 
the  other  Natural  Sciences,  especially  the  Biological,  to  discuss  its 
particular  contribution  to  biological  thought,  and  to  inquire  whether  its 
facts  justify  certain  hypotheses  frequently  put  forward  in  its  name. 
Several  of  those  hypotheses  were  presented  to  you  in  his  usual  masterly 
manner  by  Dr.  Smith  Woodwaixi  in  1909,  and  yet  others  are  clearly 
elucidated  in  two  Introductions  to  Palaeontology  which  we  have  been 
delighted  to  welcome  as  British  products :  the  books  by  Dr.  Morley 
Davies  and  Dr.  H.  L.  Hawkins.  If  I  subject  those  attractive  specula- 
tions to  cold  analysis  it  is  from  no  want  of  admiration  or  even  sympathy, 
for  in  younger  days  I  too  have  sported  with  Vitalism  in  the  shade 
and  been  caught  in  the  tangles  of  Transcendental  hair. 

The  Differentia  of  Palaeontology. 

Like  Botany  and  Zoology,  Palaeontology  describes  the  external 
and  internal  form  and  structure  of  animals  and  plants ;  and  on  this 
description  it  bases,  first,  a  systematio  classification  of  its  material; 
secondly,  those  broader  inductions  of  comparative  anatomy  which  con- 
stitute morphology,  or  the  science  of  foi'm.  Arising  out  of  these  studies 
are  the  questions  of  relation — real  or  apparent  kinship,  lines  of  descent, 
the  how  and  the  why  of  evolution^ — the  answers  to  which  reflect  their 
light  back  on  our  morphological  and  classificatory  systems.  By  a 
different  appi'oach  we  map  the  geographical  distribution  of  genera  and 
species,  thus  helping  to  elucidate  changes  of  land  and  sea,  and  so  barring 
out  one  hypothesis  of  racial  descent  or  iinlocking  the  door  to  another. 
Again,  we  study  collective  faunas  and  floras,  unravelling  the  interplay 
of  their  component  animals  and  plants,  or  inferring  from  each  assem- 
blage the  climatic  and  other  physical  agents  that  favoured,  selected,  and 
delimited  it. 


All  this,  it  may  be  said,  is  nothing  more  than  the  Botany  and 
Zoology  of  the  past.  True,  the  general  absence  of  any  soft  tissues,  and 
the  obscured  or  fragmentary  condition  of  those  harder  parts  which  alone 
are  preserved,  mate  the  studies  of  the  palaeontologist  more  difficult,  and 
drive  him  to  special  methods.  But  the  result  is  less  complete :  in  short, 
an  inferior  and  unattractive  branch  of  Biology.  Let  us  relegate  it  to 
Section  C ! 

Certainly  the  relation  of  Palaeontology  to  Geology  is  obvious.  It  is 
a  ipart  of  that  general  history  of  the  Earth  which  is  Geology.  And  it  is 
an  essential  part  even  of  physical  geology,  for  without  life  not  merely 
would  our  series  of  strata  have  lacked  the  coal  measures,  the  mountain 
limestones,  the  chalks,  and  the  siliceous  earths,  but  the  changes  of  land 
and  sea  would  have  been  far  other.  To  the  scientific  interpreter  of 
Earth-history,  the  importance  of  fossils  lies  fii'st  in  their  value  as  date- 
markers  ;  secondly,  in  the  light  which  they  cast  on  bai-riers  and  cuiTents, 
on  seasonal  and  climatic  variation.  Conversely,  the  history  of  life  has 
itself  been  influenced  by  geologic  change.  But  all  this  is  just  as  true  of 
the  present  inhabitants  of  the  globe  as  it  is  of  their  predecessors.  It 
does  not  give  the  differentia  of  Palaeontology. 

That  which  above  all  distinguishes  Palaeontology — the  study  of 
ancient  creatures,  from  Neontology — the  study  of  creatures  now  living, 
that  which  raises  it  above  the  more  description  of  extinct  assemblages  of 
life-forms,  is  the  concept  of  Time.  Not  the  quasi-absolut-e  time  of  the 
clock,  or  rather,  of  the  sun ;  not  various  unrelated  durations ;  but  an 
orderly  and  related  succession,  coextensive,  in  theory  at  least,  with 
the  whole  history  of  life  on  this  planet.  The  bearing  of  this  obvious 
statement  will  appear  from  one  or  two  simple  illustrations. 

Effect  of  the  Time-concept  on  Principles  of  Classificatio^i. 

Adopting  the  well-tried  metaphor,  let  us  imagine  the  ti'ee  of  life 
buried,  except  for  its  topmost  twigs,  beneath  a  sand-dune.  The  neontolo- 
gist  sees  only  the  unburied  twigs.  He  recognises  certain  rough  group- 
ings, and  constructs  a  classification  accordingly.  From  various  hints 
he  may  shrewdly  infer  that  some  twigs  come  from  one  branch,  some 
from  another;  but  the  relations  of  the  branches  to  the  main  steni  are 
matters  of  speculation,  and  when  branches  have  become  so  interlaced 
that  their  twigs  have  long  been  subjected  to  the  same  external  influences, 
he  wiU  probably  be  led  to  incorrect  conclusions.  The  palaeontologist 
then  comes,  shovels  away  the  sand,  and  by  degrees  exposes  the  true 
relations  of  branches  and  twigs.  His  work  is  not  yet  accomplished,  and 
probably  he  never  will  reveal  the  root  and  lower  part  of  the  ti^ee;  but 
already  he  has  corrected  many  natural,  if  not  inevitable,  en'ors  of  the 

I  could  easily  occupy  the  rest  of  this  hour  by  discussing  the  pro- 
found changes  wrought  by  this  conception  on  our  classification.  It  is 
not  that  Orders  and  Classes  hitherto  unknown  have  been  discovered, 
not  that  some  erroneous  allocations  have  been  corrected,  but  the  whole 
basis  of  our  system  is  being  shifted.     So  long  as  we  were  dealing  with 

0. — GEOLOGY.  63 

a  horizontal  section  across  the  tree  of  life — that  is  to  say,  with  an  assem- 
blage of  approximately  contemporaneous  forms — or  even  with  a  number 
of  such  horizontal  sections,  so  long  were  we  confined  to  simple  descrip- 
tion. Any  attempt  to  frame  a  causal  connection  was  bound  to  be 
speculative.  Certain  relations  of  structure,  as  of  cloven  hooves  with 
horns  and  with  a  ruminant  stomach,  were  observed,  but,  as  Cuvier  him- 
self insisted,  the  laws  based  on  such  facts  were  purely  empirical. 
Huxley,  then,  was  justified  in  maintaining,  as  he  did  in  1863  and  for 
long  after,  that  a  zoological  classification  could  be  based  with  profit  on 
*  purely  structural  considerations '  alone.  '  Every  group  in  that  [kind 
of]  classification  is  such  in  virtue  of  certain  structural  characters,  which 
are  not  only  common  to  the  members  of  that  group,  but  distinguish  it 
from  all  others ;  and  the  statement  of  these  constitutes  the  definition  of 
the  group.*  In  such  a  classification  the  groups  or  categories — from 
species  and  genera  up  to  phyla — are  the  expressions  of  an  arbitrary  in- 
tellectual decision.  From  Linnaeus  downwards  botanists  and  zoologists 
have  sought  for  a  classification  that  should  be  not  arbitrary  but  natural, 
though  what  they  meant  by  '  natural  '  neither  Linnaeus  nor  his  succes- 
sors either  could  or  would  say.  Not,  that  is,  until  the  doctrine  of 
descent  was  firmly  established,  and  even  now  its  application  remains 
impracticable,  except  in  those  cases  where  sufficient  proof  of  genetic 
connection  has  been  furnished — as  it  has  been  mainly  by  palaeontology. 
In  many  cases  we  now  perceive  the  causal  connection ;  and  we  recognise 
that  our  groupings,  so  far  as  they  follow  the  blood-red  clue,  are  not 
arbitrary  but  tables  of  natural  affinity. 

Fresh  difficulties,  however,  arise.  Consider  the  branching  of  a  tree. 
It  is  easy  to  distinguish  the  twigs  and  the  branches  each  from  each, 
but  where  are  we  to  draw  the  line  along  each  ascending  stem  ?  To  con- 
vey the  new  conception  of  change  in  time  we  must  introduce  a  new  set 
of  systematic  categories,  called  grades  or  series,  keeping  our  old  cate- 
gories of  families,  orders,  and  the  like  for  the  vertical  divisions  between 
the  branches.  Thus,  many  crinoids  with  pinnulate  arms  arose  from 
others  in  which  the  arms  were  non-pinnulate.  "We  cannot  place  them 
in  an  Order  by  themselves,  because  the  ancestors  belonged  to  two  or 
three  Orders.  We  must  keep  them  in  the  same  Orders  as  their  respec- 
tive ancestors,  but  distinguish  a  Grade  Pinnata  from  a  Grade  Impin- 

This  sounds  fairly  simple,  and  for  the  larger  groups  so  it  is.  But 
when  we  consider  the  genus,  we  are  met  with  the  difficulty  that  many 
of  our  existing  genera  represent  grades  of  structure  affecting  a  number 
of  species,  and  several  of  those  species  can  be  traced  back  through 
previous  grades.  This  has  long  been  recognised,  but  I  take  a  modern 
instance  from  H.  F.  Osborn's  '  Equidae  '  (1918,  Mem.  Amer.  Mus. 
N.H.,  n.s.  n.  51):  'The  line  between  such  species  as  Miohipptt-s 
(Mesohippus)  meterilophus  and  M.  hroxhyatylus  of  the  Leptauchenia 
zone  and  M.  (Mesohipptis)  intermedius  of  the  Protoceras  zone  is  purely 
arbitrary.  It  is  obvious  that  members  of  more  than  one  phylum  [i.e.. 
lineage]  are  passing  from  one  genus  into  the  next,  and  MesMppus 
metetdophus  and  M.  hrachystylus  may  with  equal  consistency  be 
referred  to  Miohippti,s.' 






















The  problem  is  reduced  to  its  simplest  elements  in  the  following 
scheme:  — 

/  Italics, 

f  Lower-case  Roman. 

F  Capitals  Roman. 

<f>  Greek. 

Our  genera  are  equivalent  to  the  forms  of  letters :' Itahcs,  Roman, 
Greek,  and  so  forth.  The  successive  species  are  the  letters  themselves. 
Are  we  to  make  each  species  a  genus?  Or  would  it  not  be  better  to 
confess  that  here,  as  in  the  case  of  many  larger  groups,  our  basis  of 
classification  is  wrong?  For  the  palaeontologist,  at  any  rate,  the  lineage 
o,  A,  a,  a,  is  the  all-important  concept.  Between  these  forms  he  finds 
every  gradation ;  but  between  a  and  b  he  perceives  no  connection. 

;  In  the  old  classification  the  vertical  divisions  either  were  arbitraiy, 
or  were  gaps  due  to  ignorance.  We  are  gradually  substituting  a 
classification  in  which  the  vertical  divisions  are  based  on  knowledge, 
and  the  horizontal  divisions,  though  in  some  degree  arbitrary,  often 
coincide  with  relatively  sudden  or  physiologically  important  changes  of 

This  brings  us  to  the  last  point  of  contrast.  Our  definitions  can 
no  longer  have  the  rigid  character  emphasised  by  Huxley.  They  are 
no  longer  purely  descriptive.  When  it  devolved  on  me  to  draw  up 
a  definition  of  the  great  group  Echinoderma,  a  definition  that  should 
include  all  tlTe  fossils,  I  found  that  scarcely  a  character  given  in  the 
textbooks  could  certainly  be  predicated  of  every  member  of  the  group. 
The  answer  to  the  question,  '  What  is  an  Echinoderm?  '  fand  you  may 
substitute  Mollusc,  or  Vertebrate,  or  what  name  you  please)  has  to 
be  of  this  nature:  An  Echinoderm  is  an  animal  descended  from  an 
ancestor  possessed  of  such-and-such  characters  differentiating  it  from 
other  animal  forms,  and  it  still  retains  the  imprint  of  that  ancestor, 
though  modified  and  obscured  in  various  ways  according  to  the  class, 
order,  family,  and  genus  to  which  it  belongs.  The  definitions  given 
by  Professor  Charles  Schuchert  in  his  classification  of  the  Brachiopoda 
(1913,  Eastman's  '  Zittel  ')  represent  an  interesting  attempt  to  put 
these  principles  into  practice.  The  Family  Forambonitidae,  for  instance, 
is  thus  defined:  'Derived  (out  of  Syntrophiidae") ,  progressive,  semi- 
rostrate  Pentamerids,  with  the  deltidia  and  chiliJia  vanishing  more 
and  more  in  time.  Spondylia  and  cruralia  present,  but  the  former 
tends  to  thicken  and  unite  with  the  ventral  valve.' 

The  old  form  of  diagnosis  was  per  genus  et  dijferentiam.  The  new 
form  is  fer  proavuni  et  modificationent. 

Even  the  conception  of  our  fundamental  unit,  the  species,  is  in- 
secure owing  to  the  discovery  of  gradual  changes.  But  this  is  a 
difficulty  which  the  palaeontologist  shares  with  the  neontologist. 

Let  us  consider  another  way  in  which  the  time-concept  has  affected 

Effect  of  the  Time-concept  on  Ideas  of  Relationship. 

Etienne  Geoffroy-Saint  Hilaire  was  the  first  the  embryonic 
stages  of  certain  animals  with  the  adult  stages  of  animals  considered 

O. — GEOLOGY.  65 

inferior.  Through,  the  more  precise  observations  of  Von  Baer,  Louis 
Agasaiz,  and  others,  the  idea  grew  until  it  was  crystaUised  by  the 
poetic  imagination  of  Haeckel  in  his  fundamental  law  of  the  reproduction 
of  life — namely,  that  every  creature  tends  in  the  course  of  its  individual 
development  to  pass  through  stages  similar  to  those  passed  tlu'ough 
in  the  history  of  its  race.  This  principle  is  of  value  if  applied  with 
the  necessary  safeguards.  If  it  was  ever  brought  into  disrepute,  it 
was  owing  to  tlie  reckless  enthusiasm  of  some  embryologists,  who 
unwarrantably  extended  the  statement  to  all  shapes  and  structures 
observed  in  the  developing  animal,  such  as  those  evoked  by  special 
conditions  of  larval  existence,  sometimes  forgetting  that  every  con- 
ceivable ancestor  must  at  least  have  been  capable  of  earning  its  own 
livelihood.  Or,  again,  they  compared  the  early  stages  of  an  individual 
with  the  adult  structure  of  its  contemporaries  instead  of  with  that  of 
its  predecessors  in  time.  Often,  too,  the  searcher  into  the  embryology 
of  creatures  now  living  was  forced  to  study  some  form  that  really  was 
highly  specialised,  such  as  the  unstalked  Crinoid  Antedon,  and  he 
made  matters  worse  by  comparing  its  larvae  with  forms  far  too  remote 
in  time.  Allman,  for  instance,  thought  he  saw  in  the  developing 
Antedon  a  Cystid  stage,  and  so  the  Cystids  were  regarded  as  the  ancestors 
of  the  Orinoids ;  but  we  now  find  that  stage  more  closely  paralleled 
in  some  Crinoids  of  Carboniferous  and  Permian  age,  and  we  realise 
that  the  Cystid  structure  is  quite  different. 

Such  errors  were  due  to  the  ignoring  of  time  relations  or  to  lack 
of  acquaintance  with  extinct  forms,  and  were  beautifully  illustrated 
in  those  phylogenetic  trees  which,  in  the  'eighties,  every  dissector  of 
a  new  or  striking  animal  thought  it  his  duty  to  plant  at  the  end  of 
his  paper.  The  trees  have  withered,  because  they  were  not  rooted  in 
the  past. 

A  similar  mistake  was  made  by  the  palaeontologist  who,  happening 
on  a  new  fossil,  blazoned  it  forth  as  a  link  between  groups  previously 
unconnected — and  in  too  many  cases  unconnected  still.  This  action, 
natural  and  even  justifiable  under  the  old  purely  descriptive  system, 
became  fallacious  when  descent  was  taken  as  the  basis.  In  those  days 
one  heard  much  of  generalised  types,  especially  among  the  older  fossils ; 
animals  were  supposed  to  combine  the  features  of  two  or  three  classes. 
This  mode  of  thought  is  not  quite  extinct,  for  in  the  last  American 
edition  of  Zittel's  '  Palaeontology  '  Stephanocrinus  is  still  spoken  of  as 
a  Crinoid  related  to  the  Blastoids,  if  not  also  to  the  Cystids.  Let  it 
be  clear  that  these  so-called  '  generalised  '  or  '  annectant '  types  are 
not  regarded  by  their  expositors  as  ancestral.  Of  course,  a  genus 
existing  at  a  certain  period  may  give  rise  to  two  different  genera  of  a 
succeeding  period,  as  possibly  the  Devonian  Coelocrinits  evolved  into 
Agaricocrhui!;,  with  concave  base,  and  into  Dorycrinus,  with  convex 
base,  both  Carboniferous  genera.  But,  to  exemplify  the  kind  of  state- 
ment here  criticised,  perhaps  T  may  quote  from  another  distinguished 
writer  of  the  present  century :  '  The  new  genus  is  a  truly  annectant 
form  uniting  the  Melocrinidae  and  the  Platycrinidae. '  Now  the  genus 
in  question  appeared,  so  far  as  we  know,  rather  late  in  the  Lower 
Carboniferous,  whereas  both  Platycrinidae  and  Melocrinidae  were  already 

1920  g 


established  in  Middle  Silurian  time.  How  is  it  possible  that  the  far 
later  form  should  unite  these  two  ancient  families  ?  Even  a  misalliance 
is  inconceivable.  In  a  wox-d,  to  describe  any  such  forms  as  '  annectant  ' 
is  not  merely  to  misinterpret  structure  but  to  ignore  time. 

As  bold  suggestions  calling  for  subsequent  proof  these  speculations 
had  their  value,  and  they  may  be  forgiven  in  the  neontologist,  if  not 
in  the  palaeontologist,  if  we  regard  them  as  erratic  pioneer  tracks  blazed 
through  a  tangled  forest.  As  our  acquaintance  with  fossils  enlarged, 
the  general  direction  became  clearer,  and  certain  paths  were  seen  to 
be  impossible.  In  1881,  addressing  this  Association  at  York,  Huxley 
could  say :  '  Fifty  years  hence,  whoever  undertakes  to  record  the 
progress  of  palaeontology  will  note  the  present  time  as  the  epoch  in 
which  the  law  of  succession  of  the  forms  of  the  higher  animals  was 
determined  by  the  observation  of  palaeontological  facts.  He  will  point 
out  that,  just  as  Steno  and  as  Cuvier  were  enabled  from  their  knowledge 
of  the  empirical  laws  of  co-existence  of  the  parts  of  animals  to  conclude 
from  a  part  to  a  whole,  so  the  knowledge  of  the  law  of  succession  of 
forms  empowered  their  successors  to  conclude,  from  one  or  two  terms 
of  such  a  succession,  to  the  whole  series,  and  thus  to  divine  the  existence 
of  forms  of  life,  of  which,  perhaps,  no  trace  remains,  at  epochs  of 
inconceivable  remoteness  in  the  past.' 

Descent  Not  a  Corollary  oj  Succession. 
Note  that  Huxley  spoke  of  succession,  not  of  descent.  Succession 
undoubtedly  was  recognised,  but  the  relation  between  the  terms  of  the 
succession  was  little  understood,  and  there  was  no  proof  of  descent. 
Let  us  suppose  all  written  records  to  be  swept  away,  and  an  attempt 
made  to  reconstruct  English  history  from  coins.  We  could  set  out  our 
monarchs  in  true  order,  and  we  m^ight  suspect  that  the  throne  was 
hereditary;  but  if  on  that  assumption  we  were  to  make  James  I.  the 
son  of  Elizabeth — well,  but  that's  just  wliat  palaeontologists  are  con- 
stantly doing.  The  famous  diagram  of  the  Evolution  of  the  Horse  which 
Huxley  used  in  his  American  lectures  has  had  to  be  coiTected  in  the 
light  of  the  fuller  evidence  recently  tabulated  in  a  handsome  volume 
by  Professor  H.  P.  Osborn  and  his  coadjutors.  Palaeotherium,  which 
Huxley  regarded  as  a  direct  ancestor  of  the  horse,  is  now  held  to  be 
only  a  collateral,  as  the  last  of  the  Tudors  were  collateral  ancestors 
of  the  Stuarts.  The  later  Anchitherium  must  be  eliminated  from  the 
true  line  as  a  side-branch — a  Young  Pretender.  Sometimes  an  apparent 
succession  is  due  to  immigration  of  a  distant  relative  from  some  other 
region — 'The  glorious  House  of  Hanover  and  Protestant  Succession.' 
It  was,  you  will  remember,  by  such  migrations  that  Cuvier  explained 
the  renewal  of  life  when  a  previous  fauna  had  become  extinct.  He 
admitted  succession  but  not  descent.  If  he  rejected  special  creation, 
he  did  not  accept  evolution. 

Descent,  then,  is  not  a  corollary  of  succession.  Or,  to  broaden  the 
statement,  history  is  not  the  same  as  evolution.  History  is  a  succession 
of  events.  Evolution  means  that  each  event  has  sprung  from  the  pre- 
ceding one.  Not  that  the  preceding  event  was  the  active  cause  of  its 
successor,  but  that  it  was  a  necessary  condition  of  it.    For  the  evolu' 

C. — aEOLOQY*  67 

tionary  biologist,  a  species  contains  in  itself  and  its  environment  the 
possibility  of  producing  its  successor.  The  words  '  its  environment  ' 
are  necessary,  because  a  living  organism  cannot  be  conceived  apart 
from  its  environment.  They  are  important,  because  they  exclude  from 
the  idea  of  organic  evolution  the  hypothesis  that  all  subsequent  forms 
were  implicit  in  the  primordial  protoplast  alone,  and  were  manifested 
either  through  a  series  of  degradatio'ns,  as  when  Thorium  by  successive 
disintegrations  transmutes  itself  to  Lead,  or  through  fresh  develop- 
ments due  to  the  successive  loss  of  inhibiting  factors.  I  say  '  a  species 
contains  the  possibility  '  rather  than  '  the  potentiality,'  because  we 
cannot  start  by  assuming  any  kind  of  innate  power. 

Huxley,  then,  forty  years  ago,  claimed  that  palaeontologists  had 
proved  an  orderly  succession.  To-day  we  claim  to  have  proved  evolution 
by  descent.  But  how  do  we  prove  it?  The  neontologist,  for  all  his 
experimental  breeding,  has  scarcely  demonstrated  the  transmutation 
of  a  species.  The  palaeontologist  cannot  assist  at  even  a  single  birth. 
The  evidence  remains  circumstantial. 

Recapitulation  as^  Proof  of  Descent. 

Circumstantial  evidence  is  convincing  only  if  inexplicable  on  any 
other  admissible  theory.  Such  evidence  is,  I  believe,  afforded  by 
palaeontological  instances  of  Haeckel's  law — i.e.,  the  recapitulation  by 
an  individual  during  its  growth  of  stages  attained  by  adults  in  the 
previous  history  of  the  race.  You  all  know  how  this  has  been  applied 
to  the  ammonites ;  but  any  creatures  with  a  shell  or  skeleton  that  grows 
by  successive  additions  and  retains  the  earlier  stages  unaltered  can  be 
studied  by  this  method.  If  we  take  a  chronological  series  of  apparently 
related  species  or  mutations,  a^,  a^,  a*,  a*,  and  if  in  a*  we  find  that 
the  growth  stage  immediately  preceding  the  adulii  resembles  the  adult 
a^,  and  that  the  next  preceding  stage  resembles  a^,  and  so  on;  if  this 
applies  viutatis  mutandis  to  the  other  species  of  the  series;  and  if, 
further,  the  old  age  of  each  species  foreshadows  the  adult  character 
of  its  successor;  then  we  are  entitled  to  infer  that  the  relation  between 
the  species  is  one  of  descent.  Mistakes  are  liable  to  occur  for  various 
reasons,  which  we  are  learning  to  guard  against.  For  example,  the 
perennial  desire  of  youth  to  attain  a  semblance  of  maturity  leads  often 
to  the  omission  of  some  steps  in  the  orderly  process.  But  this  and 
other  eccentricities  affect  the  earlier  rather  than  the  later  stages,  so 
that  it  is  always  possible  to  identify  the  immediate  ancestor,  if  it  can 
be  found.  Here  we  have  to  remember  that  the  ancestor  may  not  have 
fived  in  the  same  locality,  and  that  therefore  a  single  cliff-section  does 
not  always  provide  a  complete  or  simple  series.  An  admirable  example 
of  the  successful  search  for  a  father  is  provided  by  R.  G.  Carruthers 
in  his  paper  on  the  evolution  of  Zaphrentis  delanouei  (1910,  Quart. 
Joum.  Geol.  Soc,  Ixvi.,  S^S).  Surely  when  we  get  a  clear  case  of 
this  kind  we  are  entitled  to  use  the  word  '  proof, '  and  to  say  that  we 
have  not  merely  observed  the  succession,  but  have  proved  the  filiation. 

It  has,  indeed,  been  objected  to  the  theory  of  recapitulation  that 
the  stages  of  individual  growth   are  an  inevitable  consequence  of  an 

r  3 


animal's  gradual  development  from  the  embryo  to  the  adult,  and  there- 
fore prove  nothing.  Even  now  there  are  those  who  maintain  that  the 
continuity  of  the  germ-plasm  is  inconsistent  with  any  true  recapitula- 
tion. Let  us  try  to  see  what  this  means.  Take  any  evolutionary  series, 
and  consider  the  germ-plasm  at  any  early  stage  in  it.  The  germ,  it  is 
claimed,  contains  the  factors  which  produce  the  adult  characters  of  that 
stage.  Now  proceed  to  the  next  stage  of  evolution.  The  germ  has 
either  altered  or  it  has  not.  If  it  has  not  altered,  the  new  adult 
characters  are  due  to  something  outside  the  genn,  to  factors  which  may 
be  in  the  environment  but  are  not  in  the  germ.  In  this  case  the  animal 
must  be  driven  by  the  inherited  factors  to  reproduce  the  ancestral  form ; 
the  modifications  due  to  other  factors  will  come  in  on  the  top  of  this, 
and  if  they  come  in  gradually  and  in  the  later  stages  of  growth,  then 
there  will  be  recapitulation.  There  does  not  seem  to  be  any  difficulty 
here.  You  may  deny  the  term  '  character  '  to  these  modifications,  and 
you  may  say  that  they  are  not  really  inherited,  that  they  will  disappear 
entirely  if  the  environment  reverts  to  its  original  condition.  Such  lan- 
guage, however,  does  not  alter  the  fact,  and  when  we  pass  to  subsequent 
stages  of  evolution  and  find  the  process  repeated,  and  the  recapitulation 
becoming  longer,  then  you  will  be  hard  put  to  it  to  imagine  that  the 
new  environment  produces  first  the  effects  of  the  old  and  then  its  own 
particular  effect. 

Even  if  we  do  suppose  that  the  successive  changes  in,  say,  an 
ammonite  as  it  passes  from  youth  to  age  are  adaptations  to  successive 
environments,  this  must  mean  that  there  is  a  recapitulation  of  environ- 
ment. It  is  an  explanation  of  structural  recapitulation,  but  the  fact 
remains.  There  is  no  difficulty  in  supposing  an  individual  to  pass 
through  the  same  succession  of  environments  as  were  encountered  in 
tiie  past  history  of  its  race.  Every  common  frog  is  an  instance.  The 
phenomenon  is  of  the  same  nature  as  the  devious  route  followed  in  their 
migrations  by  certain  birds,  a  route  only  to  be  explained  as  the  repetition 
of  past  history.  There  are,  however,  many  cases,  especially  among 
sedentary  organisms,  which  cannot  readily  be  explained  in  this  way. 

Le*:  us  then  examine  the  other  alternative  and  suppose  that  every 
evolutionary  change  is  due  to  a  change  in  the  germ — how  produced  we 
need  not  now  inquire.  Then,  presumably,  it  is  claimed  that  at  each 
stage  of  evolution  the  animal  will  grow  from  the  egg  to  the  adult  along 
a  direct  path.  For  present  purposes  we  ignore  purely  larval  modifications, 
and  admit  that  the  claim  appears  reasonable.  The  trouble  is  that  it 
does  not  harmonise  with  facts.  The  progress  from  youth  to  age  is  not 
always  a  simple  advance.  The  creature  seems  to  go  out  of  its  way  to 
drag  in  a  growth-stage  that  is  out  of  the  straight  road,  and  can  be  ex- 
plained only  by  the  fact  that  it  is  inherited  from  an  ancestor.  Thus, 
large  ammonites  of  the  Xipheroceras  planicosta  group,  beginning 
smooth,  pass  through  a  ribbed  stage,  which  may  be  omitted,  through 
unituberculate  and  bituberculate  stages,  back  to  ribbed  and  smooth 
again.  The  anal  plate  of  tlie  lan^al  Antedon,  which  ends  its  course 
and  finally  disappears  above  the  limits  of  the  cup,  begins  life  in  that 
lower  position  which  the  similar  plate  occupied  in  most  of  the  older 

C— 6E0L0GS-.  69 

Here,  then,  is  a  difficulty.  It  can  be  overcome  in  two  ways.  A 
view  held  by  many  is  that  there  are  two  kinds  of  characters  :  first,  those 
{hat  arise  from  changes  in  the  germ,  and  appear  as  sudden  or  discon- 
tinuous variations;  second,  those  that  are  due  to  external  (i.e.,  non- 
germinal)  factors.  It  seems  a  corollary  of  this  view  that  the  external 
characters  should  so  affect  the  germ-plasm  as  ultimately  to  produce  in 
it  the  appropriate  factors.  This  is  inheritance  of  acquired  characters. 
The  other  way  out  of  the  difliculty  is  to  suppose  that  all  characters 
o^er  than  fluctuations  or  temporary  modifications  are  germinal ;  that 
changes  are  due  solely  to  changes  in  the  constitution  of  the  germ;  and 
that,  although  a  hew  character  may  not  manifest  itself  till  the  creature 
has  reached  old  age,  nevertheless  it  was  inherent  in  the  germ  and  latent 
through  the  earlier  growth-stages.  This  second  hypothesis  involves 
two  further  difficulties.  It  is  not  easy  to  formulate  a  mechanism  by 
which  a  change  in  the  constitution  of  the  germ  shall  produce  a  character 
of  which  no  trace  can  be  detected  until  old  age  sets  in ;  such  a  character, 
for  instance,  as  the  tuberculation  of  the  last-formed  portion  of  an 
ammonite  shell.  Again,  it  is  generally  maintained  that  characters  due 
to  this  change  of  germinal  factors,  however  minute  they  may  be,  make 
a  sudden  appearance.  They  are  said  to  be  discontinuous.  They  act 
as  integral  units.  Now  the  characters  we  are  trying  to  explain  seem 
to  us  palaeontologists  to  appear  very  gradually,  both  in  the  individual 
and  in  the  race.  Their  beginnings  are  small,  scarcely  perceptible;  they 
increase  gradually  in  size  or  strength;  and  gradually  they  appear  at 
earlier  and  earlier  stages  in  the  life-cycle.  It  appears  least  difficult  to 
suppose  that  characters  of  this  kind  are  not  initiated  in  the  germ,  and 
that  they,  if  no  others,  may  be  subject  to  recapitulation.  It  may  not 
yet  be  possible  to  visualise  the  whole  process  by  which  such  characters 
are  gradually  established,  or  to  refer  the  phenomena  of  recapitulation 
back  to  more  fundamental  principles.  But  the  phenomena  are  there, 
and  if  any  hypothesis  is  opposed  to  them  so  much  the  worse  for  the 
hypothesis.  However  they  be  explained,  the  instances  of  recapitula- 
tion afford  convincing  proof  of  descent,  and  so  of  genetic  evolution. 

The  '  Line  upon  Line  '  Method  of  Palaeontology. 

You  will  have  observed  that  the  precise  methods  of  the  modern 
palaeontologist,  on  which  tliis  proof  is  based,  are  very  different  from  the 
slap-dash  conclusions  of  forty  years  ago.  The  discovery  of  Archae- 
opteryx,  for  instance,  was  thought  to  prove  the  evolution  of  Birds  from 
Reptiles.  No  doubt  it  rendered  that  conclusion  extremely  probable, 
especially  if  the  major  premiss — that  evolution  was  the  method  of 
nature — were  assumed.  But  the  fact  of  evolution  is  precisely  what 
men  were  then  trying  to  prove.  These  jumpings  from  Class  to  Class 
or  from  Era  to  Era,  by  aid  of  a  few  isolated  stepping-stones,  were  whst 
Bacon  calls  Anticipations,  '  hasty  and  premature  '  but  *  very  effective, 
because  as  they  are  collected  from  a  few  instances,  and  mostly  from 
those  which  are  of  familiar  occurrence,  they  immediately  dazzle  the 
intellect  and  fill  the  imagination  '  (Nov.  Org.  I.  28).  No  secure  step 
was  taken  until  the  modern  palaeontologist  began  to  affiliate  mutation 
with  mutation  and  species  \vith  species,  working  his  way  back,  literally 


inch  by  inoK,  through  a  single  small  group  of  strata.  Only  thus  could 
he  base  on  the  laboriously  collected  facts  a  single  true  Interpretation ; 
and  to  those  who  preferred  the  broad  path  ol  generality  his  Interpreta- 
tions seemed,  as  Bacon  says  they  always  '  must  seem,  harsh  and 
discordant — almost  like  mysteries  of  faith.' 

It  is  impossible  to  read  these  words  without  thinking  of  one 
'naturae  minister  et  interpres,'  whose  genius  was  the  first  in  this 
country  to  appreciate  and  apply  to  palaeontology  the  Novum  Organon, 
Devoting  his  whole  Ufe  to  abstruse  research,  he  has  persevered  \yith 
this  method  in  the  face  of  distrust  and  has  produced  a  series  of  brilliant 
studies  which,  whatever  their  defects,  have  illuminated  the  problems  of 
stratigraphy  and  gone  far  to  revolutionise  systematic  palaeontology. 
Many  are  the  workers  of  to-day  who  acknowledge  a  master  in  Sydney 
Savoiy  Buckman. 

I  have  long  believed  that  the  only  safe  mode  of  advance  in  palae- 
ontology is  that  which  Bacon  counselled  and  Buckman  has  practised, 
namely,  '  uniformly  and  step  by  step.'  Was  this  not  indeed  the  prin- 
ciple that  guided  Linnaeus  himself?  Not  till  we  have  linked  species 
into  lineages,  can  we  group  them  into  genera;  not  till  we  have  un- 
ravelled the  strands  by  which  genus  is  connected  with  genus  can  we 
draw  the  limits  of  families.  Not  till  that  has  been  accomplished  can 
we  see  how  the  lines  of  descent  diverge  or  converge,  so  as  to  warrant 
the  establishment  of  Orders.  Thus  by  degrees  we  reject  the  old  slippery 
stepping-stones  that  so  often  toppled  us  into  the  stream,  and  foot  by  foot 
we  build  a  secure  bridge  over  the  waters  of  ignorance. 
:  The  work  is  slow,  for  the  material  is  not  always  to  hand,  but  as  we 
build  we  learn  fresh  principles  and  test  our  cuiTent  hypotheses.  To 
some  of  these  I  would  now  direct  your  attention. 

Continuity  in  Developvient. 

Let  us  look  first  at  this  question  of  continuity.  Does  an  evolving 
line  change  by  discontinuous  steps  (saltations),  as  when  a  man  mounts 
a  ladder;  or  does  it  change  continuously,  as  when  a  wheel  rolls  up- 
hill ?  The  mere  question  of  fact  is  extraordinarily  difficult  to  determine. 
Considering  the  gaps  in  the  geological  record  one  would  have  expected 
palaeontologists  to  be  the  promulgators  oi  the  hypothesis  of  discon- 
tinuity. They  are  its  chief  opponents.'  The  advocates  of  discon- 
tinuity maintain  that  palaeontologists  are  misled :  that  the  steps  are  so 
minute  as  to  escape  the  observation  of  workers  handicapped  by  the 
obscurities  of  their  material ;  that  many  apparent  characters  are  com- 
pound and  cannot,  in  the  case  of  fossils,  be  subjected  to  Mendelian 

1  As  Dr.  W.  D.  Matthew  (1910,  Pop.  Sci.  Monthly,  p.  473)  has  well 
exemp'lified  by  the  history  of  the  Tertiary  oreodont  mammals  in  North  America, 
the  known  record,  taken  at  its  face  value,  leads  to  '  the  conclusion  that  new 
species,  new  genera  and  even  larger  groups  have  appeared  by  saltatory  evolution, 
not  by  continuous  development.'  But  a  consideration  of  the  general  conditions 
controlling  evolution  and  migration  among  iand  mammals  shows  him  that  such 
a  conclusion  is  unwarranted.  '  The  more  complete  the  series  of  specimens, 
the  more  perfect  the  record  in  successive  strata,  and  the  nearer  the  hypothetic 
centre  of  dispersal,  the  closer  do  we  come  to  a  phyletic  series  whose  intergrading 
stages  are  weM  within  the  limits  of  observed  variation  of  the  race.' 

C. — GEOLOGY,  }fl 

analysis;  that  no  palaeontologist  can  guarantee  the  genetic  purity  of  the 
assemblages  with  which  he  works,  even  when  his  specimens  are  collected 
from  a  single  locality  and  horizon.  It  is  difficult  to  reply  to  such 
negative  arguments.  One  can  but  give  examples  of  the  kind  of  obser- 
vafion  on  which  palaeontologists  rely. 

Since  Dr.  Rowe's  elaborate  analysis  of  the  species  of  Micraster 
occurring  in  the  Chalk  of  S.E.  England,  much  attention  has  been 
concentrated  on  the  gradual  changes  undergone  by  those  sea-urchins 
in  the  course  of  ages.  The  changes  observed  affect  many  characters; 
indeed,  they  affect  the  whole  test,  and  all  parts  are  doubtless  correlated. 
The  changes  come  in  regularly  and  gradually;  there  is  no  sign  of 
discontinuity.  It  is  convenient  to  give  names  to  the  successive  forms, 
but  they  are  linked  up  by  innumerable  gradations.  There  does  not 
seem  here  to  be  any  question  of  the  sudden  appearance  of  a  new 
character,  in  one  or  in  many  individuals ;  or  of  the  introduction  of 
any  character  and  the  gradual  extension  of  its  range  by  cross-breeding 
until  it  has  become  universal  and  in  turn  gives  way  to  some  new 
step  in  advance.  The  whole  assemblage  is  affected  and  moves  forward 
in  line,  not  with  an  advanced  scout  here  and  a  straggler  there.  Slight 
variation  between  contemporaneous  individuals  occurs,  no  doubt,  but 
the  •limits  are  such  that  a  trained  collector  can  tell  from  a  single  fossil 
the  level  at  which  it  has  been  found.  The  continuity  of  the  changes  is 
also  inferred  from  such  a  fact  as  that  in  occasional  specimens  of 
Micraster  cor-bovis  the  distinctness  of  the  ambulacral  sutures  (which 
is  one  of  these  characters)  is  greater  on  one  side  of  the  test  than  on 
the  other. 

Such  changes  as  these  may  profitably  be  compared  with  those  which 
Professor  Duerden  believes  to  be  taking  place  in  the  ostrich.  He  too 
finds  a  slow  continuous  change  affecting  innumerable  parts  of  the  bird, 
a  change  that  is  universal  and  within  slight  limits  of  variation  as 
between  individuals.  Even  on  the  hypothesis  that  every  barb  of  every 
feather  is  represented  by  a  factor  in  the  germ,  he  finds  it  impossible 
to  regard  the  changes  as  other  than  continuous,  and  he  is  driven  to 
the  supposition  (on  the  hypothesis  of  germinal  factors)  that  the  factors 
themselves  undergo  a  gradual  change,  which  he  regards  as  due  to  old 
age.  It  is  interesting  also  that  he  finds  an  occasional  lop-sided  change, 
such  as  we  noted  in  Micraster  cor-bovis. 

Whatever  may  be  the  explanation,  the  facts  do  seem  to  warrant 
the  statement  that  evolutionary  change  can  be,  and  often  is,  continuous. 
Professor  De  Vries  has  unfortunately  robbed  palaeontologists  of  the 
word  '  mutation,'  by  which,  following  Waagen,  they  were  accustomed 
to  denote  such  change.  I  propose,  therefore,  to  speak  of  it  as 
'transition. '  But  here  the  question  may  be  posed,  whether  such  transi- 
tions can  progress  indefinitely,  or  whether  iliey  should  not  be  compared 
to  those  divergences  from  the  norm  of  a  species  which  we  call  fluctua- 
tions, because,  like  the  waves  of  the  sea  piled  up  by  a  gale,  they  return 
to  their  original  level  when  the  external  cause  is  removed.  If  every 
apparent  transition  in  time  is  of  the  latter  nature,  then,  when  it  reaches 
a  limit  comparable  to  that  circumscribing  contemporary  fluctuation, 
there  must,   if  progress  is    to  persist,  be  some  disturbance  provoking 


a  saltation,  and  so  giving  a  new  centi-e  to  fluctuation  and  a  fresh  limit 
to  tlie  upward  transition.  Those  who  maintain  such  an  hypothesis 
presumably  regard  ti'ansition  as  the  response  of  the  growing  individual 
body  to  gradual  change  of  the  physical  environment  (somatic  modifica- 
tion). But  saltation  they  ascribe  to  a  change  in  the  composition  of 
the  germ.  That  change  may  be  forced  on  the  germ  by  the  condition 
of  the  body,  and  may  therefore  be  in  harmony  with  the  environment, 
and  may  produce  a  new  form  along  that  line.  The  new  form  may  be 
obviously  distinct  from  its  predecessor,  or  the  range  of  its  fluctuation 
may  overlap  that  of  its  predecessor,  in  which  case  it  will  be  impossible 
to  decide  whether  the  change  is  one  of  transition  or  of  saltation.  This 
succession  of  hypotheses  involves  a  good  many  difficulties;  among 
others,  the  mechanism  by  which  the  germ  is  suddenly  modified  in 
accordance  with  the  transition  of  the  body  remains  obscure.  But  the 
facts  before  us  seem  to  necessitate  either  perpetual  transition  or  salta- 
tion acting  in  this  manner.  Transition,  we  must  admit,  also  involves 
a  change  of  the  germ  pari  passu  with  the  change  of  the  body.  Conse- 
quently the  difference  between  the  two  views  seems  to  be  narrowed 
down  to  a  point  which,  if  not  trivial,  is  at  any  rate  minute. 

The  particulai-  saltation-hypothesis  wliich  I  have  sketched  may 
x'emind  some  hearers  of  the  '  expression  points  '  of  E.  D.  Cope.  That 
really  was  quite  a  different  conception.  Cope  beheved  that,  in  several 
cases,  generic  characters,  after  persisting  for  a  long  time,  changed 
with  relative  rapidity.  This  took  place  when  the  modifications  of  adult 
structure  were  pushed  back  so  far  prior  to  the  period  of  reproduction 
as  to  be  transmitted  to  the  offspring.  The  brief  period  of  time  during 
which  this  rapid  change  occurred  in  any  genus  was  an  expression-point, 
and  was  compared  by  Cope  to  the  critical  temperature  at  which  a  gas 
changes  into  a  liquid,  or  a  liquid  into  a  solid.  Tlie  analogy  is  not 
much  more  helpful  than  Galton's  comparison  of  a  fluctuating  form  to 
a  rocking  polyhedron,  which  one  day  rocks  too  much  and  topples  over 
on  to  another  face.  It  is,  however,  useful  to  note  Cope's  opinion  that 
these  points  were  '  attained  without  leaps,  and  abandoned  without 
abruptness. '  He  did  not  believe  that  '  sports  '  had  '  any  considerable 
influence  on  the  course  of  evolution  '  (1887,  '  Origin  of  Fittest,'  pp.  39^ 
79;  1896,  '  Factors  Org.  Evolution,'  pp.  24,  25). 

The  Direction  of  Change:  Seriation. 

The  conception  of  connected  change,  whether  by  transition  or  hy 
scarcely  perceptible  saltation,  or  by  a  combination  of  the  two  processes, 
leads  us  to  consider  the  Direction  of  the  Change. 

Those  who  attempt  to  classify  species  now  living  frequently  find 
that  they  may  be  arranged  in  a  continuous  series,  in  which  each  species 
differs  from  its  neighbours  by  a  little  less  or  a  little  more;  they  find 
that  the  series  corresponds  with  the  geographical  distribution  of  the 
species;  and  they  find  sometimes  that  the  change  affects  particular 
genera  or  families  or  orders,  and  not  similar  assemblages  subjected, 
apparently,  to  the  same  conditions.  They  infer  from  this  that  the 
series  represents  a  genetic  relation,  that  each  successive  species  is  the 
descendant  of  its  preceding  neighbour;  and  in  some  caser;  thi?  inference 

C, — GEOLOGY.  73 

IS  warranted  by  the  evidence  of  recapitulation,  a  fact  which  further 
indicates  that  the  change  arises  by  addition  or  subtraction  at  the  end 
of  the  individual  life-cycle.  So  far  as  I  am  aware  this  phenomenon, 
at  least  so  far  as  genera  are  concerned,  was  first  precisely  defined 
by  Louis  Agassiz  in  his  'Essay  on  Classification,'  1857.  He  called 
it  '  Serial  Connection,'  a  term  which  connotes  the  bare  statement  of 
fact.  Cope  in  his  '  Origin  of  Genera,'  1869,  extended  the  observation, 
in  a  few  cases,  to  species,  and  introduced  the  term  '  Successional 
Eelation, '  which  for  him  implied  descent.  We  may  here  use  the  brief 
and  non-committal  term  '  Seriation. ' 

The  comparison  of  the  seriation  of  living  species  and  genera  to  the 
seriation  of  a  succession  of  extinct  forms  as  revealed  by  fossils  was, 
it  seems,  first  definitely  made  by  Cope,  who  in  1866  held  the  zoological 
i'egions  of  to-day  to  be  related  to  one  another  '  as  the  different  sub- 
divisions of  a  geologic  period  in  time  '  (Jourii.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Phila- 
delphia, 1866,  p.  108).  This  comparison  is  of  great  importance.  Had 
we  the  seriations  of  living  forms  alone,  we  might  often  be  in  doubt 
as  to  the  meaning  of  the  phenomenon.  In  the  first  place  we  might 
ascribe  it  purely  to  climatic  and  similar  environmental  influence,  and 
we  should  be  unable  to  prove  genetic  filiation  between  the  species. 
Even  if  descent  were  assumed  we  should  not  know  which  end  of  the 
series  was  ancestral,  or  even  whether  the  starting  point  might  not 
be  near  the  middle.  But  when  the  palaeontologist  can  show  the  same, 
or  even  analogous,  seriation  in  a  time-succession,  he  indicates  to  the 
neontologist  the  solution  of  his  problem. 

Here  it  is  well  to  remind  ourselves  that  all  seriations  are  not  exact. 
There  are  seriations  of  organs  or  of  isolated  characters,  and  the  trans- 
ition has  not  always  taken  place  at  the  same  rate.  Hence  numerous 
examples  of  what  Cope  called  Inexact  Parallelism.  The  recognition  of 
such  cases  is  largely  responsible  for  the  multiplication  of  genera  by  some 
modern  palaeontologists.  This  may  or  may  not  be  the  best  way  of 
expressing  the  facts,  but  it  is  desirable  that  they  should  be  plainly 
expressed  or  we  shall  be  unable  to  delineate  the  actual  lines  of  genetic 

Eestricting  ourselves  to  series  in  which  descent  may  be  considered 
as  proved  or  highly  probable,  such  as  the  Micrasters  of  the  Chalk,  we 
find  then  a  definite  seriation.  Thei-e  is  not  merely  transition,  but  trans- 
ition in  orderly  sequence  such  as  can  be  represented  by  a  graphic  curve 
of  simple  form.  If  there  are  gaps  in  the  series  as  known  to  us,  we  can 
safely  predict  their  discovery ;  and  we  can  prolong  the  curve  backwards 
or  forwards,  so  as  to  reveal  the  nature  of  ancestors  or  descendants. 

Orthogenesis :  Deter iiiinate  Variation. 

The  regidar,  straightforward  character  of  such  seriation  led  Eimer 
to  coin  the  term  Orthogenesis  for  the  phenomenon  as  a  whole.  If  this 
term  be  taken  as  purely  descriptive,  it  serves  well  enough  to  denote 
certain  facts.  But  Orthogenesis,  in  the  minds  of  most  people,  connotes 
tTie  idea  of  necessity,  of  determinate  variation,  and  of  predetermined 
course.  Now,  just  as  you  may  have  succession  without  evolution,  so 
' v^u   may   have  seriation  without  determination   or  predetermination. 


Let  us  be  clear  as  to  the  meaning  of  these  terms.  Variation  is 
said  to  be  determinate,  or,  as  Darwin  called  it,  '  definite,'  when  all  the 
offspring  vary  in  the  same  direction.  Such  definite  variation  may  be 
determined  by  a  change  in  the  composition  of  the  germ,  due  perhaps 
to  some  external  influence  acting  on  all  the  parents ;  or  it  may  express 
the  direct  action  of  an  exteiTial  influence  on  the  growing  offspring.  The 
essential  feature  is  that  all  the  changes  are  of  the  same  kind,  though 
they  may  differ  in  degree.  For  instance,  all  may  consist  in  some  addi- 
tion, as  a  thickening  of  skeletal  structures,  an  outgrowth  of  spines  or 
horns ;  or  all  may  consist  in  some  loss,  as  the  smaller  size  of  outer 
digits,  the  diminution  of  tubercles,  or  the  disappearance  of  feathers. 
A  succession  of  such  determinate  variations  for  several  generations  pro- 
duces seriation ;  and  when  the  seriation  is  in  a  plus  direction  it  is  called 
progressive  (anabatic,  anagenetic),  when  in  a  minus  direction,  retro- 
gressive (catabatic,  catagenetic).  When  successive  additions  appear 
Ia.te  in  the  life-cycle,  each  one  as  it  were  pushing  its  predecessors  back 
to  earlier  stages,  then  we  use  Cope's  phrase — acceleration  of  develop- 
ment. "When  subtraction  occurs  in  the  same  way,  there  is  retardation 
of  development.  Now  it  is  clear  that  if  a  single  individual  or  genera- 
tion produces  offspring  with,  say,  plus  variations  differing  in  degree, 
then  the  new  generation  will  display  seriation.  Instances  of  this  are 
well  known.  You  may  draw  from  them  what  inferences  you  please, 
but  you  cannot  actually  prove  that  there  is  progression.  Breeding- 
experiments  under  natm'al  conditions  for  a  long  series  of  years  would 
be  required  for  such  proof.  Here,  again,  the  palaeontologist  can  point 
to  the  records  of  the  process  throughout  centuries  or  millennia,  and 
can  show  that  there  has  been  undoubted  progression  and  retrogression. 
I  do  not  mean  to  assert  that  the  examples  of  progressive  and  retrogres- 
sive series  found  among  fossils  are  necessarily  due  to  the  seriation  of 
determinate  variations ;  but  the  instances  of  detenninate  variation  known 
among  the  creatures  now  living  show  the  palaeontologist  a  method  that 
may  have  helped  to  produce  his  series.  Once  more  the  observations  of 
neontologist  and  palaeontologist  are  mutually  complementary. 


So  much  for  determination :  now  for  Predetermination.     This  is  a 
far  more  difficult  problem,  discussed  when  the  fallen  angels 

'  reasoned  high 
Of  providence,  foreknowledge,  will,  and  fate. 
Fixed  fate,  free  will,  foreknowledge  absolute. 
And  found  no  end  in  wandering  mazes  lost. ' 

— and  it  is  likely  to  be  discussed  so  long  as  a  reasoning  mind  persists. 
For  all  that,  it  is  a  problem  on  which  many  palaeontologists  seem  to 
have  made  up  their  minds.  They  agree  (perhaps  unwittingly)  with 
Aristotle  *  that  '  Nature    produces    those    things   which,   being   con- 

*  ^v<Tei  yap  [ylvovrai]  3<ra  otto  nvos  eV  outois  iipxv^  <rvvix^s  icivov/xiva    acpiKye^rat 
fXs  ri  T€\os.    Phyg,  II.,  199b,  15,  ed.  Bekker. 



tinuously  moved  by  a  certain  principle  inherent  in  themselves,  arrive 
at  a  certain  end.'       In  other  words,  a  race  once  started  on  a  certain 
course,  will   persist  in  that  course;    no  matter  how  conditions  may 
change,    no  matter  how   hurtful    to  the    individual   its  o\yn  changes 
may  be,    progressive  or  retrogressive,  up  hill  and  down  hill,  straight 
as  a  Eoman   road,    it   will  go  on  to  that   appointed   end.         Nor  is 
it   only  palaeontologists    who   think    thus.       Professor    Duerden    has 
recently  written,  '  The  Nagelian  idea  that  evolutionary  changes  have 
taken  place  as  a  result  of  some  internal  vitalistic  force,  acting  altogether 
independently  of  external  influences,  and  proceeding  along  definite  Hnes, 
irrespective  of  adaptive  considerations,  seems  to  be  gaining  ground  at 
the  present  time  among  biologists  '  (1919,  Jonrn.  Genetics,  viii.  p.  193). 
The  idea  is  a  taking  one,  but  is  it  really  warranted  by  the  facts  at  our 
disposal?       We  have  seen,  I  repeat,  that  succession  does  not  imply 
evolution,  and  (gi'anting  evolution)  I  have  claimed  that  seriation  can 
occur  without  determinate  variation  and  without  predetermination.     It 
is  easy  to  see  this  in  the  case  of  inanimate  objects  subjected  to  a  con- 
trolling force.     The  fossil-collector  who  passes  his  material  through  a 
series  of  sieves,   picking  out  first  the  larger  shells,  then  the  smaller, 
and  finally  the  microscopic  loraminifera,  induces  a  seriation  in  size  by 
an  action  which  may  be  compared  to  the  selective  action  of  successive 
environments.     There  is,  in  this  case,  predetermination  imposed  by  an 
external  mind;  but  there  is  no  determinate  variation.     You  may  see  in 
the  museum  at  Leicester  a  series  beginning  with  the  via  strata  of  the 
Roman   occupants  of  Britain,  and  passing   through   all  stages  of  the 
tramway  up    to    the   engineered    modern     railroad.       The  unity   and 
apparent  inevitability  of  the  series  conjures  up  the  vision  of  a  world- 
mind  consciously  working  to  a  foreseen  end.     An  occasional  experiment 
along  some  other  line  has  not  been  enough  to  obscure  the  general  trend ; 
indeed,  the  speedy  scrapping  of  such  failures  only  emphasises  the  idea 
of  a  determined  plan.     But  closer  consideration  shows  that  the  course 
of  the  development  was  guided  simply  by  the  laws  of  mechanics  and 
economics,  and  by  the  history  of  discovery  in  other  branches  of  science. 
That  alone  was  the  nature  of  the  determination;  and  predetermination, 
there  was  none.     From  these  instances  we  see  that  selection  can,  indeed 
must,  produce  just  that  evolution    along    definite    lines    which  is  the 
supposed  feature  of  orthogenesis. 

The  arguments  for  orthogenesis  are  reduced  to  two :  first,  the  diffi- 
culty of  accounting  for  the  incipient  stages  of  new  structures  before 
they  achieve  selective  value ;  second,  the  supposed  cases  of  non-adaptive 
or  even — as  one  may  term  it — counter-adaptive  growth. 

The  earliest  discernible  stage  of  an  entirely  new  character  in  an 
adaptive  direction  is  called  by  H.  F.  Osborn  a  '  rectigradation  '  (1907), 
and  the  term  implies  that  the  character  will  proceed  to  develop  in  a 
definite  direction.  As  compared  with  changes  of  proportion  in  exist- 
ing characters  ('  allometron,'  Osborn),  rectigradations  are  rare.  Osborn 
applies  the  term  to  the  first  signs  of  folding  of  the  enamel  in  the  teeth 
of  the  horse.  Another  of  his  favourite  instances  is  the  genesis  of  horns 
in  the  Titanotheres,  which  he  has  summarised  as  follows :  '  (a)  from 
excessively  rudimentary  beginnings,    i.e.   rectigradations,   which    can 


hardly  be  detected  on  the  surface  of  the  skull ;  {b)  there  is  some  pre- 
determining law  or  similarity  of  potential  which  governs  their  first 
existence,  because  (c)  the  rudiments  arise  independently  on  the  same 
part  of  the  skull  in  different  phyla  [i.e.  hneages]  at  different  periods  of 
geologic  time;  (d)  the  horn  rudiments  evolve  continuously,  and  they 
gradually  change  in  form  (i.e.  allometrons) ;  (e)  they  finally  become  the 
domanating  characters  of  the  skull,  showing  marked  variations  of  the 
form  in  the  two  sexes ;  (/)  they  first  appear  in  late  or  adult  stages  of 
ontogeny,  but  are  pushed  forward  gradually  into  earlier  and  earUer 
ontogenetic  stages  until  they  appear  to  arise  prenatally. ' 

Osborn  says  that  rectigradations  are  a  result  of  the  principle  of 
detennination,  but  this  does  not  seem  necessary.  In  the  first  place, 
the  precise  distinction  between  an  allometron  and  a  rectigradation  fades 
away  on  closer  scrutiny.  When  the  rudiment  of  a  cusp  or  a  horn 
changes  its  form,  the  change  is  an  allometron;  the  first  swelling  is  a 
rectigradation.  But  both  of  these  are  changes  in  the  form  of  a  pre- 
existing structure ;  there  is  no  fundamental  difference  between  a  bone 
with  an  equable  curve  and  one  with  a  slight  irregularity  of  surface. 
Why  may  not  the  original  modification  be  due  to  the  same  cause  as  the 
succeeding  ones?  The  development  of  a  horn  in  mammalia  is  prob- 
ably a  response  to  some  rubbing  or  butting  action  which  produces 
changes  first  in  the  hair  and  epidermis.  One  requires  stronger  evidence 
than  has  yet  been  adduced  to  suppose  that  in  this  case  form  precedes 
function.  As  Jaekel  has  insisted,  skeletal  formation  follows  the  changes 
in  the  softer  tissues  as  they  respond  to  strains  and  stresses.  In  the 
evolution  of  the  Echinoid  skeleton,  any  new  structures  that  appear, 
such  as  auricles  for  the  attachment  of  jaw-muscles  or  notches  for  the 
reception  of  external  gills,  have  at  their  inception  all  the  character  of 
rectigradations,  but  it  can  scarcely  be  doubted  that  they  followed  the 
growth  of  their  cori'elated  soft  parts,  and  that  these  latter  were  already 
subject  to  natural  selection.  But  we  may  go  further:  in  vertebrates 
as  in  echinoderms  the  bony  substance  is  interpenetrated  with  living 
matter,  which  renders  it  directly  responsive  to  every  mechanical  force, 
and  modifies  it  as  i-equired  by  deposition  or  resorption,  so  that  the 
skeleton  tends  continually  to  a  correlation  of  all  its  parts  and  an  adapta- 
tion to  outer  needs. 

The  fact  that  similar  structures  are  developed  in  the  same  positions 
in  different  stocks  at  different  periods  of  time  is  paralleled  in  probably  all 
classes  of  animals ;  Ammonites,  Brachiopods,  Polyzoa,  Crinoids,  Sea- 
urchins  present  familiar  instances.  But  do  we  want  to  make  any 
mystery  of  it?  The  words  'predisposition,'  '  predetennining  law.' 
'similarity  of  potential,'  'inhibited  potentiality,'  and  'periodicity,'  all 
tend  to  obscure  the  simple  statement  that  like  causes  acting  on  like 
material  produce  like  effects.  When  other  causes  operate,  the  result  is 
different.  Certainly  such  facts  afford  no  evidence  of  predetei'mination, 
in  the  sense  that  the  development  must  take  place  willy-nilly.  Quite 
the  contrary :  they  suggest  that  it  takes  place  only  under  the  influence 
of  the  necessary  causes.  Nor  do  they  warrant  such  false  analogies  as 
'  Environment  presses  the  button :  the  animal  does  the  rest. ' 

The  resemblance  of  the  cuttle-fish  eye  to  that  of  a  vertebrate  has 



been  explained  by  the  assumption  that  both  creatures  are  descended, 
longo  intervallo  no  doubt,  from  a  common  stock,  and  that  the  flesh  or 
the  germ  of  that  stock  had  the  internal  impulse  to  produce  this  kind  of 
eye  some  day  when  conditions  should  be  favourable.  It  is  not  ex- 
plained why  many  other  eyed  animals,  which  must  also  have  descended 
from  this  remote  stock,  have  developed  eyes  of  a  different  kind.  Never- 
theless I  commend  this  hypothesis  of  Professor  Bergson  to  the  advo- 
cates of  predisposition.  To  my  mind  it  only  shows  that  a  philosopher 
may  achieve  distinction  by  a  theory  of  evolution  without  a  secure  know- 
ledge of  biology. 

When  the  same  stock  follows  two  quite  different  paths  to  the  same 
goal,  it  is  impossible  to  speak  of  a  predetermined  course.  In  the  Wen- 
lock  beds  is  a  crinoid  whose  stalk  has  become  flattened  and  coiled,  and 
the  cirri  or  tendrils  of  the  stalk  are  no  longer  set  by  fives  all  round  it, 
but  are  reduced  to  two  rows,  one  along  each  side.  In  one  species  these 
cirri  ai-e  spaced  at  iri'egular  intervals  along  the  two  sides,  but  as  the 
animal  grows  there  is  a  tendency  for  them  to  become  more  closely  set.  In 
another  species,  in  various  respects  more  developed,  the  cirri  are  set  quite 
close  together,  and  the  tightly  coiled  stalk  looks  like  a  ribbed  ammonite. 
Closer  inspection  shows  that  this  species  includes  two  distinct  forms. 
In  one  each  segment  of  the  stalk  bears  but  a  single  cirrus,  first  on  the 
right,  then  on  the  left ;  but  the  segments  taper  off  to  the  opposite  side  so 
that  the  cirri  are  brought  close  together.  In  the  other  form  two  cirri 
are  borne  by  a  single  segment,  but  the  next  segment  bears  no  cirri. 
These  intervening  segments  taper  to  each  side,  so  that  here  also  the 
cirri  are  brought  close  together.  Thus  the  same  appearance  and  the 
same  physiological  effect  are  produced  in  two  distinct  ways.  Had  one 
of  these  never  existed,  the  evolution  of  this  curious  stem  would  have 
offered  as  good  an  argument  for  oxthogenesis  as  many  that  have  been 
advanced.     So  much  for  similarity ! 

The  argument  for  orthogenesis  based  on  a  race-history  that  marches 
to  inevitable  destruction,  heedless  of  environmental  factors,  has  always 
seemed  to  me  incontrovertible,  and  so  long  as  my  knowledge  of 
palaeontology  was  derived  mainly  from  books  I  accepted  this  premiss 
as  well  founded.  Greater  familiarity  with  particular  groups  has  led 
me  to  doubt  whether  such  cases  really  occur,  for  more  intensive  study 
generally  shows  that  characters  at  first  regarded  as  indifferent  or 
detrimental  may  have  been  adapted  to  some  factor  in  the  environment 
or  some  peculiar  mode  of  life. 

Professor  Duerden's  interesting  and  valuable  studies  of  the  ostrich 
(1919,  1920,  Journ.  Genetics)  lead  him  to  the  opinion  that  retrogressive 
changes  in  that  bird  are  destined  to  continue,  and  '  we  may  look  for- 
ward,' he  says,  '  to  the  sad  spectacle  of  a  wingless,  legless,  and  feather- 
less  ostrich  if  extinction  does  not  supervene. '  Were  this  so  we  might 
at  least  console  ourselves  with  the  thought  that  the  process  is  a  very 
slow  one,  for  Dr.  Andrews  tells  me  that  the  feet  and  other  known 
bones  of  a  Pliocene  ostrich  are  scarcely  distinguishable  from  those  of 
the  present  species.  But,  after  careful  examination  of  Dr.  Duerden's 
arguments,  I  see  no  ground  for  supposing  that  the  changes  are  other 
than  adaptive.     Similar  changes  occur  in  other  birds  of  other  stocks 


when  subjected  to  the  requisite  conditions,  as  the  flightless  birds  of 
diverse  origin  found  on  ocean  islands,  the  flightless  and  running  rails, 
geese,  and  other  races  of  New  Zealand,  the  Pleistocene  Genyornis  of 
the  dried  Lake  Gallabonna,  which,  as  desert  conditions  came  on,  began 
to  show  a  reduction  of  the  inner  toe.  Among  mammals  the  legs  and 
feet  have  been  modified  in  the  same  way  in  at  least  three  distinct 
orders  or  suborders,  during  different  periods,  and  in  widely  separated 
regions.  Living  marsupials  in  Australia  have  the  feet  modified  accord- 
ing to  their  mode  of  life,  whether  chmbiug  on  trees  or  running  over 
hard  ground;  and  among  the  latter  we  find  a  series  indicating  how 
the  outer  toes  were  gradually  lost  and  the  fourth  digit  enlarged.  I 
need  scarcely  remind  you  of  the  modifications  that  resulted  in  the 
horse's  hoof  with  its  enlarged  third  digit,  traceable  during  the  Tertiary 
Epoch  throughout  the  Northern  Hemisphere,  whether  in  one  or  more 
than  one  stock.  I  would,  however,  recall  the  fact  that  occasional 
races,  resuming  from  time  to  time  a  forest  habitat,  ceased  to  progress 
along  the  main  line.  Lastly,  there  are  those  early  hoofed  animals 
from  South  America,  made  known  by  Ameghino  under  the  name 
Litopterna,  which  underwent  a  parallel  series  of  changes  and  attained 
in  Thoatheriuvi  from  the  Upper  Miocene  of  Patagonia  a  one-toed  foot 
with  elongate  metacarpals  essentially  similar  to  that  of  the  horse.  In 
all  these  cases  the  correlation  of  foot-structure  with  mode  of  life  (as 
also  indicated  by  the  teeth)  is  such  that  adaptation  by  selection  has 
always  been  regarded  as  the  sole  effective  cause. 

My  colleague,  Dr.  W.  D.  Lang,  has  recently  published  a  most 
thoughtful  paper  on  this  subject  (1919,  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  xxx.  102). 
His  profound  studies  on  certain  lineages  of  Cretaceous  Polyzoa 
(Cheilostomata)  have  led  him  to  believe  that  the  habit  of  secreting 
calcium  carbonate,  when  once  adopted,  persists  in  an  increasing  degree. 
Thus  in  lineage  after  lineage  the  habit  '  has  led  to  a  brilliant  but 
comparatively  brief  cai'eer  of  skeleton-building,  and  has  doomed  the 
organism  finally  to  e\x)lve  but  the  architecture  of  its  tomb.'  These 
creatures,  like  all  others  which  secrete  calcium  carbonate,  are  simply 
suffering  from  a  gouty  diathesis,  to  which  each  race  will  eventually 
succumb.  Meanwhile  the  organism  does  its  best  to  dispose  of  the 
secretion ;  if  usefully,  so  much  the  better ;  but  at  any  rate  where  it 
will  be  least  in  tlie  way.  Some  primitive  polyzoa,  we  are  told,  often 
sealed  themselves  up ;  others  escaped  this  self-immurement  by  turning 
the  excess  into  spines,  which  in  yet  other  forms  fused  into  a  front 
wall.  But  the  most  successful  architects  were  overwhelmed  at  last 
by  superabundance  of  building-material. 

While  sympathetic  to  Dr.  Lang's  diagnosis  of  the  disea-se  (for  in 
1888  I  hazarded  the  view  that  in  Cephalopoda  lime-deposition  was 
uncontrollable  by  the  animal,  and  that  its  extent  was  inversely  relative 
to  the  rate  of  formation  of  chitin  or  other  calcifiable  tissue),  still  I 
think  he  goes  too  far  in  postulating  an  '  insistent  tendency. '  He 
speaks  of  living  matter  as  if  it  were  the  over-pumped  inner-tube  of 
a  bicycle  tyre,  '  tense  with  potentiality,  curbed  by  inhibitions  '  [of 
the  cover]  and  '  periodically  breaking  out  as  inhibitions  are  removed ' 
^y  broken  glass] .     A  race  acquires  the  lime  habit  or  the  driixk  habit, 

C. — GEOLOGT.  ( y 

and,  casting  off  all  restraint,  rushes  with  accelerated  velocity  down 
the  easy  slope  to  perdition. 

A  melancholy  picture!  But  is  it  true?  The  facts  in  the  case  of 
the  Cretaceous  Polyzoa  are  not  disputed,  but  they  can  be  interpreted 
as  a  reaction  of  the  organism  to  the  continued  abundance  of  lime-salts 
in  the  sea-water.  If  a  race  became  choked  off  with  lime,  this  perhaps 
was  because  it  could  not  keep  pace  with  its  environment.  Instead  of 
'  irresistible  momentum  '  from  within,  we  may  speak  of  irresistible 
pressure  from  without.  Dr.  Lang  has  told  us  (1919,  Phil.  Trans. 
B.  ccix.)  '  that  in  their  evolution  the  individual  characters  in  a 
lineage  are  largely  independent  of  one  another. '  It  is  this  independ- 
ence, manifested  in  differing  trends  and  differing  rates  of  change,  that 
originat'Cs  genera  and  species.  Did  the  evolution  follow  some  inner 
impulse,  along  lines  '  predetermined  and  limited  by  innate  causes,' 
one  would  expect  greater  similarity,  if  not  identity,  of  pattern  and 
of  tempo. 

Many  are  the  races  which,  seeking  only  ornament,  have  (say  our 
historians)  perished  like  Tarpeia  beneath  the  weight  of  a  less  welcome 
gift:  oysters,  ammonites,  hippurites,  crinoids,  and  corals.  But  I  see 
no  reason  to  suppose  that  these  creatures  were  ill-adapted  to  their 
environment — until  the  situation  changed.  This  is  but  a  special  case 
of  increase  in  si^ie.  In  creatures  of  the  land  probably,  and  in  creatures 
of  the  water  certainly  (as  exemplified  by  A.  D.  Mead's  experiments 
on  the  starfish,  1900,  Amer.  Natural,  xxxiv.  17),  size  depends  on 
the  amount  of  food,  including  all  body-  and  skeleton-building  con- 
stituents. When  food  is  plentiful  larger  animals  have  an  advantage 
over  small.  Thus  by  natural  selection  the  race  increases  in  size  until 
a  balance  is  reached.  Then  a  fall  in  the  food-supply  handicaps  the 
larger  ci-eatures,  which  may  become  'extinct.  So  simple  an  explana- 
tion renders  it  quite  unnecessary  to  regard  size  as  in  itself  indicating 
the  old  age  of  the  race. 

Among  the  structures  that  have  been  most  frequently  assigned  to 
some  blind  growth-force  are  spines  or  horns,  and  when  they  assume 
a  grotesque  form  or  disproportionate  size  they  are  dismissed  as  evidences 
of  senility.     Let  us  take  a  case. 

The  Trilobite  family  Lichadidae  is  represented  in  Ordovician  and 
Silurian  rocks  by  species  with  no  or  few  spines,  but  in  the  early 
part  of  the  Devonian,  both  in  America  and  in  Europe,  various  unrelated 
groups  in  this  family  begin  to  grow  similarly  formed  and  situated 
spines,  at  first  short  and  straight,  but  soon  becoming  long  curved  horns, 
until  the  climax  is  reached  in  such  a  troll-like  goat-form  as  Ceratarges 
armatus   of  the   Calceola-Beds  in  the  Eifel. 

Dr.  J.  M.  Clarke  (1913,  Monogr.  Serv.  Geol.  Brazil,  i.  p.  142) 
is  among  those  who  have  regarded  this  parallel  development  as  a  sign 
of  orthogenesis  in  the  most  mystical  meaning  of  the  term.  Strange 
though  these  little  monsters  may  be,  I  cannot,  in  view  of  their  con- 
siderable abundance,  believe  that  their  specialisation  was  of  no  use 
to  them,  and  I  am  prepared  to  accept  the  following  interpretation  by 
Dr.   Rudolf  Richter  (1919,   1920). 

Such  spines  have  their  Ez'st  origin  in  t-He  tubercles  which  form  sq 


common  an  ornament  in  Crustacea  and  other  Arthropods  and  which 
serve  to  stiffen  the  carapace.  A  very  slight  projection  of  any  of  these 
tubercles  further  acts  as  a  protection  against  such  soft-bodied  enemies 
as  jelly-fish.  Longer  out-growths  enlarge  the  body  of  the  trilobite  in 
such  a  way  as  to  prevent  its  being  easily  swallowed.  When,  as  is 
often  the  case,  the  spines  stretch  over  such  organs  as  the  eyes,  their 
protective  function  is  obvious.  This  becomes  still  more  clear  when 
we  consider  the  relation  of  these  spines  to  the  body  when  rolled  up, 
for  then  they  are  seen  to  form  an  encircling  or  enveloping  chevaux- 
de-frise.  But  besides  this,  the  spines  in  many  cases  serve  as  balancers ; 
they  throw  the  centre  of  gravity  back  from  the  weighty  head,  and 
thus  enable  the  creature  to  rise  into  a  swimming  posture.  Further, 
by  their  friction,  they  help  to  keep  the  animal  suspended  in  still  water 
with  a  comparatively  slight  motion  of  its  numerous  oar-like  limbs. 
Regarded  in  this  light,  even  the  most  extravagant  spines  lose  their 
mystery  and  appear  as  consequences  of  natural  selection.  A  com- 
parison of  the  curious  Marrella  in  the  pelagic  or  still-water  fauna 
of  the  Middle  Cambrian  Burgess  shale  with  Acidaspis  radiata  of  the 
Calceola-beds  certainly  suggests  that  both  of  these  forms  were  adapted 
to  a  similar  life  in  a  similar  envu-onment. 

The  fact  that  many  extreme  developments  are  followed  by  the 
extinction  of  the  race  is  due  to  the  difficulty  that  any  specialised  organism 
or  machine  finds  in  adapting  itself  to  new  conditions.  A  highly 
specialised  creature  is  one  adapted  to  quite  peculiar  circumstances : 
very  slight  external  change  may  put  it  out  of  harmony,  especially  if  the 
change  be  sudden.  It  is  not  necessary  to  imagine  any  decline  of  vital 
force  or  exhaustion  of  potentiality. 

When  people  talk  of  certain  creatures,  living  or  extinct,  as  obviously 
unadapted  for  the  struggle  of  life,  I  am  reminded  of  Sir  Henry  de  la 
Beche's  drawing  of  a  lecture  on  the  human  skull  by  Professor 
Ichthyosaurus.  'You  will  at  once  perceive,'  said  the  lecturer,  'that 
the  skull  before  us  belonged  to  one  of  the  lower  orders  of  animals ; 
the  teeth  are  very  insignificant,  the  power  of  the  jaws  trifling;  and 
altogether  it  seems  wonderful  how  the  creature  could  have  procured 

What,  then,  is  the  meaning  of  '  momentum  '  in  evolution?  Simply 
this,  that  change,  whatever  its  cause,  must  be  a  change  of  something 
that  already  exists.  The  changes  in  evolving  lineages  are,  as  a  rule, 
orderly  and  continuous  (to  avoid  argument  the  term  may  for  the 
moment  include  minute  saltations).  Environment  changes  slowly  and 
the  response  of  the  organism  always  lags  behind  it,  taking  small  heed 
of  ephemeral  variations."     Suppose  a  change  from  shallow  to  deep  water 

*  The  conception  of  lag  in  evolution  is  of  some  importance.  On  a  hypothesis 
of  selection  from  fortuitous  variations  the  lag  must  be  considerable.  If  the 
variations  be  determinate  and  in  the  direction  of  the  environmental  change,  the 
lag  will  be  reduced  ;  but  according  as  the  determination  departs  from  the 
environmental  change,  the  lag  -will  increase.  If  a  change  of  environment  acts  on 
the  germ,  inducing  either  greater  variation  or  variation  in  harmony  with  the 
change,  there  will  "still  be  lag,  but  it  will  be  less.  On  this  hypothesis  the  lag 
will  depend  on  the  mechanism  through  which  the  environment  affects  the  germ. 
If,  with  Oaborn,  we  imagine  an  action  on  the  body,  transmitted  to  the  various 

0. — GEOLOGY.  81 

— either  by  sinking  of  the  sea-floor  or  by  migration  of  the  organism. 
Creatures  already  capable  of  becoming  acclimatised  will  be  the  majority 
of  survivors,  and  among  them  those  which  change  most  rapidly  will 
soon  dominate.  Place  your  successive  fornis  in  order,  and  you  will  get 
the  appearance  of  momentum ;  but  the  reality  is  inertia  yielding  with 
more  or  less  rapidity  to  an  outer  force. 

Sometimes  a  change  is  exhibited  to  a  greater  or  less  extent  by  evei-y 
member  oi  some  limited  group  of  animals,  and  this  change  may  seem 
to  be  coiTelated  with  the  conditions  of  life  in  only  a  few  of  the  genera 
or  species,  while  in  others  it  manifests  no  adaptive  character  and  no 
selective  value.  Thus  the  loss  of  the  toes  or  even  limbs  in  certain 
lizards  is  ascribed  by  Dr.  G.  A.  Boulenger  to  an  internal  tendency, 
although,  at  any  rate  in  the  Skinks,  which  furnish  examples  of  all  stages 
of  loss,  it  certainly  seems  connected  with  a  sand-loving  and  burrowing 
life.  Recently  Dr.  Boulenger  (1920,  Bidl.  Soc.  Zool.  France,  xlv. 
68)  has  put  fonvard  the  East  African  Testudo  lovendgcl^  a  ribless 
tortoise  with  soft  shell  that  squeezes  into  holes  under  rocks,  and  swells 
again  like  an  egg  in  a  bottle,  as  the  final  stage  of  a  regressive  series. 
The  early  stages  of  this  regression,  such  as  a  decrease  in  size  of  the 
vertebral  processes  and  rib-heads,  were  long  since  noticed  by  him  in 
other  members  of  the  same  family;  but.  since  they  did  not  occur  in 
other  families,  nnd  since  he  could  perceive  no  adapiive  value  in  them, 
hi'  regarded  them  as  inexplicable,  until  this  latest  discovei-y  proved  them 
to  be  pi'ophetic  of  a  predestined  goal.  The  slightness  of  my  acquaint- 
ance with  tortoises  forbids  me  to  controvert  this  supreme  example  of 
teleology  as  it  appears  to  so  distinguished  an  authority.  But  in  all 
these  apparent  instances  we  should  do  well  to  realise  that  we  are  still 
incompletely  informed  about  the  daily  life  of  these  creatures  and  of 
their  ancestors  in  all  stages  of  growth,  and  we  may  remember  that 
structiires  once  adaptive  often  persist  after  the  need  has  passed  or 
has  been  replaced  by  one  acting  in  a  different  direction. 

The  Shidy  of  Adapiive  Form. 

This  leads  us  on  to  consider  a.  fruitful  field  of  research,  which  would 
at  first  seem  the  natural  preserve  of  neontologists,  bub  which,  as  it 
happens,  has  of  late  been  cultivated  mainly  to  supply  the  needs  of 
palaeontology.  That  field  is  the  influence  of  the  mode  of  life  on  the 
shape  of  the  creature,  or  briefly,  of  function  on  form;  and,  conversely, 
the  indications  that  form  can  give  as  to  habits  and  habitat.  For  many 
a  long  year  the  relatively  simple  mechanics  of  the  vertebrate  skeleton 
have  been  studied  by  palaeontologists  and  anatomists  generally,  and 
Have  been  brought  into  discussions  on  the  effect  of  use.  The  investiga- 
tion of  the  mechanical  conditions  controlling  the  growth  of  organisms  has 
recently  been  raised  to  a  higher  plane  by  Professor  D'Arcy  Thompson's 

parts  through  catalysera  and  hormones,  then  the  process  will  involve  lag  varying 
"with  the  physico-chemical  constitution  of  the  organism.  Slight  differences  in 
this  respect  between  different  races  may  have  some  bearing  on  the  rate  of 
change  {vide  infra  '  The  Tempo  of  'Rvnlntion  '}.  on  the  correlation  of  characters, 
and  80  on  the  diversity  of  form. 

1920  a 


suggestive  book  on  'Growth,  and  Form.'  These  studies,  however, 
have  usually  considered  the  structure  of  an  animal  as  an  isolated 
machine.  We  have  to  realise  that  an  organism  should  be  studied  in 
relation  to  the  whole  of  its  environment,  and  here  form  comes  in  as 
distinct  from  structm^e.  That  mode  of  expression,  though  loose  and 
purely  relative,  will  be  generally  understood.  By  '  form  '  one  means 
those  adaptations  to  the  surrounding  medium,  to  food,  to  the  mode  of 
motion,  and  so  forth,  which  may  vary  with  outer  conditions  while  the 
fundamental  structure  persists.  Though  all  structures  may,  conceiv- 
ably, have  originated  as  such  adaptations,  those  which  we  call  '  form  ' 
arfe,  as  a  rule,  of  later  origin.  Similar  adaptive  fonns  are  found  in 
organisms  of  diverse  structure,  and  produce  those  similarities  which  we 
know  as  '  convergence. '  To  take  but  one  simple  instance  from  the 
relations  of  organisms  to  gravity.  A  stalked  echinoderm  naturally 
grows  upright,  like  a  flower,  with  radiate  symmetry.  But  in  the  late 
Ordovician  and  in  Silurian  rocks  are  many  in  which  the  body  has  a 
ciiriously  flattened  leaf-like  shape,  in  which  the  two  faces  are  distinct, 
but  the  two  sides  alike,  and  in  which  this  effect  is  often  enhanced  by 
paired  outgi-owths  corresponding  in  shape  if  not  in  structure.  Expan- 
sion of  this  kind  implies  a  position  parallel  to  the  eai-th's  surface,  i.e. 
at  right  angles  to  gravity.  The  leaf-like  form  and  the  balancers  are 
adaptations  to  this  unusual  position.  Recognition  of  this  enables  us  to 
intei'pret  the  peculiar  features  of  each  genus,  to  separate  the  adaptive 
form  from  the  modified  structure,  and  to  perceive  that  many  genera 
outwardly  similar  are  really  of  quite  different  origin. 

Until  we  understand  the  principles  governing  these  and  other  adapta- 
tions— irrespective  of  the  systematic  position  of  the  creatures  in  wliich 
they  appear — we  cannot  make  adequate  reconstructions  of  our  fossils, 
we  cannot  draw  correct  inferences  as  to  their  mode  of  life,  and  we  cannot 
distinguish  the  adaptive  from  the  fundamental  characters.  No  do\:bt 
many  of  us,  whether  palaeontologists  or  neontologists,  have  long  recog- 
nised the  truth  in  a  general  way,  and  have  attempted  to  describe  our 
material — whether  in  stone  or  in  alcohol — as  living  creatures ;  and  not 
as  isolated  specimens  but  as  integral  portions  of  a  mobile  world.  It  is, 
however,  chiefly  to  Louis  Dollo  that  we  owe  the  suggestion  and  the 
example  of  approaching  animals  primarily  from  the  side  of  the  environ- 
ment, and  of  studying  adaptations  as  such.  The  analysis  of  adaptations 
in  those  cases  where  the  stimulus  can  be  recognised  and  correlated  with 
its  reaction  (as  in  progression  through  different  media  or  over  different 
surfaces)  affords  sure  ground  for  inferences  concerning  similar  forms  of 
whose  life-conditions  we  are  ignorant.  Thus  Othenio  Abel  ("1916)  has 
analysed  the  evidence  as  to  the  living  squids  and  cuttle-fish  and  has 
applied  it  to  the  belemnites  and  allied  fossils  with  novel  and  interesting 
results.  But  from  such  analyses  there  have  been  drawn  wider  con- 
clusions pointing  to  further  extension  of  the  study.  It  was  soon  seen 
that  adaptations  did  not  come  to  perfection  all  at  once,  but  that  har- 
monisation  was  gradual,  and  that  some  species  had  progressed  further 
than  others.  But  it  by  no  means  follows  that  these  represent  chains  of 
descent.  The  adaptations  of  all  the  organs  must  be  considered,  and  one 
seriation  checked  by  another.     Tims  in  1890,  in  sketching  the  probable 

0. — GEOLOGY.  oS 

history  of  certain  crinoids,  I  pointed  out  that  the  seriation  due  to  the 
migration  of  the  anal  plates  must  be  checked  by  the  seriation  due  to  the 
elaboration  of  arm-structure,  and  so  on. 

In  applying  these  principles  we  are  greatly  helped  by  DoUo's  thesis 
of  the  Irreversibility  of  Evolution.  It  is  not  necessary  to  regard  this  as 
an  absolute  Law,  subject  to  no  conceivable  exception.  It  is  a  simple 
statement  of  the  facts  as  hitherto  observed,  and  may  be  expressed 

1.  In  the  course  of  race-history  an  organism  never  returns  exactly 
to  its  former  state,  even  if  placed  in  conditions  of  existence  identical  with 
those  through  which  it  has  previously  passed.  Thus,  if  through  adap- 
tation to  a  new  mode  of  life  (as  from  walking  to  climbing)  a  race  loses 
organs  which  were  highly  useful  to  it  in  the  former  state,  then,  if  it  ever 
reverts  to  that  former  mode  of  life  (as  from  climbing  to  walking),  those 
oi'gans  never  return,  but  other  organs  are  modified  to  take  their  place. 

2.  But  (continues  the  Law),  by  virtue  of  the  indestructibility  of  the 
past,  the  organism  always  preserves  some  trace  of  the  intermediate 
stages.  Thus,  when  a  race  reverts  to  its  former  state,  there  remain  the 
traces  of  those  modifications  which  its  organs  underwent  while  it  was 
pursuing  another  mode  of  existence. 

The  first  statement  imposes  a  veto  on  any  speculations  as  to  descent 
that  involve  the  reappearance  of  a  vanished  structure.  It  does  not 
interfere  with  the  cases  in  which  old  age  seems  to  repeat  the  characters 
of  youth,  as  in  Ammonites,  for  here  the  old-age  character  may  be 
similar,  but  obviously  is  not  the  same.  The  second  statement  furnishes 
a  guide  to  the  mode  of  life  of  the  immediate  ancestors,  and  is  applicable 
to  living  as  well  as  to  fossil  forms.  It  is  from  such  persistent  adaptive 
characters  that  some  have  inferred  the  arboreal  nature  of  our  own 
ancestors,  or  even  of  the  ancestors  of  all  mammals.  To  take  but  a 
single  point.  Dr.  W.  D.  Matthew  (1904,  Avier.  Natural,  xxxviii. 
813)  finds  traces  of  a  fomier  opposable  thumb  in  several  early  Eocene 
mammals,  and  features  dependent  on  this  in  the  same  digit  of  nil 
mammals  where  it  is  now  fixed. 

The  Study  of  Habitat. 

The  natural  history  of  marine  invertebrata  is  of  particular  interest 
to  the  geologist,  but  its  study  presents  peculiar  difficulties.  The  marine 
zoologist  has  long  recognised  that  his  early  efforts  with  trawl  and  dredge 
threw  little  light  on  the  depth  in  the  sea  frequented  by  his  captures.  The 
surface  floaters,  the  swimmers  of  the  middle  and  lower  depths,  and  the 
crawlers  on  the  bottom  were  confused  in  a  single  haul,  and  he  has 
therefore  devised  means  for  exploring  each  region  separately.  The 
geologist,  however,  finds  all  these  faunas  mixed  in  a  single  deposit. 
He  may  even  find  with  them  the  winged  creatures  of  the  air,  as  in  the 
insect  beds  of  Gurnet  Bay,  or  the  remains  of  estuarine  and  land  animals. 

Such  mixtures  are  generally  found  in  rocks  that  seem  to  have  been 
deposited  in  quiet  land-locked  bays.  Thus  in  a  Silurian  rock  near 
Visby,  Gotland,  have  been  found  creatures  of  such  diverse  habitat  as 
a  scorpion,  a  possibly  estuarine  Pterygotus,  a  large  barnacle,  and  a 
crinoid  of  the  delicate  form  usually  associated  with  clear  deep  water. 

G  2 


The  lagoons  of  Solenhofen  have  preserved  a  strange  mixture  of  land  and 
sea  life,  without  a  trace  of  fresh  or  brackish  water  forms.  Archae- 
opteryx,  insects,  flying  reptiles,  and  creeping  reptiles  represent  the  air 
and  land  fauna;  jelly-fish  and  the  crinoid  Saccocoma  are  true  open- 
water  wanderers ;  sponges  and  stalked  crinoids  were  sessile  on  the 
bottom;  starfish,  sea-urchins,  and  worms  crawled  on  the  sea-floor; 
king-crabs,  lobsters,  and  worms  left  their  tracks  on  mud-flats;  cephalo- 
pods  swam  at  various  depths ;  fishes  ranged  from  the  bottom  mud  to  the 
surface  waters.  The  Upper  Ordovician  Starfish  bed  of  Girvan  contains 
not  only  the  crawling  and  wriggling  creatures  from  which  it  takes  its 
name,  but  stalked  echinoderms  adapted  to  most  varied  modes  of  life, 
swimming  and  creeping  trilobites,  and  indeed  representatives  of  almost 
all  marine  levels. 

In  the  study  of  such  assemblages  we  have  to  distinguish  between 
the  places  of  birth,  of  life,  of  death,  and  of  burial,  since,  though  these 
may  all  be  the  same,  they  may  also  be  different.  The  echinoderms 
of  the  Starfish  bed  further  suggest  that  closer  discrimination  is  needed 
between  the  diverse  habitats  of  bottom  forms.  Some  of  these  were,  I 
believe,  attached  to  sea- weed;  others  grew  up  on  stalks  above  the 
bottom ;  others  clung  to  shells  or  stones ;  others  lay  on  the  top  of  the 
sea-floor ;  others  were  partly  buried  beneath  its  muddy  sand ;  others  may 
have  grovelled  beneath  it,  connected  with  the  overlying  water  by 
passages.  Here  we  shall  be  greatly  helped  by  the  investigations  of 
C.  G.  J.  Petersen  and  his  fellow-workers  of  the  Danish  Biological 
Station.  (See  especially  his  summary,  '  The  Sea  Bottom  and  its 
Production  of  Fish  Food,'  Copenhagen,  1918.)  They  have  set  an 
example  of  intensive  study  which  needs  to  be  followed  elsewhere.  By 
bringing  up  slabs  of  the  actual  bottom,  they  have  shown  that,  even  in 
a  small  area,  many  diverse  habitats,  each  with  its  peculiar  fauna,  may 
be  found,  one  superimposed  on  the  other.  Thanks  to  Petersen  and 
similar  investigators,  exact  comparison  can  now  take  the  place  of  in- 
genious speculation.  And  that  this  research  is  not  merely  fascinating 
in  itself,  but  illuminatory  of  wider  questions,  follows  from  the  con- 
sideration that  analysis  of  faunas  and  their  modes  of  life  must  be  a 
necessary  preliminary  to  the  study  of  migi'ations  and  geographical 

The  Tempo  of  Evolution. 

We  have  not  yet  done  with  the  results  that  may  flow  from  an  analysis 
of  adaptations.  Among  the  many  facts  which,  when  considered  from 
the  side  of  animal  structure  alone,  lead  to  transcendental  theories  with 
Greek  names,  there  is  the  observation  that  the  relative  rate  of  evolution 
is  very  different  in  races  living  at  the  same  time.  Since  their  i-emains 
are  found  often  side  by  side,  it  is  assumed  that  they  were  subject  to  the 
same  conditions,  and  that  the  differences  of  speed  must  be  due  to  a 
difference  of  internal  motive  force.  After  what  has  just  been  said  you 
will  at  once  detect  the  fallacy  in  this  assumption.  Professor  Abel  has 
recently  maintained  that  the  varying  tempo  of  evolution  depends  on  the 
changes  in  outer  conditions.  He  compares  the  evolution  of  whales, 
sirenians,  and  horses  during  the  Tertiary  Epoch,  and  correlates  it  with 

0. — GEOLOGY.  Bb 

the  nature  of  the  food.  Eoughly  to  summarise,  he  points  out  that 
from  the  Eocene  onwards  the  sirenians  underwent  a  steady,  slow  change, 
because,  though  they  migrated  from  land  to  sea,  they  retained  their 
habit  of  feeding  on  the  soft  water-plants.  The  horses,  though  they 
remained  on  land,  display  an  evolution  at  fiist  rather  quick,  then 
slower,  but  down  to  Pliocene  times  always  quicker  than  that  of  the 
sirenians;  and  this  is  correlated  with  their  change  into  eaters  of  grain, 
and  their  adaptation  to  the  plains  which  furnish  such  food.  The  whales, 
like  the  sirenians,  migrated  at  the  beginning  of  the  Tertiary  from  land  to 
sea;  but  how  different  is  their  rate  of  evolution,  and  into  what  diverse 
forms  have  they  diverged  !  At  first  they  remained  near  the  coasts,  keep- 
ing to  the  ancestral  diet,  and,  like  the  sirenians,  changing  but  slowly. 
But  the  whales  were  flesh-eaters,  and  soon  they  took  to  hunting  fish,  and 
then  to  eating  large  and  small  cephalopods ;  hence  from  the  Oligocene 
onwards  the  change  was  veiy  quick,  and  in  Miocene  times  the  evolution 
was  almost  tempestuous.  Finally,  many  whales  turned  to  the  swallow- 
ing of  minute  floating  oi'ganisms,  and  from  Lower  Pliocene  times, 
liaving  apparently  exhausted  the  possibilities  of  ocean  provender,  they 
changed  with  remarkable  slowness. 

Whether  such  changes  of  food  or  of  other  habits  of  life  are,  in  a 
sense,  spontaneous,  or  whether  they  are  forced  on  the  creatures  by 
changes  of  climate  and  other  conditions,  makes  no  difference  to  the 
facts  that  the  changes  of  form  are  a  reaction  to  the  stimuli  of  the  outer 
world,  and  that  the  rate  of  evolution  depends  on  those  outer  changes. 

Whether  we  have  to  deal  with  similar  changes  of  form  taking  place 
at  different  times  or  in  different  places,  or  with  diverse  changes  affect- 
ing the  same  or  similar  stocks  at  the  same  time  and  place,  we  can  see 
the  possibility  that  all  are  adaptations  to  a  changing  environment. 
There  is  then  reason  for  thinking  that  ignorance  alone  leads  us  to  assume 
some  inexphcable  force  urging  the  races  this  way  or  that,  to  so-called 
advance  or  to  apparent  degeneration,  to  life  or  to  death. 

The  Rhythm  of  Life. 

The  comparison  of  the  life  of  a  lineage  to  that  of  an  individual  is, 
up  to  a  point,  true  and  illuminating ;  but  when  a  lineage  first  starts  on 
its  independent  course  "(which  really  means  that  some  individuals  of  a 
pre-existing  stock  enter  a  new  field),  tlien  I  see  no  reason  to  predict 
that  it  will  necessarily  pass  through  periods  of  youth,  maturity,  and 
old  age,  that  it  will  increase  to  an  acme  of  numbers,  of  variety,  or  of 
specialisation,  and  then  decHne  through  a  second  childhood  to  ultimate 
extinction.  Still  less  can  we  say  that,  as  the  individuals  of  a  species 
have  their  allotted  span  of  time,  long  or  short,  so  the  species  or  the 
hneage  has  its  predestined  term.  The  exceptions  to  those  assertions 
are  indeed  recognised  by  the  supporters  of  such  views,  and  they  are 
explained  in  terms  of  rejuvenescence,  rhythmic  cycles,  or  a  "-rand 
despairing  outburst  before  death.  This  phraseology  is  dehghtful  as 
metaphor,  and  the  conceptions  have  had  their  value  in  promoting  search 
for  confirmatory  or  contradictory  evidence.  But  do  they  lead  to  any 
broad  and  fructifying  principle?  When  one  analyses  them  one  is  per- 
petually brought   up  against   some   transcendental  assumption,   some 


unknown  entelechy  that  starts  and  controls  the  machine,  but  must  for 
ever  evade  the  methods  of  our  science. 

The  facts  of  recurrence,  of  rhythm,  of  rise  and  fall,  of  marvellous 
efflorescences,  of  gradual  decline,  or  of  sudden  disappearances,  all  are 
incontestable.  But  if  we  accept  the  intimate  relation  of  organism  and 
environment,  we  shall  surmise  that  on  a  planet  with  such  a  geological 
history  as  ours,  with  its  recurrence  of  similar  physical  changes,  the 
phenomena  of  life  must  reflect  the  great  rhythmic  waves  that  have 
uplifted  the  mountains  and  lowered  the  deeps,  no  less  than  every 
smaller  wave  and  ripple  that  has  from  age  to  age  diversified  and 
enlivened  the  face  of  om'  restless  mother. 

To  correlate  the  succession  of  living  forms  with  all  these  changes 
is  the  task  of  the  palaeontologist.  To  attempt  it  he  will  need  the  aid  of 
every  kind  of  biologist,  every  kind  of  geologist.  But  this  attempt  is  not 
in  its  nature  impossible,  and  each  advance  to  the  ultimate  goal  will, 
in  the  future  as  in  the  past,  provide  both  geologist  and  biologist  with 
new  light  on  their  particular  problems.  When  the  coiTelation  shall 
have  been  completed,  our  geological  systems  and  epochs  will  no  longer 
be  defined  by  gaps  in  our  knowledge,  but  will  be  the  true  expression 
of  the  actual  rhythm  of  evolution.  Lyell's  great  postulate  of  the  uni- 
form action  of  nature  is  still  our  guide  ;  but  we  have  ceased  to  confound 
\iniformity  with  monotony.  We  return,  though  with  a  difference,  to 
tlie  conceptions  of  Cuvier,  to  those  numerous  and  relatively  sudden 
revolutions  of  the  surface  of  the  globe  which  have  produced  the  corre- 
sponding dynasties  in  its  succession  of  inhabitants. 

The  Ftdure. 
The  work  of  a  systematic  palaeontologist,  especially  of  one  dealing 
with  rare  and  obscure  fossils,  often  seems  remote  from  the  thought  and 
practice  of  modern  science.     I  have  tried  to  show  that  it  is  not  really 
so.     But  still  it  may  appear  to  some  to  have  no  contact  with  the  urgent 
problems  of  the  world  outside.     That  also  is  an  error.     Whether  the 
views  I  have  criticised  or  those  I  have  supported  are  the  coiTCct  ones  is 
a  matter  of  practical  importance.     If  we  are  to  accept  the  principle  of 
predetermination,   or  of  blind  growth-force,    we    must   accept   also  a 
check  on  our  efforts  to  improve  breeds,  including  those  of  man,  by  any 
other  means  than  crossings  and  elimination  of  unfit  strains.     In  spite 
of  all  that  we  may  do  in  this  way,  there  remain  those  decadent  races, 
whether  of  ostriches  or  human  beings,  which  '  await  alike  the  inevit-r 
abl3  hour.'     If,  on  the  other  hand,   we  adopt  the  view  that  the  life- 
history  of  races  is  a  response  to  their  environment,  then  it  follows, 
no  doubt,  that  the  past  history  of  living  creatures  will  have  been  deter- 
mined by  conditions  outside  their  control,  it  follows  that  the  idea  of 
human  progress  as  a  biological  law  ceases  to  be  tenable  ;  but,  since  man 
has  the  power  of  altering    his    environment    and    of  adapting   racial 
characters  through  conscious  selection,  it  also  follows  that  progress  will 
not  of  necessity  be  followed  by  decadence ;  rather  that,  by  aiming  at  a 
high  mark,  by  deepening  our  knowledge  of  ourselves  and  of  our  world, 
and  by  controlling  our  energy  and  guiding  our  efforts  in  the  light  of 
that  knowledge,  we  may  prolong  and  hasten  our  ascent  to  ages  and  to 
heights  as  yet  beyond  prophetic  vision. 

SECTION  D:    CARDIFF,  1920. 





Pbofessok  J.  STANLEY  GARDINER,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 


Where  do  toe  stand? 

The  public  has  the  right  to  consider  and  pass  judgment  on  all  that 
affects  its  civilisation  and  advancement,  and  both  of  these  largely 
depend  on  the  position  and  advance  of  science.  I  ask  its  congideration 
of  the  science  of  Zoology,  whether  or  not  it  justifies  its  existence  as 
such,  and,  if  it  does,  what  are  its  needs'.'  It  is  at  the  pai'ting  of  the 
ways.  It  eitlier  has  to  justify  itself  as  a  science  or  be  altogether  starved 
out  by  the  new-found  enthusiasm  for  chemistry  and  physics,  due  to  the 
belief  in  their  immediate  application  to  industries. 

It  is  a  truism  to  point  out  that  the  recent  developments  in  chemistry 
and  physics  depend,  in  the  main,  on  the  researches  of  men  whose 
names  are  scarcely  known  to  the  public :  this  is  equally  true  for  all 
sciences.  A  list  of  past  Presidents  of  the  Pioyal  Society  conveys 
nothing  to  the  pubUc  compared  with  a  list  of  Captains  of  Industry  who, 
to  do  them  justice,  are  the  first  to  recognise  that  they  owe  their  position 
and  wealth  to  these  scientists.  These  men  of  science  are  unknown  to 
the  public,  not  on  account  of  the  smallness  of  their  discoveries,  but 
rather  on  account  of  their  magnitude,  which  makes  them  meaningless 
to  the  mass. 

Great  as  have  been  the  results  in  physical  sciences  applied  to 
industry,  the  study  of  animal  life  can  claim  discoveries  just  as  great. 
Their  gi'eatest  value,  however,  lies  not  in  the  production  of  wealth,  but 
rather  in  their  broad  applicability  to  human  Hfe.  Man  is  an  animal  and 
he  is  subject  to  the  same  laws  as  otlier  animals.  He  learns  by  the 
experience  of  his  forebears,  but  he  learns,  also,  by  the  consideration  of 
other  animals  in  relationship  to  their  fellows  and  to  the  world  at  large. 
The  whole  idea  of  evolution,  for  instance,  is  of  indescribable  value;  it 
permeates  all  hfe  to-day ;  and  yet  Charles  Darwin,  whose  researches  did 
mor^  than  any  others  to  establish  its  facts,  is  too  often  only  known  to 
the  public  as  '  the  man  who  said  we  came  from  monkeys.' 


Whilst  first  and  foremost  I  would  base  my  claim  for  the  study  of 
animal  life  on  this  consideration,  we  cannot  neglect  the  help  it  has  given 
to  the  physical  welfare  of  man's  body.     It  is  not  out  of  place  to  draw 
attention  to  the  manner  in  which  pure  zoological  science  has  worked 
hand  in  hand  with  the  science  of  medicine.     Harvey's  experimental 
discovery  of  the  circulation  of  the  'Blood  laid  the  foundation  for  that 
real  knowledge  of  the  working  of  the  human  body  which  is  at  the  basis 
of  medicine ;  our  experience  of  the  liistory  of  its  development  gives  us 
good  grounds  to  hope  that  the  work  that  is  now  being  carried  out  by 
numerous  researchers  under  the  term  '  experimental '  will  ultimately 
elevate  the  art  of  diagnosis  into  an  exact  science.     Harvey's  work,  loo, 
mostly  on  developing  chicks,  was  the  starting-point  for  our  knowledge 
of  human  development  and  growth.     Instances  in  medicine  could  be 
multiplied  wherein  clinical  treatment  has  only  been  rendered  possible 
by  laborious  research  into  the  life  histories  of  certain  parasites  pr^eying 
often  on  man  and  other  animals  alternately.     In  this  connection  there 
seems  reason  at  present  for  the  belief  that  the  great  problem  of  medical 
science,  cancer,   will  reach  its  solution  from  the  zoological  side.     A 
pm'e  zoologist  has  shown  that  typical  cancer  of  the  stomach  of  the  rat 
can  be  produced  by  a  parasitic  tlii-eadworm   (allied  to  that  found  in 
pork,    Trichina),  this   having  as  a   carrying  host  the  American  cock- 
roach, brought  over  to  the  large  warehouses  of  Copenhagen  in  sacks  of 
sugar.     Our  attack  on  such  parasites  is  only  made  effective  by  what  we 
know  of  them  in  lower  forms,  which  we  can  deal  with  at  will.     Millions 
of  the  best  of  our  race  owe  their  lives  to  the  labours  of  forgotten  men 
of  science,  who  laid  the  foundations  of  our  knowledge  of  the  generations 
of  insects  and  flat- worms,  the  modes  of  life  of  lice  and  ticks,  and  the 
physiology  of  such  lowly  creatures  as  Amoeba  and  Para^jreecfttm;  parasitic 
disease — malaria,  Bilharziasis,  typhus,  trench  fever  and  dysentery- 
was  as  deadly  a  foe  to  us  as  was  the  Hun. 

Of  immense  economic  importance  in  the  whole  domain  of  domestic 
animals  and  plants  was  the  rediscovei'y,  early  in  the  present  century, 
of  the  complefely  forgotten  work  of  Gregor  Mendel  on  cross-breeding, 
made  known  to  the  present  generation  largely  by  the  labours  of  a 
former  President  of  this  Association,  who,  true  man  of  science,  claims 
no  credit  for  himself.  We  see  results  already  in  the  few  years  that 
have  elapsed  in  special  breeds  of  wheat,  in  which  have  been  combined 
with  exactitude  the  qualities  man  desires.  The  results  are  in  the 
making — and  this  is  true  of  all  things  in  biology — but  can  anyone  doubt 
that  the  breeding  of  animals  is  becoming  an  exact  science?  We  have 
got  far,  perhaps,  but  we  want  to  get  much  further  in  our  understand- 
ing of  the  laws  governing  human  heredity;  we  have  to  establish 
immunity  to  disease.  Without  the  purely  scientific  study  of  chromo- 
somes (the  bodies  whicli  carry  the  physical  and  mental  characteristics 
of  parents  to  children)  we  could  have  got  nowhere,  and  to  reach  our 
goal  we  must  know  more  of  the  various  forces  which  in  combination 
make  up  what  we  term  life. 

In  agricultural  sciences  we  are  confronted  with  pests  in  half  a 
dozen  different  groups  of  animals.  We  have  often  to  discover  which 
of  two  or  more  is  the  damaging  form,   and  the  difficulty   is  greater 

». — ZOOLOGY.  80 

where  the  damage  is  due  to  association  between  plant  and  animal  pests. 
Insects  are,  perhaps,  the  worst  offenders,  and  om-  basal  knowledge  of 
them  as  living  organisms — they  can  do  no  damage  when  dead,  and 
perhaps  pinned  in  our  showcases — is  due  to  Eedi,  Schwammerdam , 
and  Eeaumur  in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Our  present 
successful  honey  production  is  founded  on  the  curiosity  of  these  men  in 
respect  to  the  origin  of  life  and  the  generations  of  insects.  The  fact 
tliat  most  of  the  dominant  insects  have  a  worm  (caterpillar  or  maggot) 
stage  of  growth,  often  of  far  longer  duration  than  that  of  the  insects, 
has  made  systematic  descriptive  work  on  the  relation  of  worm  and 
insect  of  peculiar  importance.  I  hesitate,  however,  to  refer  to  catalogues 
in  which  perhaps  a  million  different  forms  of  adults  and  young  are 
described.  Nowadays  we  know,  to  a  large  degree,  with  what  pests  we 
deal  and  we  are  seeking  remedies.  We  fumigate  and  we  spray,  spending 
millions  of  money,  but  the  next  remedy  is  in  the  use  of  free-living 
enemies  or  parasites  to  prey  on  the  insect  pests.  The  close  correlation 
of  anatomy  with  function  is  of  use  here  in  that  life  histories,  whether 
parasitic,  carnivorous,  vegetarian,  or  saprophagous,  can  be  foretold  in 
liy  maggots  from  the  structure  of  the  front  part  of  their  gut  (pharynx) ; 
we  know  whether  any  maggot  is  a  pest,  is  harmless,  or  is  beneficial. 

I  won't  disappoint  those  who  expect  me  to  refer  more  deeply  to 
science  in  respect  to  fisheries,  but  its  operations  in  this  field  are  less 
known  to  the  public  at  large.  The  opening  up  of  our  north-western 
grounds  and  banks  is  due  to  the  scientific  curiosity  of  Wyville  Thomson 
and  his  confreres  as  to  the  existence  or  non-existence  of  animal  life 
in  the  deep  sea.  It  was  sheer  desire  for  knowledge  that  attracted 
a  host  of  inquirers  to  investigate  the  life  history  of  I'iver  eels.  The 
wonder  of  a  fish  living  in  our  shallowest  pools  and  travelling  two 
or  three  thousand  miles  to  breed,  very  likely  on  the  bottom  in  2,000 
fathoms,  and  subjected  to  pressures  varying  from  14  lb.  to  2  tons  per 
square  inch,  is  peculiarly  attractive.  It  shows  its  results  in  regular 
eel  farming,  the  catching  and  transplantation  of  the  baby  eels  out  of 
the  Severn  into  suitable  waters,  which  cannot,  by  the  efforts  of  Nature 
alone,  be  sure  of  their  regular  supply.  Purely  scientific  observations 
on  the  life  histories  of  flat  fish — these  were  largely  stimulated  by  the 
scientific  curiosity  induced  by  the  views  of  Lamarck  and  Darwin  as 
to  the  causes  underlying  their  anatomical  development — ^and  on  the 
feeding  value  and  nature  of  Thisted  Bredning  and  the  Dogger  Bank, 
led  to  the  successful  experiments  on  transplantation  of  young  plaice 
to  these  grounds  and  the  phenomenal  growth  results  obtained,  particu- 
larly on  the  latter.  Who  can  doubt  that  this  '  movement  of  herds  ' 
is  one  of  the  first  results  to  be  applied  in  the  farming  of  the  North 
Sea  as  soon  as  the  conservation  of  our  fish  supply  becomes  a  question 
of  necessity? 

The  abundance  of  mackerel  is  connected  with  the  movements  of 
Atlantic  water  into  the  British  Channel  and  the  North  Sea,  movements 
depending  on  complex  astronomical,  chemical,  and  physical  conditions. 
They  are  further  related  to  the  food  of  the  mackerel,  smaller  animal 
life  which  dwells  only  in  these  Atlantic  waters.  These  depend,  as 
indeed  do  all  animals,  on  that  living  matter  which  possesses  chlorophyll 


for  its  nutrition  and  which  we  call  plant.  In  this  case  the  plants 
are  spores  of  algae,  diatoms,  etc.,  and  their  abundance  as  food  again 
depends  on  the  amount  of  the  light  of  the  sun — the  ultimate  source, 
it  might  seem,  of  all  hfe. 

A  method  of  ascertaining  the  age  of  fishes  was  sought  purely  to 
correlate  age  with  growth  in  comparison  with  the  growth  of  air-living 
vertebrates.  This  method  was  found  in  the  rings  of  growth  in  the 
scales,  and  now  the  ascertaining  of  age-groups  in  herring  shoals  enables 
the  Norwegian  fishermen  to  know  with  certainty  what  possibilities  and 
probabilities  are  before  them  in  the  forthcoming  season.  From  the 
work  on  the  blending  together  of  Atlantic  with  Baltic  and  North  Sea 
water  off  the  Baltic  Bight  and  of  the  subsequent  movements  of  this 
Bank  water,  as  it  is  termed,  into  the  Swedish  fiords  can  be  understood, 
year  by  year,  the  Swedish  herring  fishery.  It  is  interesting  that  these 
fisheries  have  been  further  correlated  with  cycles  of  sun  spots,  and 
also  with  longer  cycles  of  lunar  changes. 

The  mass  of  seemingly  unproductive  scientific  inquiries  undertaken 
by  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Fisheries,  thirty  to  fifty  years  ago, 
was  fhe  forerunner  of  their  immense  fish-hatching  operations,  whereby 
billions  of  fish  eggs  are  sti-ipped  year  by  year  and  tha  fresh  waters 
of  that  country  made  into  an  important  source  for  the  supply  of  food. 
The  study  of  the  growth  stages  of  lobsters  and  crabs  has  resulted  in 
sane  regulations  to  protect  the  egg-carrying  females,  and  in  some 
keeping  up  of  the  supply  in  spite  of  the  enormously  increased  demand. 
Lastly,  the  study  of  free-swimming  larval  stages  in  mollusca,  stimu- 
lated immensely  by  their  similarity  to  larval  stages  in  worms  and 
starfishes,  has  given  rise  to  the  establishment  of  a  successful  pearl- 
shell  farm  at  Dongouab,  in  the  Eed  Sea,  and  of  numerous  fresh-water 
mussel  fisheries  in  the  southern  rivers  of  the  United  States,  to  supply 
small  shirt  buttons. 

Fishery  investigation  was  not  originally  directed  to  a  more  ambitious 
end  than  giving  a  reasonable  answer  to  a  question  of  the  wisdom  or 
unwisdom  of  compulsorily  restricting  commercial  fishing,  but  it  was 
soon  found  that  this  answer  could  not  be  obtained  without  the  aid 
of  pure  zoology.  The  spread  of  trawling- — and  particularly  the  intro- 
duction of  steam  trawling  during  the  last  century — gave  rise  to  grave 
fears  that  the  stock  of  fish  in  home  waters  might  be  very  seriously 
depleted  by  the  use  of  new  methods.  We  first  required  to  know  the 
life  histories  of  the  various  trawled  fish,  and  Sars  and  others  told 
us  that  the  eggs  of  the  vast  majority  of  the  European  marine  food 
species  v\>ere  pelagic ;  in  other  words,  that  they  floated,  and  thus  could 
not  be  destroyed,  as  had  been  alleged.  Trawl  fishing  might  have  to 
be  regulated  all  the  same,  for  there  might  be  an  insufficient  number 
of  parents  to  keep  up  the  stock.  It  was  clearly  necessary  to  know 
the  habits,  movements,  and  distribution  of  the  fishes,  for  all  were 
not,  throughout  their  life,  or  at  all  seasons,  found  on  the  grounds  it 
was  practicable  to  fish.  A  North  Sea  plaice  of  12  in.  in  length,  a 
quits  moderate  size,  is  usually  five  years  old.  The  fact  that  of  the 
female  plaice  captured  in  the  White  Sea,  a  virgin  ground,  the  vast 
majority  are  mature,  while  less  than  half  the  plaice  put  upon  our 

t).— zootoov.  1^1 

marfeels  from  certain  parts  of  the  southern  North  Sea  in  the  years 
immediately  before  the  war  had  ever  spawned,  is  not  only  of  great 
interest,  but  gives  rise  to  grave  fears  as  to  the  possibility  of  unrestricted 
fishing  dangerously  depleting  the  stock  itself.  There  is,  however, 
another  group  of  ideas  sunx)unding  the  question  of  getting  the  maximum 
amount  of  plaice-meat  from  the  sea ;  it  may  be  that  the  best  size  for 
catching  is  in  reality  below  the  smallest  spawning  size.  I  here  merely 
emphasise  that  in  the  plaice  we  have  an  instance  of  an  impoitant  food 
fish  whose  capture  it  will  probably  be  necessary  to  regulate,  and  that 
in  determining  how  best  the  stock  may  be  conserved,  what  sizes  should 
receive  partial  protection,  on  what  grounds  fish  congregate  and  why, 
and  in  all  the  many  cognate  questions  which  arise,  answers  to  either 
can  only  be  given  by  the  aid  of  zoological  science. 

But  why  multiply  instances  of  the  applications  of  zoology  as  a  pure 
science  to  human  affairs?  Great  results  are  asked  for  on  every  side  of 
human  activities.  The  zoologist,  if  he  be  given  a  chance  to  live  and 
to  hand  on  his  knowledge  and  experience  to  a  generation  of  pupils, 
can  answer  many  of  them.  He  is  increasingly  getting  done  with  the 
collection  of  anatomical  facts,  and  he  is  turning  more  and  more  to  the 
why  and  how  animals  live.  We  may  not  know  in  our  generation  nor 
in  many  generations  what  life  is,  but  we  can  know  enough  to  control 
that  life.  The  consideration  of  the  fact  that  living  matter  and  water 
are  universally  associated  opens  up  high  possibilities.  The  experi- 
mental reproduction  of  animals,  without  the  interposition  of  the  male, 
is  immensely  interesting;  where  it  will  lead  no  on©  can  foretell.  The 
association  of  growth  with  the  acidity  and  alkalinity  of  the  water  is  a 
matter  of  immediate  practical  importance,  especially  to  fisheries.  The 
probability  of  dissolved  food  material  in  sea  and  river  water,  indepen- 
dent of  organised  organic  life  and  absorbable  over  the  whole  surfaces  of 
animals,  is  clearly  before  us.  Is  it  possible  that  that  dissolved  material 
may  be  even  now  being  created  in  nature  without  the  assistance  of 
organic  life?  The  knowledge  of  the  existence  in  food  of  vitamines, 
making  digestible  and  usable  what  in  food  would  othei'wise  be  wasted, 
may  vi'ell  result  in  economies  of  food  that  will  for  generations  prevent  the 
necessity  for  the  artificial  restriction  of  populations.  The  parallel 
between  these  vitamines  and  something  in  sea-water  may  quite  soon 
apply  practically  to  the  consideration  of  all  life  in  the  sea.  Finally, 
what  we  know  of  the  living  matter  of  germ  cells  puts  before  us  the  not 
impossible  hope  that  we  may  influence  for  the  better  the  generations  yet 
to  come. 

If  it  is  the  possibility  in  the  unknown  that  makes  a  science,  are 
there  not  enough  possibilities  here?  Does  Zoology,  with  these  prob- 
lems before  it,  look  like  a  decayed  and  worked-out  science?  Is  it  not 
worthy  to  be  ranked  with  any  other  science,  and  is  it  not  worthy 
of  the  highest  support?  Is  it  likely  to  show  good  value  for  the 
money  spent  upon  it?  Should  we  not  demand  for  it  a  Pi'ofessorial 
Chair  in  every  University  that  wishes  to  be  regarded  as  an  educational 
institution?  And  has  not  the  occupant  of  such  a  Chair  a  task  at  least 
equal  in  difficulty  to  that  of  the  occupant  of  any  other  Chair  ?  Surely 
the  zoologist  may  reasonably  claim  an  equal  position  and  pay  to  that 

92  sECTioifAL  Addresses. 

of  tlie  devotee  of  any  other  science !  The  researcher  is  not  a  huckstel' 
and  will  not  make  this  claim  on  his  own  behalf,  but  the  occupant  of 
this  Chair  may  be  allowed  to  do  so  for  him. 

So  far  I  have  devoted  my  attention  primarily,  in  this  survey  of  the 
position  of  Zoology,  to  the  usefulness  of  the  subject.  Let  us  now  note 
where  we  stand  in  respect  to  other  subjects  and  in  meeting  the  real  need 
for  wide  zoological  study. 

All  sciences  are  now  being  reviewed,  and  zoology  has  to  meet  month 
by  month  the  increasingly  powerful  claim  of  physics  and  chemistry  for 
public  support.  Both  of  these  sciences  are  conspicuously  applicable 
to  industry,  and  this,  perhaps,  is  their  best  claim.  The  consideration 
of  life  as  a  science  would  itself  be  in  danger  were  it  not  for  the  economic 
applications  of  physiology  to  medicine.  This  is  the  danger  from 
without,  but  there  is  anotlier  irom  within,  and  this  lies  in  the  splitting 
np  of  the  subject  into  a  series  of  small  sections  devoted  to  special 
economic  ends.  They  are  a  real  danger  in  that  they  are  forming 
enclosures  within  a  science,  while  research  is  more  and  more  breaking 
down  the  walls  between  sciences.  Zoology  in  many  Universities 
scarcely  exists,  for  what  is  assimilated  by  agriculturists  and  medical 
men  are  catalogued  lists  of  pests,  while  medical  students  merely  acquire 
the  technique  of  observing  dead  forms  of  animals  other  than  lauman — 
not  the  intention  of  the  teachers,  it  is  true,  but  a  melancholy  fact  all 
the  same.  The  student,  I  say  again,  is  merely  acquiring  in  '  Zoology  ' 
a  travesty  of  a  noble  subject,  but  to  this  point  I  return  later. 

Let  me  now  give  a  few  facts  which  have  their  sweet  and  bitter  for 
us  who  make  Zoology  our  life  work.  During  the  war  we  wanted  men 
who  had  passed  the  Honours  Schools  in  Zoology — and  hence,  were  pre- 
sumably capable  of  doing  the  work — to  train  for  the  diagnosis  of  proto- 
zoal disease.  We  asked  for  all  names  from  1905  to  1914  inclusive,  and  tbe 
average  vs'orked  out  at  under  fourteen  per  year  from  all  English 
Universities :  an  average  of  one  student  per  University  per  year.  In 
the  year  1913-14:  every  student  who  had  done  his  Honours  Course  in 
Zoology  in  1913  could,  if  lie  had  taken  entomology  as  his  subject,  have 
been  absorbed  into  the  economic  applications  of  that  subject.  Trained 
men  were  wanted  to  undertake  scientific  fishery  investigations  and  they 
could  not  be  found.  Posts  were  advertised  in  Animal  Breeding,  in 
Helminthology,  and  in  Protozoology,  three  other  economic  sides  of 
the  subject.  The  Natural  History  Museum  wanted  systematists  and 
there  were  many  advertisements  for  teachers.  How  many  of  these 
posts  were  filled  I  don't  know,  but  it  is  clear  that  not  more  than  one- 
half — or  even  one-third — can  have  been  filled  efficiently.  Can  any 
zoologist  say  that  all  is  well  with  his  subject  in  the  face  of  these 
deficiencies  ? 

The  demands  for  men  in  the  economic  sides  of  zoology  are  con- 
tinually growmg,  and  it  is  the  business  of  Universities  to  try  and  meet 
these  demands.  There  are  Departments  of  Government  at  home  and 
in  our  Colonies,  which,  in  the  interests  of  the  people  they  govern,  wish 
to  put  into  operation  protective  measm-es  but  cannot  do  so  because 
there  are  not  the  men  with  the  requisite  knowledge  and  common  sense 
required   for  Inspectorates.     There  are  others  that  wish  for  research 

D. — ZOOLOGY.  93 

to  develop  seas,  to  conserve  existing  industries  as  well  as  to  discover  new 
ones,  and  they,  too,  are  compelled  to  mark  time. 

In  default,  or  in  spite  of,  the  efforts  of  the  schools  of  pure  zoology, 
attempts  are  being  made  to  set  up  special  training  schools  in  fisheries, 
in  entomology,  and  in  other  economic  applications  of  zoology.  Each 
branch  is  regarded  as  a  science  and  the  supporters  of  each  suppose 
they  can,  from  the  commencement  of  a  lad's  scientific  training,  give 
specialised  instruction  in  each.  The  reseai'cher  in  each  has  to  do  the 
research  which  the  economic  side  requires.  But  he  can't  restrict  his 
education  to  one  science ;  he  requires  to  know  the  principles  of  all 
sciences ;  he  must  attempt  to  understand  what  life  is.  Moreover,  his 
specialist  knowledge  can  seldom  be  in  one  science.  The  economic 
entomologist,  however  deep  his  knowledge  of  insects  may  be,  will  find 
himself  frequently  at  fault  in  distinguishing  cause  and  effect  unless  he 
has  some  knowledge  of  mycology.  The  protozoologist  must  have  an 
intimate  knowledge  of  unicellular  plants,  bacterial  and  other.  The 
animal-breeder  must  know  the  work  on  cross-fertilisation  of  plants. 
The  fisheries  man  requires  to  understand  physical  oceanogi'aphy.  The 
helminthologist  and  the  veterinary  surgeon  require  an  intimate  know- 
ledge of  a  rather  specialised  '  physiology. '  All  need  knowledge  of  l"he 
comparative  physiology  of  animals  in  other  groups  beyond  those  with 
which  they  deal,  to  assist  them  in  their  deductions  and  to  aid  them  to 
secure  the  widest  outlook.  It  is  surely  a  mistake,  while  the  greatest 
scientific  minds  of  the  day  find  that  they  require  the  widest  knowledge, 
to  endeavour  to  get  gi-eat  scientific  results  out  of  students  whose  train- 
ing has  been  narrow  and  specialised.  Such  specialisation  requires  to 
come  later,  and  can  replace  nothing.  This  short  cut  is  the  longest  way 
round.     The  danger  is  not  only  in  our  science,  but  in  every  science. 

In  face  of  this  highly  gi'atifying  need  for  trained  zoologists,  indepen- 
dently of  medical  schools,  I  ask  my  colleagues  in  the  teaching  of  zoology, 
'  What  is  wrong  with  our  schools  of  zoology  that  they  are  producing 
so  few  men  of  science?  It  is  not  the  subject !  Can  it  be  our  presenta- 
tion of  it,  or  is  it  merely  a  question  of  inadequate  stipends?  ' 

In  science  schools  there  can  be  no  standing  still.  Progress  or 
retrogression  in  thought,  technique,  and  method  are  the  two  alterna- 
tives. If  we  are  to  progress  we  must  see  ever  wider  vistas  of  thought, 
and  must  use  the  achievements  of  cur  pi'edecessors  as  the  take-off  for 
our  own  advances.  The  foundations  of  our  science  were  well  and  truly 
laid,  but  we  must  not  count  the  bricks  for  ever,  but  add  to  theni. 
Par  be  it  from  me  to  decry  the  knowledge  and  ideas  our  predecessors 
have  given  to  us.  To  have  proved  the  possibility,  nay,  probabihty,  that 
all  life  is  one  life  and  that  life  itself  is  pei'manent  is  an  immense  achieve- 
ment. To  have  catalogued  the  multitudinous  forms  that  life  takes  in 
each  country  was  a  herculean  task.  To  have  studied  with  meticulous 
care  the  shapes,  forms,  and  developments  of  organs  in  so  many  bodies 
was  equally  herculean.  It  was  as  much  as  could  be  expected  in  the 
nineteenth  century,  during  most  of  which  zoology  was  in  advance  of 
all  other  sciences.  But  surely  for  these  pioneer  workers  this  docket- 
ing, tabulating,  and  collecting  was  not  the  object  of  their  research, 
but  the  means  to  its  attainment.    The  prize  they  sought  was  the  under* 


staoding  of  life  itself,  the  intangible  mystery  which  makes  ourselves 
akin  to  all  these  specimens,  the  common  possession  which  gives  to  man, 
as  to  the  lowest  creature,  the  power  of  growth  and  reproduction. 

To  my  colleagues  I  say,  let  us  no  longer,  in  the  reconstruction 
immediately  before  us,  tie  ourselves  down  to  the  re-chewing  of  our  dry 
bones.  They  are  but  dead  bones,  and  the  great  mystery  which  once 
lived  in  them  has  passed  from  them,  and  it  is  that  we  must  now 
seek.  Not  in  bones,  in  myriads  of  named  specimens,  does  that  mystery 
dwell,  but  in  the  living  being  itself,  in  the  growth  and  reproduction  of 
live  creatures.  Observation  and  experiment  rather  than  tabulation  and 
docketing  are  our  technique.  What  is  that  life,  common  to  you,  to  me, 
to  our  domestic  pets,  to  animals  and  to  plants  alike?  Surely  this  is 
our  goal,  and  the  contents  of  our  museums,  means  to  this  end,  are 
in  danger  of  being  regarded  as  the  end.  There  is  hope  now.  Those 
of  us  who  have  the  will  to  look  can  see  zoology  in  its  proper  place, 
the  colleague  of  botany  in  applying  physics  and  chemistry  to  the  under- 
standing of  life  itself.  The  study  of  life  is  the  oldest  of  all  sciences ; 
it  is  the  science  in  which  the  child  earliest  takes  an  interest;  its  study 
has  all  the  attributes  required  for  education  of  the  highest  type,  for  the 
appreciation  of  the  beauty  of  form  and  of  music,  of  unselfishness,  of 
self-control,  of  imagination,  of  love,  and  constancy.  The  more  we  know 
of  life,  the  more  we  appreciate  Its  wonders  and  the  more  we  want  to 
know ;  it  is  good  to  be  alive. 

Surely  the  time  has  now  come  for  us  to  lift  our  eyes  from  our 
tables  of  groups  and  families,  and,  on  the  foundations  of  the  know- 
ledge of  these,  work  on  the  processes  going  on  in  the  living  body, 
the  adaptation  to  enviromnent,  the  problems  of  heredity,  and  of  many 
another  fascinating  hunt  in  unknown  country.  Let  us  teach  our 
students  not  only  what  is  known,  but,  still  more,  what  is  iinknown,  for 
in  the  pursuit  of  the  latter  we  shall  engage  eager  spirits  who  care  nought 
for  collections  of  corpses.  My  own  conviction  is  that  we  are  in  danger 
of  burying  our  live  subject  along  with  our  specimens  in  museums. 

We  see  the  same  evil  at  work  in  the  teaching  of  zoology  from  the 
very  beginning.  Those  of  us  who  are  parents  know  that  the  problems 
of  life  assail  a  child  almost  as  soon  as  it  can  speak,  and  that  it  is  the 
animal  side  of  creation  which  makes  the  most  natural  and  immediate 
appeal  to  its  interest  and  curiosity.  Where  such  interest  is  intelligent 
and  constant  it  is  safe  to  educate  tiiily  in  the  desired  direction.  You 
will  notice  that  the  child's  questions  are  very  fundamental  and  that, 
according  to  my  experience,  the  facts  elicited  are  applied  widely,  and 
with  perfect  simplicity.  Thus  my  own  small  daughter,  having  elicited 
where  the  baby  rabbits  came  from,  said  '  Oh !  just  like  eggs  from  hens. ' 

The  child's  own  desires  show  up  best  what  his  mind  requires  for 
its  due  development,  and  I  fear  no  contradiction  in  claiming  that  it  is 
animal  life  in  all  its  living  aspects.  Yet  what  is  he  given?  Schools 
encourage  'natural  history,'  as  it  is  termed.  In  some  it  is  nature;  but 
too  often  it  consists  in  a  series  of  prizes  for  dates — when  the  first 
blooms  of  wild  flowers  were  found;  the  first  nests,  eggs,  and  young  of 
birds;  the  records  of  butterflies  and  moths,  etc.  Actual  instruction,  if 
there  is  any  beyond  this  systematic  teaching  of  destruction,  frequently 

D. — ^ZOOLOGY.  95 

lies  solely  in  a  few  sheets  of  the  life  histories  of  the  cabbage  butterfly 
and  other  insects.  Fossil  sea  urchins  and  shells  are  curiosities  and 
are  used  to  teach  names.  The  whole  is  taught — there  are  some  striking 
exceptions — with  the  minimum  requirements  of  observation  and  intelli- 
gence. Plants  too  often  dominate.  The  lad  can  pluck  flowers  and 
tear  up  roots ;  there  is  a  certain  cruelty  to  be  discouraged  if  animals 
are  treated  similarly,  but  here  there  is  none,  for  'they  are  not  alive  '  as 
we  are.  Which  one  of  us  would  agree  to  this,  and  say  that  there  is 
not  a  similar  '  cruelty  '  in  tearing  up  plants?  The  method  is  the 
negation  of  science.  The  boy  must  be  taught  from  the  other  end,  from 
flie  one  animal  about  which  he  does  know  a  little,  viz.,  himself.  From 
the  commencement  he  must  associate  himself  with  all  living  matter. 
The  child — boy  or  girl^shows  us  the  way  in  that  he  is  invariably  keener 
on  the  domestic  pets,  while  he  has  to  be  bribed  by  pennies  to  learn 
plant  names. 

As  a  result  of  the  wrong  teaching  of  zoology  we  see  proposals  to 
make  so-called  '  nature  study  '  in  our  schools  purely,  botanical.  Is 
this  proposal  made  in  the  interests  of  the  teacher  or  the  children  ?  It 
surely  can't  be  for  '  decency  '  if  the  teaching  is  honest,  for  the  pheno- 
mena are  the  same,  and  there  is  nothing  '  indecent  '  common  to  all 
life.  'The  proper  study  of  mankind  is  man,'  and  the  poor  child, 
atKirst  for  information  about  himself,  is  given  a  piece  of  moss  or  duck- 
weed, or  even  a  chaste  buttercup.  Is  the  child  supposed  to  get  some 
knowledge  it  can  apply  economically?  "Whatever  the  underlying  ideas 
may  be,  this  course  will  not  best  develop  the  mind  to  enable  it  to 
grapple  with  all  phenomena,  the  aim  of  education.  If  necessary,  the 
school  teacher  must  go  to  school ;  he  must  bring  himself  up  to  date  in 
his  own  time,  as  every  teacher  in  science  has  to  do;  it  is  the  business 
of  Universities  to  help  him,  for  nothing  is  more  important  to  all  science 
than  the  foundations  of  knowledge. 

Into  scliools  is  now  moving  the  teaching  required  for  the  first 
professional  examination  in  medicine,  and  this  profoundly  affects  the 
whole  attitude  of  teachers.  It  has  a  syllabus  approved  by  the  Union 
of  Medicine,  the  '  apprenticeship  '  to  which  is  as  real  and  as  difficult  to 
alter  as  that  of  any  expert  trade  with  its  own  union.  It  compels  the 
remembering  of  a  number  of  anatomical  facts  relating  to  a  miscellaneous 
selection  of  animals  and  plants,  and  the  aequirement  of  a  certain 
amount  of  technique.  However  it  may  be  taught,  its  examination  can 
almost  invariably  be  passed  on  memory  and  manual  dexterity ;  it  implies 
no  standard  of  mental  ability.  Anatomy  without  function  and  know- 
ledge of  an  organism  without  reference  to  its  life  is  surely  futile.  And 
yet,  too  often,  this  is  what  our  colleagues  concerned  with  the  second 
year  of  this  apprenticeship  directly  or  indirectly  compel  us  to  teach 
in  the  first  year.  Surely  it  is  time  for  us  to  rebel  and  insist  that  what 
is  required  is  education  as  to  the  real  meaning  of  what  life  is.  We 
shall  never  reach  complete  agreement  as  to  a  syllabus,  bul  probably 
we  are  all  at  one  in  regarding  reproduction  as  the  most  interesting 
biological  phenomenon,  and  water  and  air  as  the  most  important  environ- 

Unfortunately  most  Universities  have  adopted  this  in  many  ways 


unscientific  and  rather  useless  first  Medical  Examination  as  part  of 
their  first  examination  for  the  B.Sc.  degree  and  for  diplomas  and 
degrees  in  agriculture,  dentistry,  and  other  subjects.  Zoology  is  part 
of  a  syllabus  in  which  half  a  dozen  professors  are  concerned,  and  it 
cannot  change  with  the  times  without  great  diflficulty.  Our  colleagues 
of  other  sciences  do  not  want  it  to  change,  preferring  that  a  rival  subject 
to  attract  pupils  should  remain  in  a  backwash;  to  be  just,  each  has 
a  firm  belief  in  the  subject  he  knows.  For  our  continuation  com'ses, 
having  choked  out  the  more  thinking  students,  we  have  to  go  on  as 
we  have  begun,  and  we  survey  the  animal  kingdom  in  a  more  or  less 
systematic  manner.  We  carefully  see  that  all  our  beasts  are  killed 
before  we  commence  upon  them ;  we  deal  solely  with  their  compara- 
tive anatomy,  to  which  are  often  added  some  stoiies  of  'evolution,' 
the  whole  an  attempted  history  of  the  animal  kingdom.  There  are 
great  educational  merits  in  the  study  of  the  comparative  anatomy  of 
a  group  of  similar  animals,  but  too  often  we  go  to  gi'oup  after  group, 
tlie  student  attaining  all  that  is  educational  in  the  first,  only  securinij 
from  each  subsequent  group  more  and  more  facts  which  might  just 
as  well  be  culled  from  text-books. 

Students  who  continue  further  and  take  the  final  honours  in  zoology 
specialise  in  most  Univei'sities  in  their  last  year  in  some  branch  of 
tlieir  science.  Such  students  are  usually  thinking  of  the  subject  from 
the  point  of  view  of  their  subsequent  livelihood.  They  have  to  think 
of  what  will  pay  and  in  what  branches  there  Is,  In  their  University, 
some  teacher  from  whom  they  can  get  special  insti-uction.  They  read 
up  the  most  modern  text-book,  examine  a  few  specimens,  and  are  often 
given  the  class  they  desire  by  examiners  who  know  less  of  their 
speciality  than  they  do.  They  are  then  supposed  to  be  quahfied  both 
to  tench  and  research  in  zoology.  They  teach  on  the  sarno  vicious 
lines,  and  in  research  many  are  satisfied  to  become  mere  accumulators 
oF  more  facts  in  regard  to  dead  creatures. 

I  have  called  this  address  '  Where  do  we  stand  ?  '  and  I  hope  all 
who  are  interested  will  try  to  answer  this  question.  Personally  I  feel 
that  we  stand  in  a  most  uncomfortable  position.  In  which,  to  use  a 
colloquialism,  we  must  either  get  on  or  get  out.  I  am  certain  that  the 
progress  of  humanity  requires  us  to  '  get  on.' 

Of  you  in  my  audience  who  are  not  workers  in  science  I  ask  a 
final  moment  of  consideration.  There  is  no  knowledge  of  which  it 
is  possible  to  answer  the  question,  '  What  is  the  use  of  it?  '  for  only 
time  can  disclose  what  are  the  full  bearings  of  any  piece  of  know- 
ledge. Let  us  not  starve  pure  research  because  we  do  not  see  its 
immediate  application,  i  often  think  that  if  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  at 
the  present  day,  discovered  the  law  of  gravity  as  a  result  of  watching 
tlie  apples  fall,  someone  would  say,  '  Oh!  interesting,  no  doubt:  but 
my  money  will  go  to  the  man  who  can  stop  the  maggots  in  them.' 

On  the  one  side  leads  the  path  of  economic  research,  offering  more 
obvious  attractions  in  the  way  of  rapid  results  and  of  greater  immediate 
recognition.  That  path  is  one  trodden  by  noble  steps,  full  of  sacrifice 
and  difficulty,  worthy  of  treading.  But  let  us  view  with  still  greater 
sympathy  and  understanding   the  harder  path   which  leads  workers, 

D. — ZOOLOGY.  97 

through  years  of  seemingly  unproductive  toil,  to  strive  after  the  solution 
of  the  great  basal  problems  of  life.  Such  workers  forfeit  for  themselves 
the  hope  of  wealth,  leisure,  and  public  recognition.  As  a  rule  they  die 
in  harness,  and  leave  not  much  beyond  honoured  names.  These  are 
they  who  worship  at  the  Altar  of  the  Unknown,  who  at  great  cost 
wrest  from  the  darkness  its  secrets,  not  recking  of  the  boon  they  may 
bring  to  humanity.  It  is  for  these  I  plead,  not  for  themselves  as 
individuals,  but  for  the  means  wherewith  to  keep  the  flame  of  pure 
research  burning,  for  the  ]abora,tories  and  equipment  that  all  Universities 


SECTION  E  :    CAEDIFF,  1920. 





JOHN    McFAELANE,    M.A., 


Since  the  last  meeting  of  the  British  Association,  Treaties  of  Peace 
have  been  signed  with  Austria,  Hungary,  Bulgaria,  and  Turkey;  and, 
although  there  is  still  much  which  is  unsettled,  especially  in  the  East, 
it  is  now  possible  to  obtain  some  idea  of  the  changes  wrought  on  the 
map  of  Europe  by  the  Great  War.  These  changes  are  indeed  of  the 
most  profound  and  far-reaching  description.  Old  States  have  in  some 
cases  either  disappeared  or  suffered  an  enormous  loss  of  territory,  and 
new  States,  with  the  very  names  of  which  we  are  but  vaguely  familiar, 
have  been  brought  into  existence.  It  has  seemed  to  me,  therefore, 
that  it  might  not  be  altogether  inappropriate  to  inquire  into  the  prin- 
ciples upon  which  these  territorial  changes  have  been  made,  and  to 
consider  how  far  the  political  units  affected  by  them  possess  the  elements 
of  stability.  A  learned  but  pessimistic  historian  to  whom  I  confided 
my  intention  shook  his  head  and  gravely  remarked,  '  Whatever  you 
say  on  that  subject  will  be  w^it  in  water.'  But  the  more  I  consider 
the  matter  the  more  do  I  feel  convinced  that  certain  features  in  the 
reconstructed  Europe  are  of  great  and  even  of  permanent  value,  and 
it  is  in  that  belief  that  I  have  ventured  to  disregard  the  warning  which 
was  given  me. 

In  the  reaiTangement  of  European  States  which  has  taken  place, 
geographical  conditions  have  perhaps  not  always  had  the  consideration 
which  they  deserve,  but  in  an  inquiry  such  as  that  upon  which  we  are 
engaged  they  naturally  occupy  the  first  place.  And  by  geographical 
conditions  I  am  not  thinking  primarily,  or  even  mainly,  of  defensive 
frontiers.  It  may  be  true,  as  Sir  Thomas  Holdich  imphes,  that  they 
alone  form  the  true  hmits  of  a  State.  But  if  they  do  we  ought  to 
carry  our  theory  to  its  logical  conclusion  and  crown  them  with  barbed- 
wire  entanglements.  Whether  mankind  would  be  happier  or  even  safer 
if  placed  in  a  series  of  gigantic  compounds  I  greatly  doubt.  It  is  to  the 
land  within  the  frontier,  and  not  to  the  frontier  itself,  that  our  main 
consideration  should  be  given.  The  factors  which  we  have  lo  take 
into  account  are  those  which  enable  a  people  to  lead  a  common  national 

E. — GEOGRAPHY.  09 

life,  to  develop  the  economic  resources  of  the  region  within  which  they 
dwell,  to  communicate  freely  with  other  peoples,  and  to  provide  not 
only  for  the  needs  of  the  moment,  but  as  far  as  possible  for  those 
arising  out  of  the  natural  increase  of  the  population. 

The  principle  of  self-determination  has  likewise  played  an  important, 
if  not  always  a  well-defined,  pai't  in  the  rearrangement  of  Europe.  The 
basis  upon  which  the  new  nationalities  have  been  constituted  is  on 
Ihe  whole  ethnical,  though  it  is  true  that  withm  the  main  ethnical 
divisions  advantage  has  been  taken  of  the  further  diffei-entiation  in 
racial  characteristics  arising  out  of  differences  in  geographical  environ- 
ment, history,  language,  and  religion.  But  no  more  striking  illustration 
could  be  adduced  of  the  strength  of  ethnic  relationships  at  the  present 
time  than  the  union  of  the  Czechs  with  the  Slovaks,  or  of  the  Serbs 
with  the  Croats  and  the  Slovenes.  Economic  considerations,  of  course, 
played  a  great  part  in  the  settlement  arrived  at  with  Germany,  but  on 
the  whole  less  weight  has  been  attached  to  them  than  to  ethnic  condi- 
tions. In  cases  where  they  have  been  allowed  to  influence  the  final 
decision  the  result  arrived  at  has  not  always  been  a  happy  one.  Nor 
can  more  be  said  for  those  cases  where  the  motive  was  political  or 
strategic.  Historical  claims,  which  have  been  urged  mainly  by  Powers 
anxious  to  obtain  more  than  that  to  which  they  are  entitled  on  other 
grounds,  may  be  regarded  as  the  weakest  of  all  claims  to  the  possession 
of  new  territory. 

When  we  come  to  examine  the  application  of  the  principles  which 
I  have  indicated  to  the  settlement  of  Europe  we  shall,  I  think,  find  that 
the  promise  of  stability  is  greatest  in  those  cases  where  geogi-aphical  and 
ethnical  conditions  are  most  in  harmony,  and  least  where  undue  weight 
has  been  given  to  conditions  which  are  neither  geographical  nor  ethnical. 

The  restoration  of  Alsace-I^orraine  to  France  has  always  been  treated 
as  a  foregone  conclusion  in  the  event  of  a  successful  termination  of  the 
war  against  Germany.  From  the  geographical  point  of  view,  however, 
there  are  certainly  objections  to  the  inclusion  of  Alsace  within  French 
teiTitory.  The  true  frontier  of  France  in  that  region  is  the  Vosges,  not 
necessarily  because  they  form  the  best  defensive  frontier,  but  because 
Alsace  belongs  to  the  Ehineland,  and  the  possession  of  it  brings  France 
into  a  position  from  which  trouble  with  Germany  may  arise  in  the 

Nor  can  French  claims  to  Alsace  be  justified  on  ethnical  grounds. 
The  population  of  the  region  contains  a  strong  Teutonic  element,  as 
indeed  does  that  of  Northern  France,  and  the  language  spoken  by  over 
90  per  cent,  of  the  people  is  German.  On  the  other  hand,  it  must 
be  borne  in  mind  that  during  the  period  between  the  annexation  of 
Alsace  by  France  in  the  seventeenth  century  and  its  annexation  by 
Germany  in  the  nineteenth  French  policy  appears  to  have  been  highly 
successful  in  winning  over  the  sympathies  of  the  Alsatians,  just  as 
between  1871  and  1914  Gei-man  policy  was  no  less  successful  in  alienat- 
ing them.  The  restoration  of  Alsace  must  therefore  be  defended,  if 
at  all,  on  the  gi'ound  that  its  inhabitants  are  more  attached  to  France 
than  to  Germany.  That  attachment  it  will  be  necessary  for  France  to 
preserve  in  the  future,  as  economic  conditions  are  not  altogether  favoar- 


able.  The  cotton  industry  of  Alsace  may  pei-haps  attach  itself  to  that 
of  France  without  great  difficulty ;  but  the  agricultural  produce  of  the 
Ehine  plain  will  as  before  be  likely  to  find  its  best  and  most  convenient 
market  in  the  industrial  regions  of  Germany. 

With  regard  to  Lorraine  the  position  is  somewhat  different.  Physi- 
cally that  region  belongs  in  the  main  to  the  country  of  the  Paris  basin, 
and  is  therefore  in  a  sense  part  of  France.  Strategically  it  commands 
the  routes  which  enter  France  from  Germany  between  Belgium  and 
the  Vosges,  and  from  that  point  of  view  its  possession  is  of  the  utmost 
importance  to  her.  Of  the  native  population  about  one-third  speak 
French,  and  the  German  element  is  mainly  concentrated  in  the  more 
densely  populated  districts  of  the  north-east.  But  although  in  these 
various  aspects  Lorraine  may  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  France  in  a 
sense  in  which  Alsace  does  not,  the  real  argument  for  the  restoration 
of  the  ceded  provinces  is  in  both  cases  the  same.  Lorraine,  no  less 
than  Alsace,  is  French  in  its  civilisation  and  in  its  sympathies. 

From  the  economic  point  of  view,  however,  the  gi'eat  deposits  of 
iron  ore  in  Lorraine  constitute  its  chief  attraction  for  France  to-day, 
just  as  they  appear  to  have  constituted  its  chief  attraction  for  Germany 
half  a  century  ago.  But  the  transfer  of  the  province  from  Germany, 
which  has  built  up  a  great  industry  on  the  exploitation  of  its  mines, 
to  France,  which  does  not  possess  in  sufficient  abundance  coal  for 
smelting  purposes,  together  with  other  arrangements  of  a  territorial  or 
quasi-territorial  nature  made  partly  at  least  in  consequence  of  this 
transfer,  at  once  raises  questions  as  to  the  extent  to  which  the  economic 
stability  of  Germany  is  threatened.  The  position  of  that  country  with 
regard  to  the  manufacture  of  iron  and  steel  will  be  greatly  affected,  for 
not  only  does  she  lose,  in  Lorraine  and  the  Saar,  regions  in  which  these 
manufactures  were  highly  developed,  but  she  loses  in  them  the  sources 
from  which  other  manufacturing  regions'  still  left  to  her,  notably  the 
Ruhr,  drew  considerable  quantities  either  of  raw  materials  or  of  semi- 
manufactured goods.  For  example,  in  1913  the  Ruhr,  which  produced 
over  40  per  cent,  of  the  pig  iron  of  the  German  Empire,  obtained  15  per 
cent,  of  its  iron  ore  from  Lorraine,  and  it  also  obtained  from  there 
and  fi'om  the  Saar  a  large  amount  of  pig  iron  for  the  manufacture  of 
steel.  Unless,  therefore,  arrangements  can  be  made  for  a  continued 
supply  of  these  materials  a  number  of  its  industrial  establishments  will 
have  to  be  closed  down. 

In  regard  to  coal,  the  position  is  also  serious.  We  need  not,  perhaps, 
be  unduly  impressed  by  the  somewhat  alarmist  attitude  of  Mr.  Keynes, 
who  estimates  that  on  the  basis  of  the  1913  figures  Germany,  as  she 
is  now  constituted,  will  require  for  the  pre-war  efficiency  of  her  rail- 
ways and  industries  an  annual  output  of  110,000,000  tons,  and  that 
instead  she  will  have  in  future  only  100,000,000  tons,  of  which 
40,000,000  will  be  mortgaged  to  the  Allies.  In  arriving  at  these  figures 
Mr.  Keynes  has  made  an  allowance  of  18,000,000  tons  for  decreased 
production,  one-half  of  which  is  caused  by  the  Gei'man  miner  having 
shortened  his  shift  from  eight  and  a  half  tO'  seven  hours  per  day. 
This  is  certainly  a  deduction  which  we  need  not  take  into  account. 
Mr.  Keynes  also  leaves  out  of  his  calculation  the  fact  that  pre\"ioi,is  to  the 

E. — GEOGRAPHY.  101 

war  about  10,000,000  tons  per  year  were  sent  from  Upper  Silesia  to 
other  parts  of  Germany,  and  there  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  this 
amount  need  be  greatly  reduced,  especially  in  view  of  Article  90  of  the 
Treaty  of  Versailles,  which  provides  that  '  for  a  period  of  fifteen  years 
Poland  will  permit  the  produce  of  the  mines  of  Upper  Silesia  to  be 
available  for  sale  to  purchasers  in  Germany  on  terms  as  favourable 
as  are  applicable  to  hke  products  sold  under  similar  conditions  in  Poland 
or  in  any  other  country.'  We  have  further  'to  take  into  account  the 
opportunities  for  economy  in  the  use  of  coal,  the  reduction  in  the 
amount  which  will  be  required  for  bunkers,  the  possibility  of  renewing 
imports  from  abroad — to  a  very  limited  extent  indeed,  but  still  to  some 
extent — ^and  the  fact  that  the  French  mines  are  being  restored  more 
rapidly  than  at  one  time  appeared  possible.  (On  the  basis  of  the 
production  of  the  first  four  months  of  1920  Germany  could  already 
reduce  her  Treaty  obligations  to  France  by  1,000,000  tons  per  year.) 
Taking  all  of  these  facts  into  account,  it  is  probably  correct  to  say  that 
when  Germany  can  restore  the  output  of  the  mines  left  to  her  to  the 
1913  figure,  she  will,  as  regards  her  coal  supply  for  industrial  purposes, 
be  in  a  position  not  very  far  removed  from  that  in  which  she  was  in 
1910,  when  her  total  consumption,  apart  from  that  at  the  mines,  was 
about  100,000,000  tons. 

The  actual  arrangements  which  have  been  made,  it  is  true,  are  in 
some  cases  open  to  objection.  The  Saar  is  not  geographically  part  of 
France,  and  its  inhabitants  are  German  by  race,  language,  and  sym- 
pathy. It  is  only  in  the  economic  necessities  of  the  situation  that  a 
defence,  though  hardly  a  justification,  of  the  annexation  of  the  coal- 
field can  be  found.  The  coal  from  it  is  to  be  used  in  the  main  for  the 
same  purposes  as  before,  whereas  if  it  had  been  left  to  Germany  much 
of  it  might  have  been  diverted  to  other  purposes.  In  1913  the  total 
production  of  Alsace-Lorraine  and  the  Saar  amounted  to  about 
13,000,000  tons,  while  their  consumption  was  about  14,000,000  tons. 
There  is  thus  apparently  a  net  gain  to  France  of  about  4,000,000  tons, 
but  from  that  must  be  deducted  the  amount  which  the  North-East  of 
France  received  from  this  field  in  pre-war  days.  Switzerland  also  will 
probably  in  future  continue  to  draw  part  of  its  supplies  from  the  Saar. 

The  stipulation  that  Germany  should  for  ten  years  pay  part  of  her 
indemnities  to  France,  Belgium,  and  Italy  in  kind  also  indicates  an 
attempt  to  preserve  the  pre-war  distribution  of  coal  in  Europe,  though 
in  some  respects  the  scales  seem  to  have  been  rather  unfairly  weighted 
figainst  Germany.  France,  for  example,  requires  a  continuance  of 
Westphalian  coal  for  the  metallm'gical  industries  of  Lorraine  and  the 
Saar,  while  Germany  requires  a  continuance  of  Lorraine  ore  if  her  iron- 
works on  the  Euhr  are  not  to  be  closed  down.  There  was  therefore 
nothing  unreasonable  in  the  German  request  that  she  should  be  secured 
her  supplies  of  the  latter  commodity.  Indeed,  it  would  have  been  to 
the  advantage  of  both  countries  if  a  clause  similar  to  Article  90,  which 
I  have  already  quoted,  had  been  inserted  in  the  Treaty.  It  is  true 
that  temporary  arrangements  have  since  been  made  which  will  ensure 
to  Germany  a  considerable  proportion  of  her  pre-war  consumption  of 
minette  ores.     But  some  agreement  which  enabled  the  two  separate 


but  complementary  natural  regions  of  the  Saar  and  the  Euhr  to  exchange 
their  surplus  products  on  a  business  basis  would  have  tended  to  an 
earlier  restoration  of  good  feeling  between  the  two  countries. 

One  other  question  which  arises  in  this  connection  is  the  extent 
to  which  the  steel  industry  of  Germany  will  suffer  by  the  loss  of  the 
regions  from  which  she  obtained  the  semi-manufactured  products  neces- 
sary for  it.  On  this  subject  it  is  dangerous  to  prophesy,  but  when  we 
take  into  consideration  the  length  of  time  required  for  the  construcfion 
of  modern  steelworks,  the  technical  skill  involved  in  their  management, 
and  the  uncertainties  with  regard  to  future  supplies  of  fuel,  it  seems 
unlikely  that  France  will  attempt  any  rapid  development  of  her  steel 
industry.  In  that  case  the  Euhr  will  still  continue  to  be  an  important 
market  for  Lorraine  and  the  Saar. 

Our  general  conclusion,  then,  is  that  the  tenitorial  arrangements 
which  have  been  made  do  not  necessarily  imperil  the  economic  stability 
of  Germany.  The  economic  consequences  of  the  wai*  are  really  much 
more  serious  than  the  economic  consequences  of  the  peace.  Germany 
has  for  ten  years  to  make  good  the  difference  between  the  actual  and 
the  pre-war  production  of  the  French  mines  which  she  destroyed.  Her 
own  miners  are  working  shorter  hours,  and  as  a  result  her  own  pro- 
duction is  reduced,  and  as  British  miners  are  doing  the  same  she  is 
unable  to  import  from  this  country.  For  some  years  these  deductions 
will  represent  a  loss  to  her  of  about  40,000,000  tons  per  annum,  and 
will  undoubtedly  make  her  position  a  serious  one.  But  to  give  her 
either  the  Saar  or  the  Upper  Silesian  coalfields  \\ould  be  to  enable  her 
to  pass  on  to  others  the  debt  which  she  herself  has  incurred.  The  re- 
duction of  her  annual  dehveries  of  coal  to  France,  Belgium,  and  Italy 
was,  indeed,  the  best  way  in  which  to  show  mercy  to  her. 

The  position  of  Poland  is  geographically  weak,  partly  because  its 
surface  features  are  such  that  the  land  has  no  v/ell-marked  individuality, 
and  partly  because  there  are  on  the  east  and  west  no  natural  boundaries 
to  prevent  invasion  or  to  restrain  the  Poles  from  wandering 
far  beyond  the  extreme  limits  of  their  State.  Polish  geographers 
themselves  appear  to  be  conscious  of  this  geographical  infirmity, 
as  Vidal  de  la  Blache  would  have  teraied  it,  and  in  an 
interesting  httle  work  Nalkowski  has  endeavoured  to  show  that 
the  very  transitionality  of  the  land  between  east  and  west  entitles 
it  to  be  regarded  as  a  geographical  entity.  But  transitionality  is  rather 
the  negation  of  geographical  individuality  than  the  basis  on  which  it 
may  be  established.  And  indeed  no  one  has  pointed  out  its  dangers 
more  clearly  than  Nalkowski  himself.  '  The  Polish  people,'  he  says, 
'  living  in  this  transitional  country  always  were,  and  still  are,  a  pre}' 
to  a  succession  of  dangers  and  struggles.  They  should  be  ever  alert 
and  courageous,  remembering  that  on  such  a  transitional  plain,  devoid 
of  strategic  frontiers,  racial  boundaries  are  marked  only  by  the  energy 
and  civihsation  of  the  people.  If  they  are  strong  they  advance  those 
frontiers  by  pushing  forward ;  by  weakening  and  giving  way  they  promol  e 
their  contraction.  So  the  mainland  may  thrust  out  arms  into  the  sea, 
or,  being  weak,  may  be  breached  and  even  overwhelmed  by  the  ocean 
fitKxls. '    If  we  bear  in  mind  the  constant  temptation  to  a  people  which 


is  strong  to  advance  its  political  no  less  than  its  racial  frontiers,  and 
the  constant  danger  to  which  a  weakening  people  is  exposed  of  finding 
its  political  frontier  contract  even  more  rapidly  than  its  racial,  we  shall 
realise  some  of  the  evils  to  which  a  State  basing  its  existence  on 
transitionahty  is  exposed. 

It  is,  then,  to  racial  feeUng,  rather  than  to  geographical  environ- 
ment, that  we  must  look  for  the  basis  of  the  new  Polish  State,  but 
the  intensity  with  which  this  feeling  is  likely  to  operate  varies  consider- 
ably in  different  parts  of  the  region  which  it  is  proposed  to  include, 
in  the  plebiscite  area  of  Upper  Silesia  there  were,  according  to  the 
census  of  1900,  which  is  believed  to  represent  the  facts  more  accurately 
than  that  of  1910,  seven  Poles  to  three  of  other  nationalities.  In 
Prussian  Poland,  apart  from  the  western  districts  which  have  not  been 
annexed  to  Poland  and  the  town  and  district  of  Bromberg,  the  Poles 
number  at  least  75  per  cent,  of  the  total  population,  and  in  the  ceded 
and  plebiscite  areas  of  East  and  West  Prussia  52  per  cent.  Eussian 
Poland,  which  contains  rather  more  than  two-thirds  of  the  entire  popula- 
tion of  what  we  may  call  ethnic  Poland,  has  9,500,000  Poles  and  over 
3,000,000  Jews,  Germans,  Lithuanians,  and  others,  while  West  Galicia 
is  almost  solidly  Polish.  Thus  out  of  a  total  population  of  21,000,000 
within  the  regions  mentioned  the  Poles  number  15,500,000,  or  about 
75  per  cent. 

Bearing  these  facts  in  mind,  it  is  possible  to  consider  the  potentialities 
of  the  new  State.  The  population  is  sufficiently  large  and  the  Polish 
element  within  it  is  sufficiently  strong  to  justify  its  independence  on 
ethnical  grounds.  Moreover,  the  alien  elements  which  it  contains  are 
united  neither  by  racial  ties  nor  by  contiguity  of  settlement.  In  Posen, 
for  example,  there  is  in  the  part  annexed  to  Poland  a  definitely  Polish 
population  with  a  number  of  isolated  German  settlements,  while  in 
Russian  Poland  the  Jews  are  to  be  found  mainly  in  the  towns.  Con- 
sidered as  a  whole,  Poland  is  at  least  as  pure  racially  as  the  United 

When  we  consider  the  economic  resources  of  Poland  we  see  that 
tliey  also  make  for  a  strong  and  united  State.  It  is  true  that  in  the 
past  the  country  has  failed  to  develop  as  an  economic  unit,  but  this 
is  a  natural  result  of  the  partitions  and  of  the  different  economic 
systems  which  have  prevailed  in  different  regions.  Even  now,  however, 
we  can  trace  the  growth  of  two  belts  of  industrial  activity  which  will 
eventually  unite  these  different  regions  together.  One  is  situated  on 
the  coalfield  I'unning  from  Oppeln  in  Silesia  by  Cracow  and  Lemberg, 
and  is  engaged  in  mining,  agriculture,  and  forestry;  while  the  other 
extends  from  Posen  by  Lodz  to  Warsaw,  and  has  much  agricultural 
wealth  and  an  important  textile  industry.  Moreover,  the  conditions, 
geographical  and  economic,  are  favourable  to  the  gi'owth  of  international 
trade.  If  Poland  obtains  Upper  Silesia  she  will  have  more 
coal  than  she  requires,  and  the  Upper  Silesian  fields  will, 
as  in  the  past,  export  their  surplus  produce  to  the  surrounding 
countries,  while  the  manufacturing  districts  will  continue  to  find 
tlieii-  best  markets  in  the  Bussian  area  to  the  east.  The  outlets 
of  the  State  are  good,  for  not  only  has  it  for  all  practical  purposes 


control  of  the  port  of  Danzig,  but  it  is  able  to  share  in  the  navigation 
of  the  Oder  and  it  has  easy  access  to  the  south  by  way  of  the  Moravian 

It  seems  obvious,  therefore,  that  Poland  can  best  seek  compensation 
for  the  weakness  of  her  geographical  position  by  developing  the  natural 
resources  which  lie  within  her  ethnic  frontiers.  By  such  a  policy  the 
different  parts  of  the  country  will  be  more  closely  bound  to  one  another 
than  it  is  possible  to  bind  them  on  a  basis  of  racial  affinity  and  national 
sentiment  alone.  Moreover,  Poland  is  essentially  the  land  of  the 
Vistula,  and  whatever  is  done  to  improve  navigation  on  that  river  will 
similarly  tend  to  have  a  unifying  effect  upon  the  country  as  a  whole. 
The  mention  of  the  Vistula,  however,  raises  one  point  where  geo- 
graphical and  ethnical  conditions  stand  in  marked  antagonism  to  one 
another.  The  Poles  have  naturally  tried  to  move  downstream  to  the 
mouth  of  the  river  which  gives  their  country  what  little  geographical 
individuality  it  possesses,  and  the  Polish  corridor  is  the  expression  of 
that  movement.  On  the  other  hand,  the  peoples  of  East  and  West 
Prussia  are  one  and  the  same.  The  geographical  reasons  for  giving 
Poland  access  to  the  sea  are  no  doubt  stronger  than  the  historical  reasons 
for  leaving  East  Prussia  united  to  the  remainder  of  Germany,  but 
strategically  the  position  of  the  corridor  is  as  bad  as  it  can  be,  and  the 
solution  arrived  at  may  not  be  accepted  as  final. 

Lastly,  we  may  consider  the  case  of  East  Galicia,  which  the  Poles 
claim  not  on  geographical  grounds,  because  it  is  in  reality  part  of  the 
Ukraine,  and  not  on  ethnical  grounds,  because  the  great  majority  of 
the  inhabitants  are  Little  Eussians,  but  on  the  ground  that  they  are 
and  have  for  long  been  the  ruling  race  in  the  land.  It  may  also  be 
that  they  are  not  uninfluenced  by  the  fact  that  the  region  contains 
considerable  stores  of  mineral  oil.  But  as  the  claim  of  the  Poles  to 
form  an  independent  State  is  based  on  the  fact  that  they  form  a  separate 
race,  it  is  obviously  unwise  to  weaken  that  claim  by  annexing  a  land 
which  counts  over  3,000,000  Euthenes  to  one-third  that  number  of 
Poles.  Further,  the  same  argument  which  the  Poles  use  in  regard  to 
East  Galicia  could  with  no  less  reason  be  used  by  the  Germans  in 
Upper  Silesia.  Mr.  Keynes,  indeed,  suggests  that  the  Allies  should 
declare  that  in  their  judgment  economic  conditions  require  the  inclusion 
of  the  coal  districts  of  Upper  Silesia  in  Germany  unless  the  wishes  of 
the  inhabitants  are  decidedly  to  the  contrary.  It  is  not  improbable 
that  East  Galicia  would  give  a  more  emphatic  vote  against  Polish  rule 
than  Upper  Silesia  will  give  for  it.  If  Poland  is  to  ensure  her  position 
she  must  forget  the  limits  of  her  former  empire,  turn  her  back  on  the 
Eussian  plain,  with  all  the  temptations  which  it  offers,  and  resolutely 
set  herself  to  the  development  of  the  basin  ol  the  Vistula,  where  alone 
she  can  find  the  conditions  which  make  for  strength  and  safety. 

Czecho- Slovakia  is  in  various  ways  the  most  interesting  country  in 
the  reconstructed  Europe.  Both  geographically  and  ethnically  it  is 
marked  by  some  features  of  great  strength,  and  by  others  which  are 
a  source  of  considerable  weakness  to  it.  Bohemia  by  its  physical 
structure  and  its  strategic  position  seems  designed  by  Nature  to  be 
the  home  of  a  strong  and  homogeneous  people.    Moravia  attaches  itself 


more  or  less  natui'ally  to  it,  since  it  belongs  in  part  to  the  Bohemian 
massif  and  is  in  part  a  dependency  of  that  massif.  Slovakia  is  Carpathian 
country,  with  a  strip  of  the  Hungarian  plain.  Thus,  while  Bohemia 
possesses  great  geographical  individuality  and  Slovakia  is  at  least 
strategically  strong,  Czecho- Slovakia  as  a  whole  does  not  possess  geo- 
graphical unity  and  is  in  a  sense  strategically  weak,  since  Moravia, 
which  unites  the  two  upland  wings  of  the  State,  lies  across  the  great 
route  which  leads  from  the  Adriatic  to  the  plains  of  Northern  Europe. 
Tlie  country  might  easily,  therefore,  be  cut  in  two  as  the  result  of  a 
successful  attack,  either  from  the  north  or  from  the  south.  Later  I 
shall  endeavour  to  indicate  certain  compensations  arising  out  of  this 
diversity  of  geographical  features,  but  for  the  moment  at  least  they  do 
not  affect  our  argument. 

We  have,  further,  to  note  that  the  geographical  and  ethnical  con- 
ditions are  not  altogether  concordant.  In  Bohemia  there  is  in  the 
basin  of  the  Eger  in  the  north-west  an  almost  homogeneous  belt  of 
German  people,  and  on  the  north-eastern  and  south-western  border- 
lands there  are  also  strips  of  country  in  which  the  Germanic  element 
is  in  a  considerable  majority.  It  is  no  doubt  true,  as  Mr.  Wallis  has 
shown,  that  the  Czechs  are  increasing  in  number  more  rapidFy  than 
the  Germans,  but  on  ethnical  grounds  alone  there  are  undoubtedly 
strong  reasons  for  detaching  at  least  the  north-western  district  from 
the  Czecho-Slovak  State.  We  feel  justified  in  arguing,  however,  that 
here  at  least  the  governing  factors  are  and  must  be  geographical.  To 
partition  a  country  which  seems  predestined  by  its  geographical  features 
to  be  united  and  independent  would  give  rise  to  an  intolerable  sense 
of  injustice.  I  do  not  regard  the  matter  either  from  the  strategic  or 
from  the  economic  point  of  view,  though  both  of  these  are  no  doubt 
important.  What  I  have  in  mind  is  the  influence  which  the  geographical 
conditions  of  a  country  exercise  upon  the  political  ideas  of  its  inhabi- 
tants. It  is  easy  to  denounce,  as  Mr.  Toynbee  does,  '  the  pernicious 
doctrine  of  natural  frontiers,'  but  they  will  cease  to  appeal  to  the  human 
mind  only  when  mountain  and  river,  highland  and  plain  cease  to  appeal 
to  the  human  imagination.  With  good  sense  on  both  sides  the  difficulties 
in  this  particular  case  are  not  insurmountable.  The  Germans  of  the 
Eger  valley,  which  is  known  as  German  Bohemia,  have  never  looked 
to  Germany  for  leadership  nor  regarded  it  as  their  home,  and  their 
main  desire  has  hitherto  been  to  form  a  separate  province  in  the  Austrian 
Empire.  A  liberal  measure  of  autonomy  might  convert  them  into 
patriotic  citizens,  and  if  they  would  but  condescend  to  learn  the  Czech 
language  they  might  come  to  play  an  important  part  in  the  government 
of  the  country. 

In  Slovakia  also  there  are  racial  differences.  Within  the  mountain 
area  the  Slovaks  form  the  great  majority  of  the  population,  but  in  the 
valleys,  and  on  the  plains  of  the  Danube  to  which  the  valleys  open  out, 
the  Magyar  element  predominates.  Moreover,  it  is  the  Magyar  element 
which  is  racially  the  stronger,  and  before  which  the  Slovaks  are 
gi'adually  retiring.  Geographical  and  ethnical  conditions  therefore 
unite  in  fixing  the  poUtical  frontier  between  Magyar  and  Slovak  at  the 
meeting  place  of  hill  and  plain.    But  on  the  west  such  a  frontier  would 


have  been  politically  inexpedient  because  of  its  length  and  irregularity, 
and  economically  disadvantageous  because  the  river  valleys,  of  which 
there  are  about  a  dozen,  would  have  had  no  easy  means  of  communi- 
cation with  one  another  or  with  the  outside  world.  Hence  the  frontier 
was  carried  south  to  the  Danube,  and  about  1,000,000  Magyars  were 
included  in  the  total  population  of  3,500,000.  Nor  is  the  prospect  of 
assimilating  these  Magyars  particularly  bright.  The  Germans  in 
Bohemia  are  cut  off  from  the  Fatherland  by  mountain  ranges,  and,  as 
we  have  seen,  it  does  not  appear  to  present  any  great  attraction  to  them. 
It  is  otherwise  in  Slovakia,  where  the  Magyars  of  the  lowland  live  in 
close  touch  with  those  of  the  Alfold,  and  it  may  be  long  ere  they 
forget  their  connection  with  them.  The  danger  of  transferring  terri- 
tory not  on  geographical  or  ethnical,  but  on  economic,  grounds  could 
not  be  more  strikingly  illustrated. 

With  regard  to  economic  development,  the  future  of  the  new  State 
would  appear  to  be  well  assured.  Bohemia  and  Moravia  were  the  most 
important  industrial  areas  in  the  old  Austrian  Empire,  and  Slovakia, 
in  addition  to  much  good  agricultural  land,  contains  considerable  stores 
of  coal  and  iron.  But  if  Czecho- Slovakia  is  to  be  knit  together  into  a 
political  and  economic  unit,  its  communications  will  have  to  be 
developed.  We  have  already  suggested  that  the  geographical  diversity 
of  the  country  offers  certain  compensations  for  its  lack  of  unity,  but 
these  cannot  be  taken  advantage  of  until  its  different  regions  are  more 
closely  knit  together  than  they  are  at  present.  The  north  of  Bohemia 
finds  its  natural  outlet  both  by  rail  and  water  through  German  ports. 
The  south-east  of  Bohemia  and  Moravia  look  towards  Vienna.  In 
Slovakia  the  railways,  with  only  one  important  exception,  converge  upon 
Budapest.  The  people  appear  to  be  alive  to  the  necessity  of  remedying 
this  state  of  affairs,  and  no  fewer  than  fifteen  new  railways  have  been 
projected,  which,  when  completed,  will  unite  Bohemia  and  Moravia 
more  closely  to  one  another  and  Slovakia.  Moreover,  it  is  proposed 
to  develop  the  waterways  of  the  country  by  constructing  a  canal  from 
the  Danube  at  Pressburg  to  the  Oder.  From  this  canal  another  will 
branch  off  at  Prerau  and  run  to  Pardubitz  on  the  Elbe,  below  which 
point  that  river  has  still  to  be  canalised.  If  these  improvements  are 
carried  out  the  position  of  Czecho-Slovakia  will,  for  an  inland  State, 
be  remarkably  strong.  It  will  have  through  communication  by  water 
Avith  the  Black  Sea,  the  North  Sea,  and  the  Baltic,  and  some  of  the 
most  important  land  routes  of  the  Continent  already  run  through  it. 
On  the  other  hand,  its  access  to  the  Adriatic  is  handicapped  by  the 
fact  that  in  order  to  reach  that  sea  its  goods  will  have  to  pass  through 
the  territory  of  two,  if  not  of  three,  other  States,  and  however  well  the 
doctrine  of  economic  rights  of  way  may  sound  in  theory,  there  are 
undoubted  drawbacks  to  it  in  practice.  Even  with  the  best  intentions, 
neighbouring  States  may  fail  to  afford  adequate  means  of  transport, 
through  defective  organisation,  trade  disputes,  or  various  other  reasons. 
It  is  probable,  therefore,  that  the  development  of  internal  communica- 
tions will  in  the  end  be  to  the  advantage  of  the  German  ports,  and 
more  especially  of  Hamburg.  But  the  other  outlets  of  the  State  will 
certainly  tend  lowards  the  pieservatiou  of  its  economic  independence. 

E. — GEOGRAPHY.  107 

The  extent  to  which  Eumania  has  impi'oved  her  position  as  a  result 
of  the  war  is  for  the  present  a  matter  of  speculation.  On  the  one  hand 
she  has  added  greatly  to  the  territory  which  she  previously  held, 
and  superficially  she  has  rendered  it  more  compact;  but  on  the  other 
she  has  lost  her  unity  of  outlook,  and  strategically  at  least  weakened 
her  position  by  the  abandonment  of  the  Carpathians  as  her  frontier. 
Again,  whereas  before  the  war  she  had  a  fairly  homogeneous  popula- 
tion— probably  from  90  to  95  per  cent,  of  the  7,250,000  people  in  the 
country  being  of  Rumanian  stock — she  has,  by  the  annexation  of 
Transylvania,  added  an  area  of  22,000  square  miles  of  territory,  in 
wbich  the  Eumanians  number  less  than  one  and  a  half  out  of  a  total 
of  two  and  two-third  millions.  In  that  part  of  the  Banat  which  she 
has  obtained  there  is  also  a  considerable  alien  element.  It  is  in  this 
combination  of  geographical  division  and  ethnic  intermixture  that  we 
may  foresee  a  danger  to  Rumanian  unity.  That  part  of  the  State  which 
is  ethnically  least  Rumanian  is  separated  from  the  remainder  of  the 
country  by  a  high  mountain  range,  and  in  its  geographical  outlook  no 
less  than  in  the  racial  sympathies  of  a  great  number  of  its  inhabitants 
is  turned  towards  the  west,  while  pre-war  Rumania  remains  pointed 
towards  the  south-east.  Economically  also  there  is  a  diversity  of 
interest,  and  the  historical  tie  is  perhaps  the  most  potent  factor  in 
binding  the  two  regions  together.  It  is  not  impossible,  therefore,  that 
two  autonomous  States  may  eventually  be  established,  more  or  less 
closely  united  according  to  circumstances. 

The  position  in  the  Dobruja  is  also  open  to  criticism.  Geographi- 
cally the  region  belongs  to  Bulgaria,  and  the  Danube  will  always  be 
regarded  as  their  true  frontier  by  the  Bulgarian  people.  Ethnically  its 
composition  is  very  mixed,  and  whatever  it  was  originally,  it  certainly 
was  not  a  Rumanian  land.  But  after  the  Rumanians  had  rather  un- 
willingly been  compelled  to  accept  it  in  exchange  for  Bessarabia,  filched 
from  them  by  the  Russians,  their  numbers  increased  and  their  economic 
development  of  the  region,  and  more  especially  of  the  port  of  Con- 
stanza,  undoubtedly  gave  them  some  claims  to  the  northern  part  of  it. 
As  so  often  happens,  however,  when  a  country  receives  part  of  a  natural 
region  beyond  its  former  boundaries,  Rumania  is  fertile  in  excuses  for 
annexing  moi'e  of  the  Dobruja.  To  the  southern  part,  which  she 
received  after  the  Balkan  wars,  and  in  the  possession  of  which  she 
has  been  confirmed  by  the  peace  terms  with  Bulgaria,  she  has  neither 
ethnically  nor  economically  any  manner  of  right.  The  southern 
Dobruja  is  a  fertile  area  which,  before  its  annexation,  formed  the 
natural  hinterland  of  the  ports  of  Varna  and  Euschuk.  Her  occupation 
of  il  will  inevitably  draw  Rumania  on  to  fui'ther  intervention  in  Bulgarian 

The  arrangements  which  have  been  made  with  regard  to  the  Banat 
must  be  considered  in  relation  to  the  Magyar  position  in  the  Hungarian 
plain.  The  eastern  country  of  the  Banat,  Krasso-Szor^ny,  has  a 
population  which  is  in  the  main  Rumanian,  and  as  it  belongs  to  the 
Carpathian  area  it  is  rightly  included  with  Transylvania  in  Rumanian 
ten-itory.  In  the  remainder  of  the  Banat,  including  Arad,  the 
Rumanians  form  less  than  one-third  of  the  total  population,  which  also 


comprises  Magyars,  Germans,  and  Serbs.  The  Hungarian  plain  is  a 
great  natural  region,  capable  of  subdivision  no  doubt,  but  still  a  great 
natural  region,  in  which  the  Magyar  element  is  predominant.  The 
natural  limit  of  that  plain  is  the  mountain  region  which  surrounds  it, 
and  to  that  limit  at  least  the  Magyar  pohtical  power  will  constantly 
press.  But  Rumania  has  been  permitted  to  descend  from  the  moun- 
tains and  J'ugo-Slavia  to  cross  the  great  river  which  forms  her  natural 
boundary,  and  both  have  obtained  a  foothold  on  the  plain  where  it  may 
be  only  too  easy  for  them  to  seek  occasion  for  further  advances.  And  it 
cannot  be  urged  that  the  principle  of  self-determination  would  have 
been  violated  by  leaving  the  "Western  Banat  to  the  Magyars.  No 
plebiscite  was  taken,  and  it  is  impossible  to  say  how  the  German  element 
would  have  given  what  in  the  circumstances  would  have  been  the 
determining  vote.  Finally,  as  it  was  necessary  to  place  nearly  a  mil- 
lion Magyars  in  Transylvania  under  Rumanian  rule,  it  might  not  have 
been  altogether  inexpedient  to  leave  some  Rumanians  on  Hungarian 

For  the  extension  of  Jugo-Slavia  beyond  the  Danube  two  pleas  have 
been  advanced,  one  ethnical  and  the  other  strategic.  Neither  is  really 
valid.  It  is  true  that  there  is  a  Serbian  area  to  the  north  of  Belgrade, 
but  the  total  number  of  Serbs  within  the  part  assigned  to  Jugo-Slavia 
probably  does  not  much  exceed  300,000.  The  strategic  argument  that 
the  land  which  they  occupy  is  necessary  for  the  defence  of  the  capital 
is  equally  inconclusive.  From  the  military  point  of  view  it  does  not 
easily  lend  itself  to  defensive  operations,  and  when  we  consider  the 
political  needs  of  the  country  we  cannot  avoid  the  conclusion  that  a 
much  better  solution  might  have  been  found  in  the  removal  of  tiie 
capital  to  some  more  central  position.  The  Danube  is  certainly  a  better 
defensive  frontier  than  the  somewhat  arbitrary  line  which  the  Supreme 
Council  has  drawn  across  the  Hungarian  plain. 

In  fact,  it  is  in  the  treatment  of  the  Hungarian  plain  that  we  feel 
most  disposed  to  criticise  the  teiiitorial  settlements  of  the  Peace 
Treaties.  Geographical  principles  have  been  violated  by  the  dismem- 
berment of  a  region  in  which  the  Magyars  were  in  a  majority,  and  in 
which  they  were  steadily  improving  their  position.  Ethnical  principles 
have  been  violated,  both  in  the  north,  where  a  distinctly  Magyar  region 
has  been  added  to  Slovakia,  and  in  the  south,  where  the  eastern  Banat 
and  Backa  have  been  divided  between  the  Rumanians  and  the  Jugo- 
slavs, who  together  form  a  minority  of  the  total  population.  For  the 
transfer  of  Arad  to  Rmnania  and  of  the  Burgenland  to  Austria  more 
is  to  be  said,  but  the  position  as  a  whole  is  one  of  unstable  equilibrium, 
and  can  only  be  maintained  by  support  fi-om  without.  In  this  part  of 
Europe  at  least  a  League  of  Nations  will  not  have  to  seek  for  its  troubles. 

When  W'B  turn  to  Austria  we  are  confronted  with  the  great  tragedy  in 
the  reconstruction  of  Europe.  Of  that  country  it  could  once  be  said 
'  Bella  gerant  alii,  tu  felix  Austria  nube, '  but  to-day,  when  dynastic 
bonds  have  been  loosened,  the  constituent  parts  of  the  great  but  hetero- 
geneous empire  which  she  thus  built  up  have  each  gone  its  own  way. 
And  for  that  result  Austria  herself  is  to  blame.  She  failed  to  realise 
that  an  empire  such  as  hers  could  only  be  pennanently  retained  on  a 


10  9 

basis  of  common  political   and  economic  interest.     Instead  of  adopt- 
ing such  a  policy,   however,   she  exploited  rather  than  developed  the 
subject   nationalities,    and  to-day  their  economic,   no  less  than  their 
political,  independence  of  her  is  vital  to  their  existence.     Thus  it  is  that 
the  Austrian  capital,   which  occupies  a  situation  unrivalled  in  Europe, 
and  which  before  the  war  numbered  over  2,000,000  souls,  finds  herself 
with  her  occupation  gone.     For  the  moment  Vienna  is  not  necessary 
either  to  Austria  or  to  the  so-called  Succession  States,  and  she  will  nob 
be  necessary  to  them  until  she  again  has  definite  functions  to  perform. 
I  do  not  overlook  the  fact  that  Vienna  is  also  an  industrial  city,  and 
that  it,  as  well  as  various  other  towns  in  Lower  Austria,  are  at  present 
unable  to  obtain  either  raw  materals  for  their  industries  or  foodstuffs 
for  their  inhabitants.     But  there  are  already  indications  that  this  state 
of  affairs   will  shortly  be  ameliorated  by  economic  treaties  with  the 
neighbouring  States.       And  what  I  am   particularly    concerned    with 
is  not  the  temporary  but  the  permanent  effects  of  the  change  which  has 
taken  place.     The  entire  political  re-orientation  of  Austria  is  necessary 
if  she  is  to  emerge  successfully  from  her  present  trials,   and  such  a 
re-orientation  must  be  brought  about  with  due  regard  to  geographical 
and  ethnical  conditions.     The  two  courses  which  are  open  to  her  lead 
in  opposite  directions.     On  the  one  hand  she  may  become  a  member 
of  a  Danubian  confederation,  on  the  other  she  may  throw  in  her  lot 
with  the  German  people.     The  first  would  really  imply  an  attempt  to 
restore  the  economic  position  which  she  held  before  the  war,  but  it  is 
questionable  whether  it  is  either  possible  or  expedient  for  her  to  make 
such   an   attempt.     A   Danubian   confederation  will   inevitably   be    of 
slow  growth,   as  it  is  only  under  the  pressure  of  eco^nomic  necessity 
that    it     will     be    joined    by     the     various     nationahties    of    south- 
eastern   Europe.        The    suggestions     made    by    Mr.    Asquith,     Mr. 
Keynes,  and  others,  for  a  compulsory  free-trade  union  would,  if  carried 
into  effect,  be  provocative  of  the  most  intense  resentment  among  most, 
if  not  all,  of  the  States  concerned.     But  even  if  a  Danubian  confedera- 
tion were  established  it  does  not  follow  that  Austria  would  be  able  to 
play  a  part  in  it  similar  to  that  which  she  played  in  the  Dual  Monarchy. 
With  the  construction  of  new  railways  and  the  growth  of  new  com- 
mercial centres  it  is  probable  that  much  of  the  trade  with  the  south- 
east of  Europe  which  formerly  passed  through  Vienna  will  in  future  go 
to  the  east  of  that  city.     Even  now  Pressburg,  or  Bratislava,  to  give  it 
the  name  by  which  it  will  hence  be  known,  is  rapidly  developing  at  the 
expense  alike  of  Vienna  and  Budapest.     Finally,  Austria  has  in  the 
past  shown  little  capacity  to  understand  the  Slav  peoples,  and  in  any 
case  her  position  in  what  would  primarily  be  a  Slav  confederation  would 
be  an  invidious  one.     For  these  reasons  we  turn  to  the  suggestion  that 
Austria  should  enter  the  German  Empire,  which,  both  on  geographical 
and  on  ethnical  grounds,  would  appear  to  be  her  proper  place.     Geo- 
graphically shs  is  German,  because  the  bulk  of  the  territory  left  to  her 
lielongs  either  to  the  Alpine  range  or  to  the  Alpine  foreland.     It   is 
only  when  we  reach  the  basin  of  Vienna  that  we  leave  the  mid-world 
mountain  system  and  look  towards  the  south-east  of  Europe  across 
the  gi-eat  Hungarian  plain.     Ethnically,  of  course,  she  is  essentially 


German.  Now  although  my  argument  hitherto  has  rather  endeavoured 
to  show  that  the  transfer  of  territory  from  one  State  to  another  on 
purely  economic  grounds  is  seldom  to  be  justified,  it  is  equally  indefen- 
sible to  argue  that  two  States  which  are  geographically  and  ethnically 
related  are  not  to  be  allowed  to  unite  their  foi-tunes  because  it  would 
be  to  their  interest  to  do  so.  And  that  it  would  be  to  their  interest 
there  seems  little  doubt.  Austria  would  still  be  able  to  derive  some 
of  her  raw  materials  and  foodstuffs  from  the  Succession  States,  and  she 
would  have,  in  addition,  a  great  German  area  in  which  she  would  find 
scope  for  her  commercial  and  financial  activities.  Even  if  Naumann 
were  but  playing  the  part  of  the  Tempter,  who  said  *  All  these  things 
will  I  give  thee  if  thou  wilt  fall  down  and  worship  me, '  he  undoubtedly 
told  the  truth  when  he  said  '  The  whole  of  Germany  is  now  more  open 
to  the  Viennese  crafts  than  ever  before.  The  Viennese  might  make 
an  artistic  conquest  extending  to  Hamburg  and  Danzig. '  But  not  only 
would  Austria  find  a  market  for  her  industrial  products  in  Germany,  she 
would  become  the  great  trading  centre  between  Germany  and  south-east 
Europe,  and  in  that  way  would  once  more  be,  but  in  a  newer  and 
better  sense  than  before,  the  Ostmark  of  the  German  people. 

The  absorption  of  Austria  in  Germany  is  opposed  by  France,  mainly 
because  she  cannot  conceive  that  her  great  secular  struggle  with  the 
people  on  the  other  side  of  the  Ehine  will  ever  come  to  an  end,  and 
she  fears  the  addition  of  6,500,000  to  the  population  of  her  ancient 
enemy.  But  quite  apart  from  the  fact  that  Germany  and  Austria 
cannot  permanently  be  prevented  from  following  a  common  destiny  if 
they  so  desire,  and  apart  from  the  fact  that  politically  it  is  desirable 
they  should  do  so  with  at  least  the  tacit  assent  of  the  Allied  Powers 
rather  than  in  face  of  their  avowed  hostility,  there  are  reasons  for 
thinking  that  any  danger  to  which  Frnnce  might  be  exposed  by  the 
additional  man-power  given  to  Gennany  would  be  more  than  compen- 
sated for  by  the  altered  political  condition  in  Germany  herself.  Vienna 
would  form  an  effective  counterpoise  to  Berlin,  and  all  the  more  so 
because  she  is  a  gi'eat  geographical  centre,  while  Berlin  is  more  or 
less  a  political  creation.  The  South  German  people  have  never  loved 
the  latter  city,  and  to-day  they  love  her  less  than  ever.  In  Vienna 
they  would  find  not  only  a  kindred  civilisation  with  which  they  would 
be  in  sympathy,  but  a  political  leadership  to  which  they  would  readily 
give  heed.  In  such  a  Germany,  divided  in  its  allegiance  between  Berlin 
and  Vienna,  Prussian  animosity  to  France  would  be  more  or  less 
neutralised.  Nor  would  Germany  suffer  disproportionately  to  her  gain, 
since  in  the  intermingling  of  Northern  efl&ciency  with  Southern  culture 
she  would  find  a  remedy  for  much  of  the  present  discontents.  "When 
the  time  comes,  and  Austria  seeks  to  ally  herself  with  her  kin,  we 
hope  that  no  impassable  obstacle  will  be  placed  in  her  way. 

The  long  and  as  yet  unsettled  controversy  on  the  limits  of  the 
Italian  Kingdom  illustrates  very  well  the  difficulties  which  may  arise 
when  geogi-aphical  and  ethnical  conditions  are  subordinated  to  con- 
siderations of  military  strategy,  history,  and  sentiment  in  the  deter- 
mination of  national  boundaries.  The  annexation  of  the  Alto  Adige 
has     been     generally     accepted     as     inevitable.       It     is    frue     that 


the  population  is  German,  but  here,  as  in  Bohemia,  geographical 
conditions  appear  to  speak  the  final  word.  Strategically  also  the 
frontier  is  good,  and  will  do  much  to  allay  ItaHan  anxiety  with  regard 
to  the  future.  Hence,  although  ethnical  conditions  are  to  some  extent 
ignored,  the  settlement  which  has  been  made  will  probably  be  a  lasting 

On  the  east  the  natural  frontier  of  Italy  obviously  runs  across  the 
uplands  from  some  point  near  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  Carnic 
Alps  to  the  Adriatic.  The  pre-war  frontier  was  unsatisfactory  for  one 
reason  because  it  assigned  to  Austria  the  essentially  Italian  region  of 
ih,3  lower  Isonzo.  But  once  the  lowlands  are  left  on  the  west  the 
uplands  which  border  them  on  t"he  east,  whether  Alpine  or  Karst, 
mark  the  natural  Hmits  of  the  Italian  Kingdom,  and  beyond  a  position 
On  them  for  strategic  reasons  the  Italians  have  no  claims  in  this  direc- 
tion except  what  they  can  establish  on  ethnical  grounds.  To  these, 
therefore,  we  turn.  In  Carniola  the  Slovenes  are  in  a  large  majority, 
and  in  Gorizia  they  also  form  the  bulk  of  the  population.  On  the 
other  hand,  in  the  town  and  district  of  Trieste  the  Italians  predominate, 
and  they  also  form  a  solid  block  on  the  west  coast  of  Istria,  though 
the  rest  of  that  country  is  peopled  mainly  by  Slovenes.  It  seems  to 
follow,  therefore,  that  the  plains  of  the  Isonzo,  the  district  of  Trieste, 
and  the  west  coast  of  Istria,  with  as  much  of  the  neighbouring  upland 
as  is  necessary  to  secure  their  safety  and  communications,  should  be 
Italian  and  that  the  remainder  should  pass  to  the  Jugo-Slavs.  The 
so-called  Wilson  line,  which  runs  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Tarvis 
to  the  mouth  of  the  Arsa,  met  these  requirements  fairly 
well,  though  it  placed  from  300,000  to  400,000  Jugo-Slavs  under 
Italian  rule,  to  less  than  50,000  Italians,  half  of  whom  are 
in  Fiume  itself  transferred  to  the  Jugo-Slavs.  Any  additional 
territory  must,  by  incorporating  a  larger  aHen  element,  be  a 
source  of  weakness  and  not  of  strength  to  Italy.  To  Fiume  the 
Italians  have  no  claim  be5'ond  the  fact  that  in  the  town  itself  they 
slightly  outnumber  the  Croats,  though  in  the  double  town  of  Fiume- 
Sushak  there  is  a  large  Slav  majority.  Beyond  the  sentimental  reasons 
which  they  urge  in  public,  however,  there  is  the  economic  argument, 
which,  perhaps  wisely,  they  keep  in  the  background.  So  long  as 
Trieste  and  Fiume  belonged  to  the  same  empire  the  limits  within 
which  each  operated  were  fairly  well  defined,  but  if  Fiume  become 
Jugo-Slav  it  will  not  only  prove  a  serious  rival  to  Trieste,  but  will 
prevent  Italy  from  exercising  absolute  control  over  much  of  the  trade 
of  Central  Europe.  For  Trieste  itself  Italy  has  in  truth  little  need, 
and  the  present  condition  of  that  city  is  eloquent  testimony  of  the 
extent  to  which  it  depended  for  its  prosperity  upon  the  Austrian  and 
German  Empires.  In  the  interests,  then,  not  only  of  Jugo-Slavia 
but  of  Europe  generally,  Fiume  must  not  become' Italian,  and  the 
idea  of  constituting  it  a  Free  State  might  well  be  abandoned.  lis 
development  is  more  fully  assured  as  the  one  gi-eat  port  of  Jngo-Slavia 
than  under  any  other  fonn  of  government. 

"With  regard  to  Italian  claims  in  the  Adriatic,  little  need  be  said. 
To  the  Dalmatian  coast  Italy  lias  no  riglit  either  on  geographical  or  on 


etfinical  grounds,  and  the  possession  of  Pola,  Valona,  and  some  of  the 
islands  gives  her  all  the  strategic  advantages  which  she  has  reason  to 
demand.  But,  after  all,  the  only  danger  which  could  threaten  her  in 
the  Adriatic  would  come  from  Jugo-Slavia,  and  her  best  insurance 
against  that  danger  would  be  an  agi-eement  by  which  the  Adriatic  should 
be  neutralised.  The  destruction  of  the  Austro-Hungarian  fleet  offers 
Italy  a  great  opportunity  of  which  she  would  do  well  to  take  advantage. 

Of  the  prospects  of  Jugo-Slavia  it  is  hard  to  speak  with  any  feeling 
of  certainty.  With  the  exception  of  parts  of  Croatia- Slavonia  and  of 
Southern  Hungary,  the  country  is  from  the  physical  point  of  view 
essentially  Balkan,  and  diversity  rather  than  unity  is  its  most  pro- 
nounced characteristic.  From  this  physical  diversity  there  naturally 
results  a  diversity  in  outlook  which  might  indeed  be  all  to  the  good  if 
the  different  parts  of  the  country  were  linked  together  by  a  well- 
developed  system  of  communication.  Owing  to  the  structure  of  the 
land,  however,  such  a  system  will  take  long  to  complete. 

Ethnic  affinity  forms  the  real  basis  of  union,  but  whether  that 
union  implies  unity  is  another  matter.  It  is  arguable  that  repulsion 
from  the  various  peoples — Magyars,  Turks,  and  Austrians — ^by  whom 
they  have  been  oppressed,  rather  than  the  attraction  of  kinship,  is  the 
force  which  has  brought  the  Jugo-Slavs  together.  In  any  case  the 
obstacles  in  the  way  of  the  growth  of  a  strong  national  feeling  are  many. 
Serb,  Croat,  and  Slovene,  though  they  are  all  members  of  the  Slav 
family,  have  each  their  distinctions  and  characteristics  which  political 
differences  may  t«nd  to  exaggerate  rather  than  obliterate.  In  Serbian 
Macedonia,  again,  out  of  a  total  population  of  1,100,000,  there  are 
400,000  to  600,000  people  who,  though  Slavs,  are  Bulgarian  in  their 
sympathies,  and  between  Serb  and  Bulgarian  there  will  long  be  bitter 
enmity.  Eeligious  differences  are  not  wanting.  The  Serbs  belong  to 
the  Orthodox  Church,  but  the  Croats  are  Catholics,  and  in  Bosnia  there 
is  a  strong  Mohammedan  element.  Cultural  conditions  show  a  wide 
range.  The  Macedonian  Serb,  who  has  but  lately  escaped  from 
Turkish  misrule,  the  untutored  but  independent  Montenegrin,  the  Dal- 
matian, with  his  long  traditions  of  Italian  civilisation,  the  Serb  of  the 
kingdom,  a  sturdy  fighter  but  without  great  political  insight,  and  the 
Croat  and  Slovene,  whose  intellectual  superiority  is  generally  admitted, 
all  stand  on  different  levels  in  the  scale  of  civihsation.  To  build  up  out 
of  elements  in  many  respects  so  diverse  a  common  nationality  without 
destroying  what  is  best  in  each  will  be  a  long  and  laborious  task. 
Economic  conditions  are  not  likely  to  be  of  much  assistance.  It  is  true 
that  they  are  fairly  uniform  throughout  Jugo-Slavia,  and  it  is  improbable 
that  the  economic  interests  of  different  regions  will  conflict  to  any  great 
extent.  On  the  other  hand,  since  each  region  is  more  or  less  self- 
supporting,  they  will  naturally  unite  into  an  economic  whole  less  easily 
than  if  there  had  been  greater  diversity.  What  the  future  holds  for 
Jugo-Slavia  it  is  as  yet  impossible  to  say;  but  the  country  is  one  of 
great  potentialities,  and  a  long  period  of  political  rest  might  render 
possible  the  development  of  an  important  State. 

This  brings  me  to  my  conclusion.  I  have  endeavoured  to  consider 
the  great  changes  which  have  been  made  in  Europe  not  in  regard  to 

E. — GEOGRAPHY.  113 

the  extent  to  which  they  do  or  do  not  comply  with  the  canons  of 
boundary-making,  for  after  all  there  are  no  frontiers  in  Europe  which 
can  in  these  days  of  modern  warfare  be  considered  as  providing  a  sure 
defence,  but  in  regard  rather  to  the  stability  of  the  States  concerned. 
A  great  experiment  has  been  made  in  the  new  settlement  of  Europe, 
and  an  experiment  which  contains  at  least  the  germs  of  success.  But 
in  many  ways  it  falls  far  short  of  perfection,  and  even  if  it  were 
perfect  it  could  not  be  permanent.  The  methods  which  ought  to  be 
adopted  to  render  it  more  equable  and  to  adapt  it  to  changing  needs 
it  is  not  for  us  to  discuss  here.  But  as  geographers  engaged  in  the 
study  of  the  ever-changing  relations  of  man  to  his  environment  we  can 
play  an  important  part  in  the  formation  of  that  enlightened  public 
opinion  upon  which  alone  a  society  of  nations  can  be  estabhshed. 


SECTION  F  :  CARDIFF,  1920. 





J.  H.  CLAPHAM,  C.B.E.,  Litt.D., 


It  is,  I  think,  a  President's  first  duty  to  record  the  losses  which 
oconomic  science  has  sustained  since  the  Association  last  met.  A  year 
ago  we  had  just  lost,  on  the  academic  side.  Archdeacon  Cunningham, 
and  on  the  side  of  affairs.  Sir  Edward  Holden.  This  year,  happily,  I 
have  no  such  losses  to  record  in  either  field.  But  it  is  right  to  name 
the  death  of  a  late  enemy.  Professor  Gustav  Cohn,  of  Gottingen,  an 
economist  of  the  first  rank,  who  had  made  a  special  study  of  English 
affairs.  I  believe  that  no  student  of  our  railway  history  would  fail  to 
place  Cohn's  'Inquiries  into  English  Eailway  Policy,'  published  (in 
German)  so  long  ago  as  1873,  fii'st  on  the  unfortunately  very  short  list 
of  scientific  works  devoted  to  that  side  of  liistoiy.  Even  when  supple- 
mented by  an  additional  volume,  issued  ten  years  later,  it  covers  only 
what  seems  to-day  the  prehistoric  period  of  our  policy — befoi'e  the 
Act  of  1888  and  very  long  before  our  present  uncertainties — but  it  is 
not  yet  out  of  date.  Cohn  died  full  of  years.  He  was  nearly  eighty. 
I  may  mention,  perhaps,  with  his  name  that  of  a  much  younger,  and 
possibly  more  brilhant,  German  economist,  Mas  Weber,  of  Munich, 
who  has  died  at  the  age  of  fifty-six.  He  once  tried  to  explain,  by  a. 
study  of  Puritan  theology,  the  economic  qualities  of  the  Nonconformist 
business  man — -a  very  fascinating  study.  But  his  work  as  a  whole  has 
not  roused  much  interest  in  England. 

By  an  accident  the  three  scholars  whose  names  I  have  mentioned 
were  all  best  known,  in  England  at  any  rate,  as  historians.  And,  with 
your  indulgence,  I  will  do  what  I  think  has  seldom  been  done  from 
this  chair,  in  making  my  address  largely  historical.  History  has  been 
my  main  business  in  life;  and  it  has  occurred  to  me  that  some  com- 
parisons between  the  economic  condition  of  Europe  after  the  great 
wars  of  a  century  ago  and  its  condition  to-day  may  not  be  without 
interest.  Historical  situations  are  never  reproduced,  even  approxi- 
mately; but  it  is  at  least  interesting  to  recall  the  post-war  problems 
which  our  grandfathers  or  great-grandfathers  had  to  face,  and  how 
they  handled  them ;  to  ask  how  far  oiu-  sufferings  and  anxieties  have 
had  their  parallels  in  the  not  remote  past;  and  to  note  some  danger 

F. — ECONOMICS.  115 

signals.  By  '  we  '  I  mean  not  the  British  only,  but  all  the  peoples  of 
Western  and  Central  Europe.  Of  Eastern  Europe  I  will  only  speak 
incidentally ;  for  I  am  unable  as  yet  to  extract  truth  from  the  conflicting 
and  biassed  evidence  as  to  its  economic  condition.  Moreover,  there  is 
still  war  in  the  Eaet. 

In  1815  France  had  been  engaged  in  almost  continuous  wars  for 
twenty-three,  England  for  twenty-two,  years.  The  German  States 
had  been  at  war  less  continuously;  but  they  had  been  fought  over, 
conquered,  and  occupied  by  the  French.  Prussia,  for  instance,  was 
overthrown  in  1806.  When  the  final  struggle  against  Napoleon  began, 
in  1812,  there  was  a  French  army  of  occupation  of  nearly  150,000  men 
in  Prussia  alone.  From  1806  to  1814  Napoleon's  attempt  to  exclude 
Enghsh  trade  from  the  Continent  had  led  to  the  English  blockade — 
with  its  striking  resemblances  to,  and  its  striking  differences  from,  the 
blockade  of  1914-19.  Warfare  was  less  horribly  intense,  and  so  less 
economically  destructive,  than  it  has  become  in  our  day ;  but  what  it 
lacked  in  intensity  it  made  up  in  duration. 

Take,  for  instance,  the  loss  of  life.  For  England  it  was  relatively 
small — because  for  us  the  wars  were  never  people's  wars.  In  Prance 
also  it  was  relatively  small  in  the  earlier  years,  when  armies  of  the 
old  size  were  mainly  employed.  But  under  Napoleon  it  became  enor- 
mous. Exact  figui'es  do  not  exist,  but  French  statisticians  are  disposed 
to  place  the  losses  in  the  ten  years  that  ended  with  Waterloo  at  fully 
1,500,000.  Some  place  them  higher.  As  the  population  of  France 
grew  about  40  per  cent,  between  1805-15  and  1904-14,  this  would 
coiTespond  to  a  loss  of,  say,  2,100,000  on  the  population  of  1914.  The 
actual  losses  in  1914-18  are  put  at  1,370,000  killed  and  missing;  and 
I  believe  these  fig-ures  contain  some  colonial  troops. 

Or  take  the  debts  accumulated  by  victors  and  the  requisitions  or 
indemnities  extoiiied  from  the  vanquished.  The  wars  of  a  century  ago 
left  the  British  debt  at  848,000,000/.  According  to  our  success  or 
failure  in  securing  repayment  of  loans  made  to  Dominions  and  Allies, 
the  Great  War  will  have  left  us  with  a  liability  of  from  eight  to  nine 
times  that  amount.  Whether  our  debt-carrying  capacity  is  eight  or  nine 
times  what  it  was  a  century  ago  may  be  doubted,  and  cannot  be 
accui'ately  determined.  But  it  is  not,  I  would  venture  to  say,  less  than 
six  or  seven  times  what  it  was,  and  it  might  well  be  more.  A  good 
deal  depends  on  future  price  levels.  At  least  the  burdens  are  com- 
parable ;  and  we  understand  better  now  where  to  look  for  broad  shoulders 
to  bear  them. 

After  Waterloo  France  was  called  upon  to  pay  a  war  indemnity  of 
only  28,000,000?.,  to  be  divided  among  all  the  victors.  With  this  figure 
Prussia  was  thoroughly  dissatisfied.  Not,  I  think,  without  some 
reason.  She  reckoned  that  Napoleon  had  squeezed  out  of  her  alone, 
between  1806  and  1812,  more  than  twice  as  much — a  tremendous  exac- 
tion, for  she  was  in  those  days  a  very  poor  land  of  squires  and  peasants, 
whose  treasury  received  only  a  few  millions  a  year.  England,  who 
was  mainly  responsible — and  that  for  sound  political  reasons — for  the 
low  figure  demanded  of  France,  found  herself,  the  victor,  in  the  curious 
position  of  being  far  moi'e  heavily  burdened  with  debt  than  France,  who 

I  2 


Had  lost.  England,  of  course,  had  acquired  much  colonial  territory; 
hut  on  the  purely  financial  side  the  comparison  between  her  and  France 
was  most  unequal.  England's  total  national  debt  in  1817  was 
848,000,000?.     France's  debt  did  not  reach  200,000,OOOZ.  until  1830. 

The  reasons  why  France  came  out  of  the  wars  so  well  financially 
were  four.  First,  she  had  gone  bankrupt  during  the  Revolution,  and 
had  wiped  out  most  of  her  old  debt.  Second,  under  Napoleon  she  had 
made  war  pay  for  itself,  as  the  case  of  Prussia  shows.  Third,  there 
was  no  financial  operation  known  to  the  world  in  1815  by  which 
England's  war  debt,  or  even  half  of  it,  could  have  been  transferred  to 
France.  Fourth,  England  never  suggested  any  such  transference,  or, 
so  far  as  I  know,  ever  even  discussed  it. 

France's  financial  comfort,  immediately  after  her  defeat,  extended 
to  her  currency.  During  the  Eevolution  she  had  made  a  classical  experi- 
ment in  the  mismanagement  of  credit  documents,  with  the  assignats 
issued  on  the  security  of  confiscated  Church  property ;  but  after  that  she 
had  put  her  currency  in  good  order.  Her  final  defeat  in  1812-14,  and 
again  in  1815,  did  not  seriously  derange  it.  Indeed,  the  English 
ouiTency  was  in  worse  order  than  the  French,  owing  to  the  suspension 
of  cash  payments  by  the  Bank  of  England;  and  so  rapidly  did  France's 
credit  recover  after  1815  tliat  in  1818  French  5  per  cents  stood  at 
almost  exactly  the  present-day  price  of  British  5  per  cent  War  Loan. 
That  year  she  finished  the  payment  of  her  war  indemnity,  and  the  last 
armies  of  occupation  withdrew. 

She  had  no  doubt  gained  by  waging  war,  and  eventually  suffering 
defeat,  on  foreign  soil.  No  Pi'ench  city  had  been  burnt  like  Moscow, 
stormed  like  Badajoz,  or  made  the.  heart  of  a  gigantic  battle  like  Leipzig. 
Napoleon  fought  one  brilliant  defensive  campaign  on  French  soil,  in 
the  valleys  of  the  Marne  and  the  Seine,  in  1814.  In  1815  his  fate  was 
decided  in  Belgium.  Hardly  a  shot  was  fired  in  France  ;  hardly  a  French 
coi-nfield  was  trampled  down.  But  France,  as  in  1918,  was  terribly 
sliort  of  men,  and,  again  as  in  ]918,  her  means  of  communication  had 
suffered.  Napoleon's  magnificent  roads — he  was  among  the  greatest 
of  road  engineers — had  gone  out  of  repair;  his  gi'eat  canal  works  had 
been  suspended.  These  things,  however,  were  soon  set  right  by  the 
Government  which  followed  him. 

France's  rapid  recovery  brings  us  to  one  of  the  essential  differences 
between  Western  Europe  a  century  ago  and  Western  Europe  to-day. 
In  spite  of  Paris  and  her  other  great  towns,  the  France  of  1815  was  a 
rural  countiy,  a  land  of  peasants  and  small  farmers.  Only  about  10  per 
cent,  of  her  population  lived  in  towns  of  10,000  inhabitants  or  more. 
The  town  below  10,000.  in  all  countries,  is  more  often  a  rural  market 
town,  ultimately  dependent  on  the  prosperity  of  agriculture,  than  an 
industrial  centre.  Parallels  for  France's  condition  must  be  sought 
to-day  in  Eastern  Europe — in  Serbia  or  Piussia.  It  is  a  condition  which 
makes  the  economics  of  demobilisation  easy.  The  young  peasant  goes 
back  from  the  armies  to  relieve  his  father,  his  mother,  and  his  sisters, 
who  have  kept  the  farm  going.  Moreover,  France  maintained  a  stand- 
ing army  of  240,000  men  after  1815;  and  her  losses  in  the  Waterloo 
campaign  had  been  so  heavy  that  the  actual  numbers  demobilised  were 

F. — ^ECONOMICS.  117 

relatively  small.  Demobilisation  left  hardly  a  ripple  on  the  surface  of 
her  economic  life. 

The  German  States  were  far  more  rural  in  chai-acter  even  than 
France.  There  were  a  few  industrial  districts,  of  a  sort,  in  the  West 
and  in  Saxony ;  a  few  trading  towns  of  some  size,  like  Hamburg  and 
Frankfurt ;  but  there  was  nowliere  a  city  comparable  to  Paris.  In  1819 
the  twenty-five  cities  which  were  to  become  in  our  day  the  greatest 
of  the  modern  German  Empire  had  not  1,250,000  inhabitants  between 
them.  Paris  alone  at  that  time  had  about  700,000.  German  statesmen, 
when  peace  came,  were  occupied  not  with  problems  arising  from  the 
situation  of  the  urban  wage-earner,  though  such  problems  existed,  but 
with  how  to  emancipate  the  peasants  from  the  condition  of  semi- servility 
in  which  they  had  lived  during  the  previous  century.  Here,  too,  demo- 
bihsation  presented  few  of  the  problems  familiar  to  us.  Probably  not 
one  man  in  ten  demobilised  was  a  pure  wage-earner.  The  rest  had 
hnks  with  the  soil.  The  land,  neglected  during  the  war,  was  crying  out 
for  labour,  and  every  man  had  his  place,  even  if  it  was  a  servile  place, 
in  rural  society. 

Things  were  different  in  England;  but  our  demobilisation  problem 
^^■as  smaller  than  that  of  our  Continental  allies  or  enemies,  who  had 
mobilised  national  armies,  though  not  of  the  modern  size.  On  the  other 
hand,  we  had  kept  an  immense  fleet  in  commission,  the  crews  of  which 
were  rapidly  discharged.  Early  in  1817  Lord  Castlereagh  stated  in 
Parliament  that  300,000  soldiers  and  sailors  had  been  discharged  since 
the  peace.  In  proportion  to  population,  that  would  be  equivalent,  for 
the  whole  United  Kingdom,  to  nearly  750,000  to-day.  For  these  men 
no  provision  whatever  was  made.  They  were  simply  thrown  on  the 
labour  market;  and  the  vast  majority  of  them  were  ex-wage-earners  or 
potential  wage-earners,  industrial,  mercantile,  or  agricultural.  The 
United  Kingdom  was  not  urbanised  as  it  is  to-day ;  but  the  census  of 
1821  showed  that  21  percent,  of  the  population  lived  in  cities  of  20,000 
inhabitants  and  upwards,  and  probably  about  27  per  cent,  (as  compared 
with  France's  10  per  cent.)  lived  in  places  of  10,000  and  upwards.  As 
industry  in  various  forms,  especially  coal-mining,  spinning,  and  weaving, 
was  extensively  carried  on  in  rurul  or  semi-rural  districts,  it  is  certain 
that  at  least  one  demobihsed  man  of  working  age  in  every  three  was  a 
potential  wage-earner  of  industry  or  commerce.  And  as  Great  Britain 
had  lost  most  of  her  peasant-holders,  whether  owners  or  small  working 
farmers,  the  remainder  of  the  demobilised  rank  and  file  were  nearly  all 
of  the  agricultural  labourer  class.  They  had  to  find  employment;  there 
was  not  a  place  in  rural  society  \\aiting  for  them,  as  there  was  for  the 
average  French  or  German  peasant  soldier.  It  is  not  surprising  that 
the  years  from  1815  to  1820  were,  both  economically  and  politically, 
probably  the  most  wretched,  difficult,  and  dangerous  in  modern  English 

Tilings  were  at  theh'  worst  in  1816-17,  both  for  England  and  for  her 
Continental  neighbours.  Western  Europe  was  very  near  starvation. 
Had  the  harvest  of  1815  not  been  excellent,  so  providing  a  carry-over 
of  corn,  or  had  the  harvest  of  1817  been  much  below  the  average, 
there  must  have  been  widespread  disaster;  so  thorough  and  universal 


was  the  harvest  failure  of  1816.  In  the  latter  part  of  1810  (Decem- 
ber) wheat  fell  in  England  to  55s.  Id.,  although  no  grain  imports  were 
allowed,  except  of  oats.  Early  in  1816  the  United  Kingdom  was 
actually  exporting  a  little  wheat.  Then  came  a  terrible  spring— a  long 
irost ;  snow  lying  about  Edinburgh  in  May ;  all  the  rivers  of  Western 
Europe  in  flood.  An  equally  disastrous  summer  followed.  There  was 
dearth,  in  places  amounting  to  real  famine,  everywhere — worst  of  all  in 
Germany.  Unlike  France,  the  German  States  of  a  century  ago  were 
extraordinarily  ill-provided  with  roads.  What  roads  there  were  had 
gone  to  pieces  in  the  wars.  In  winter  even  the  mails  could  hardly  get 
through  with  sixteen  and  twenty  horses.  Food  supplies  could  not  be 
moved  over  long  distances  by  land;  and  the  slightly  more  favoured 
regions  could  not  help  the  most  unfortunate.  There  was  a  far  wider 
gap  between  prices  in  Eastern  and  Western  Germany  in  1816  than  there 
had  been  in  the  last  bad  famine  year  (1772).  Each  German  State,  in 
its.  anxiety,  began  to  forbid  export  early  in  1816,  thus  making  things 
w^orse.  At  Frankfurt,  the  representatives  of  the  German  States, 
gathered  for  the  Diet,  could  hardly  feed  their  horses.  Prices  rose 
amazingly  and  quite  irregularly,  with  the  varying  food  conditions  of  tlie 
various  provinces.  In  the  spring  of  1817  pallid,  half-starved  people 
were  w^andering  the  fields,  hunting  for  and  grubbing  up  overlooked  and 
rotten  potatoes  of  the  last  year's  crop. 

In  England  the  harvest  failure  of  1816  drove  wheat  up  to  103s.  7d. 
a  quarter  for  December  of  that  year,  and  to  112s.  8J.  for  June  of 
1817.  In  Paris  the  June  price  in  1817  was  equivalent  to  122s.  5t/. 
At  Stuttgart  the  May  price  was  equivalent  to  138s.  7c/.  These  are 
only  samples.  Think  what  these  figures  mean  at  a  time  when  an 
Enghsh  agricultural  labourer's  wage  was  about  9s.  M.,  and  a  French 
or  German  unskilled  wage  far  less.  It  must  be  recalled  that  there 
were  no  special  currency  causes  of  high  prices  either  in  France  or 
Germany.  These  were  real  dearth  prices.  In  the  spring  of  1817  the 
French  Government  was  buying  corn  wherever  it  could  find  it — in 
England,  North  Africa,  America — as  another  bad  harvest  was  feared. 
Happily,  the  1817  harvest  was  abundant,  here  and  on  the  Continent. 
By  September  the  Mark  Lane  price  of  wheat  was  77s.  7d.,  and  the 
Paris  price  71s.  Vd. 

I  have  gone  into  price  details  for  the  purpose  of  drawing  a  contrast 
between  a  centui-y  ago  and  to-day.  Except  for  the  damage  done  to 
the  German  roads,  the  wars  had  very  little  to  do  with  these  food 
troubles  of  1816-17.  High  and  fluctuating  food  prices  were  the  natural 
consequence  of  the  general  economic  position  of  Western  Europe  a 
century  ago.  It  was  only  in  the  most  comfortable  age  in  all  history — 
the  late  nineteenth  and  early  twentieth  centuries — that  low  and  stable 
food  prices  came  to  be  regarded  as  normal.  In  the  eighteenth  century, 
when  England  fed  hprself  and  often  had  an  exportable  surplus,  fluctua- 
tions were  incessant.  Take  the  ten  years  1750-1760.  The  mean  price 
of  wheat  at  Eton  in  1752  was  45  per  cent,  above  the  mean  price  in  1750. 
The  mean  price  in  1757  was  nearly  100  per  cent,  above  the  mean  price 
of  1760.  On  Lady  Dav  1757  the  price  was  60s.  5id.  On  Lady  Day 
1769  it  was  37s.  id.  On  Lady  Day  1761  it  was  26s.  Sd.  The  1761 
mean  price  was  exactly  half  the  1757  mean  price. 

p. — ^ECONOMICS.  1  ]  9 

Eighteeuth-century  England  was  too  well  organised  economically 
to  be  in  much  risk  of  actual  famine,  but  for  Ireland  and  large  parts  of 
tlie  Continent  famine  was  a  normal  risk.  War  and  its  effects  had  only 
accentuated,  not  created,  that  risk.  Imports  might  reduce  it,  but  could 
not  avert  it,  because  Western  Europe  tends  to  have  approximately  the 
same  harvest  conditions  throughout,  and  it  was  impossible  to  draw 
really  large  supplementary  supplies  from  anywhere  else.  So  unim- 
portant were  overseas  supplies  that  the  Continent  suffered  very  much 
more  from  the  harvest  failure  of  1816,  in  time  of  peace,  than  from  the 
eight  yeai's'  English  blockade  in  time  of  war.  If  overseas  supplies 
could  be  got  they  were  hard  to  distribute,  owing  to  defective  transport 
facilities.  Thanks  to  the  work  of  the  nineteenth  century,  the  most 
terrific  of  all  wars  was  required  to  bring  Western  Europe  face  to  face 
with  what  had  been  both  a  war-time  and  a  peace-time  risk  a  century 

But  the  old  Europe,  if  it  had  the  defects,  had  also  the  elasticity  of 
a  rather  primitive  economic  organism.  Given  a  couple  of  good  harvests, 
and  a  laud  of  peasants  soon  recovers  from  war.  Serbia  had  a  good 
harvest  last  year  (1919),  and  was  at  once  in  a  state  of  comparative 
comfort,  in  spite  of  her  years  of  suffering.  A  second  good  harvest 
this  year,  for  which  fortunately  the  prospects  are  favourable,  would 
ahnost  restore  her.  So  it  was  with  France  and,  to  a  less  extent, 
Germany  in  1816-18.  In  France  acute  distress  in  1816-17  had  been 
confined  to  the  towns  and  to  those  country  districts  where  the  harvest 
failure  was  woi-st.  The  hai^vest  of  '17  put  an  end  to  it.  One  gets  the 
impression  that  in  Germany  distress  among  the  peasants  themselves 
had  been  more  widespread.  Worse  communications  and  the  absence  of 
a  strong  central  Government  seem  to  have  been  the  chief  causes  of 
this,  though  perhaps  the  harvest  failure  was  more  complete.  In 
I'Vance,  as  we  have  seen,  the  central  Government  took  such  action 
as  was  possible  in  the  interests  of  the  whole  country.  A  parallel 
might  be  drawn  between  the  German  situation  in  1815-17  and  that 
of  the  States  which  have  arisen  from  the  break-up  of  the  old  Austi'o- 
Hungarian  Empire  since  1918.  Freed  from  French  domination,  and 
then  fi'om  the  urgent  necessity  of  co-operating  against  a  common 
enemy,  the  German  States  relapsed  into  their  ancient  jealousies  and 
conflicting  economic  policies,  just  as  the  new  States,  which  were 
once  subject  to  the  Hapsburgs,  have  been  forbidding  exports  of  food 
and  fuel  and  disputing  with  one  another. 

An  excellent  harvest  in  1817  averted  the  risk  of  famine  in  Germany 
also;  but  anything  that  could  be  called  prosperity  was  long  delayed, 
whereas  France  was  indisputably  prosperous,  judged  by  the  standards 
of  the  day,  and  far  more  contented  than  England,  by  1818-20.  Germany 
Had  been  so  exhausted  by  the  wars  and  incessant  territorial  changes 
of  the  Napoleonic  age,  and  was  politically  so  divided,  that  her  economic 
life  remained  stagnant  and  her  poverty  great  until  at  least  1830.  It 
was  all  that  the  various  Governments  could  do  to  find  money  for  the 
most  essential  of  all  economic  measures — ^the  repair  and  construction 
of  roads — whereas  France  had  her  splendid  main  roads  in  order  again 
and  liad  resumed  work  on  her  canals  before  1820.     But  France  had 


cut  -l^er  losses  nearly  twenty  years  before,  and  had  enjoyed  continuous 
freedom  from  war  on  her  own  territory  between  1794  and  1814,  as  we 
have  seen.  She  had  been  well,  if  autocratically, governed,  and  her  war 
indemnity  was  but  a  trilling  burden.  Her  peasants  were  free  and,  as 
a  class,  vigorous  and  hopeful.  She  was  united  and  conscious  of  her 
lendershipi  in  Europe,  even  through  her  ulthnate  defeats. 

If  the  experience  of  Europe  after  Waterloo  is,  on  the  whole,  of  good 
augury  for  agricultural  States,  and  especially  for  agricultural  States 
with  a  competent  central  Government,  for  the  industrialised  modern 
world  that  experience  is  less  encouraging.  Great  Britain  alone  was 
partially  industrialised  in  1815-!^0,  and  Great  Britain,  though  victorious, 
suffered  acutely.  Mismanagement  was  largely  responsible  for  her 
sufferings — mismanagement  of,  or  rather,  complete  indifference  to, 
problems  of  demobilisation ;  mismanagement  of  taxes  (the  income  tax 
was  abandoned  at  the  clamour  of  interested  paiiies,  and  the  interest  on 
the  huge  debt  paid  mainly  from  indirect  taxes,  which  bore  heavily 
on  the  poor) ;  mismanagement  of  food  supplies,  by  the  imposition  of  the 
Corn  Law ;  and  so  on.  But  suffering  due  to  international  economic  dis- 
location following  war  could  not  have  been  avoided  by  management, 
however  good.  The  situation  was  unique.  England  alone  of  the  Euro- 
pean Powers  had  developed  her  manufactures  to  some  extent  on  what 
we  call  modern  lines.  During  the  wars  she  had  accumulated  also  great 
stores  of  colonial  and  American  produce,  which  could  only  get  into 
Europe  with  difficulty — by  way  of  smuggling.  In  1813,  before  Napo- 
leon's first  fall,  her  manufacturers  and  merchants  were  eagerly  awaiting 
peace.  In  1814  manufactures  and  colonial  produce  were  rushed  over, 
only  to  find  that,  much  as  Europe  desired  them,  it  could  not  pay  the 
price.  It  had  not  enough  to  give  in  exchange ;  and  England,  being 
rigidly  protectionist,  was  not  always  prepared  to  buy  even  what  Europe 
liad  to  give.  There  was  no  machineiy  for  international  buying  credits. 
Merchants  shipped  at  their  own  risks,  usually  as  a  venture,  not  against 
a  firm  order  as  to-day,  and  they  had  to  bear  their  own  losses — often  up 
to  50  per  cent.  Continental  economic  historians  have  hardly  yet  foi'- 
given  us  ior  this  '  dumping, '  which  both  drained  away  the  precious 
metals  to  England — as  there  was  not  much  else  to  pay  with — and  did 
a  great  deal  of  harm  to  the  struggling  3'oung  factory  industries  which 
had  begun  to  grow  up  under  the  protection  of  Napoleon's  anti-English 
commercial  policy. 

British  exporters  were  so  badly  bitten  in  1814  that,  when  peace 
finally  came  next  year,  after  Waterloo,  they  were  nervous  of  giving 
orde)'s  at  home — which  was  very  bad  for  the  manufacturing  industries 
and  for  the  men  who  sought  employment  in  them.  There  was  the 
curious  situation  in  1816  that,  while  the  piice  of  wheat  was  rushing 
up,  most  other  prices  were  falling,  the  bottom  of  tlie  market  being 
often  I'eached  at  the  end  of  the  year,  when  the  confidence  of  buyers 
and  shippers  began  to  revive.  Eaw  cotton,  for  instance,  which  had 
touched  2s.  Gd.  a  lb.  in  1813-14,  fell  to  a  minimum  of  Is.  2d.  in 
1S16 — although  Europe  was  open  and  cotton  badly  needed. 

It  is  as  yet  too  early  to  work  out  a  parallel  between  this  post-war 
commercial  and  industrial  slump  and  the  slump  that  followed  the  Great 

F. — ECONOMICS.  121 

War  of  1914-18,  for  we  have  not  yet  had  it.  But  it  is  coming.  More 
certainly,  I  am  inchnecl  to  beheve,  in  the  United  States  than  in  Eng- 
land; but  pretty  certainly  here  also.  1  say  more  certainly  in  the  United 
States  because  her  position  bears  most  resemblance  to  that  of  England 
in  1815-17.  Consider  that  position.  What  before  the  war  was,  on 
the  balance,  a  debtor  country  has  become  a  creditor  country.  That 
creditor  is  equipped  to  export  both  raw  materials  and  manufactures — 
iron  and  steel  goods  particularly — on  a  huge  scale.  It  is  true  she  is  a 
heavy  importer  of  some  foods,  such  as  sugar,  coffee,  and  tea,  and  of 
certain  raw  materials,  such  as  rubber,  timber,  and  wool.  But,  owing 
to  her  tariff  system  and  her  general  policy,  she  is  reluctant  to  take  many 
things  which  her  debtors  have  to  offer.  Her  recent  '  diy  '  policy,  for 
example,  has  shut  her  markets  to  one  of  France's  most  valuable 
exports,  an  export  with  which  France  has  always  been  in  the  habit 
of  paying  her  creditor's.  Already,  I  notice,  American  business  men 
are  beginning  to  point  out  what  English  business  men  stated  clearly 
ill  a  famous  document,  the  Petition  of  tfie  London  Merchants,  a 
century  ago — that  the  country  which  will  not  buy,  neither  shall  it  sell. 
This  was  the  most  solid  of  all  free-trade  arguments  in  the  early  nine- 
teenth century,  and  it  has  lost  none  of  its  force.  No  doubt  America 
is,  and  will  be,  glad  to  take  part  payment  in  gold,  just  as  England 
was  in  1814-16.  But  that  is  not  a  permanent  solution.  If  she  remains 
a  creditor  nation — and  there  is  no  present  reason  to  think  that  she 
will  not — she  must  in  time  arrange  to  take  more  goods  from  outside. 
Her  political  processes,  however,  are  slow;  and  it  seems  unhkely  that 
she  will  have  adjusted  her  policy  before  the  post-war  slump  is  upon 

The  United  Kingdom,  which,  on  the  whole,  still  takes  freely  what 
its  customers  have  to  offer  it,  is  in  a  better  position,  provided  its 
customers  can  go  on  offering.  This  may  prove  an  important  proviso. 
Customers  who  have  been  little  hurt  or  even  helped  by  the  war — Spain, 
perhaps,  or  Egypt,  or  India,  or  New  Zealand — should  continue  good 
buyers.  But  the  uncertainty  gives  cause  for  anxious  thought  in  the 
case  of  llie  war-damaged  nations,  allied  and  ex-enemy.  Modern  financial 
and  commercial  organisation  has  postponed  the  critical  moment  in 
a  way  that  was  impossible  a  century  ago.  When  Europe  was  hungry 
in  1816  there  were  not  food  surpluses  available  anywhere  on  the  earth, 
nor  shipping  enough  on  the  seas,  nor  means  of  transport  good  enough 
on  land,  to  relieve  her  need.  If,  per  h)ipossihiIe,  there  had  been  all 
these  things,  there  would  have  been  no  country  or  group  of  business 
men  anywhere  ready  to  give  her  the  necessary  credit  on  a  large  scale. 
The  Rothschilds,  a  young  firm  in  those  days,  did  something.  They 
advanced  money  to  a  few  German  princes  to  buy  corn  for  their  people 
at  the  Baltic  ports,  for  there  was  some  corn  to  spare  from  Poland  and 
Russia.  But  the  huge  food-financing  operations  of  1918-20  would  have 
been  as  unthinkable  as  the  actual  handling  of  the  foodstuffs  would 
have  been  impossible.  Had  two  harvests  hke  that  of  1816  come  in 
suc-cession,  there  would  have  been  famine  and  food  riots  everywhere, 
past  hope  of  cure. 

Similarly  modern  finance  is  postponing  the  critical  moment  for  the 


international  trade  in  manufactures.  British  business  men  in  1919-20 
have  not,  I  believe,  often  sent  their  goods  abroad  in  hope  of  finding 
a  vent  for  them,  and  then  been  forced  to  content  themselves  with 
prices  far  below  cost  of  production,  as  their  grandfathers  were  in  1814-16. 
Every  kind  of  financial  device — long  private  credit,  assistance  from 
banks,  credits  given  by  Governments — has  been  called  in,  so  that  trade 
may  be  resumed  before  the  war-damaged  nations  are  in  a  position  to 
pay  for  what  they  need  by  exporting  the  produce  of  their  own  labour. 
The  more  industrial  the  damaged  nation  is,  the  more  complex  is  the 
restarting  of  her  economic  activity.  Corn  grows  in  nine  months,  and 
pigs  breed  fast.  Tlie  start  once  given,  countries  like  Denmark  and 
Serbia,  both  of  which  are  normally  great  exporters  of  pigs  or  bacon, 
could  soon  pay  for  necessary  imports  of  machinery  or  fertilisers  bought 
on  long  credit  to  restart  their  rural  industries.  The  United  Kingdom, 
the  least  damaged  of  all  the  combatants  except  America,  is  believed 
by  the  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer  to  be  now  rather  more  than  paying 
its  way.  That  may  be  sanguine,  but  at  the  worst  our  accounts  are 
nearly  balanced.  What  might  not  have  happened  in  1919  if  modern 
methods  for  postponing  payment  had  not  been  applied  internationally  ? 
The  other  chief  combatants  are  far  from  paying  their  way.  Italy  is 
importing  abnormal  quantities  of  "food  and  also  her  necessary  raw 
matei-ials  with  the  aid  of  American  and  English  credits,  while  Germany, 
who  can  get  little  in  the  way  of  credit,  has  hardly  begun  even  to  import 
the  raw  materials  to  make  the  goods  by  the  export  of  which  she  may 
eventually  pay  her  way,  not  to  mention  her  indemnities.  I  have  in 
mind  such  materials  as  cotton,  wool,  rubber,  copper,  oil-seeds,  and 
hides — all  of  which  she  imported  heavily  in  1913.  Some  materials, 
of  course,  she  possesses  in  abundance,  but  the  working  up  even  of  these 
is  hampered  by  lier  coal  position.  I  make  no  political  pleas:  I  merely 
illustrate  the  complexity  of  the  restarting  of  industry  under  present- 
day  conditions.  France  has  the  first  claim  to  assistance  in  restarting,  a 
claim  which  we  all  recognise;  but  for  the  comfort  and  peace  of  the 
world  a  universal  restart  is  desirable. 

The  central  problem  is  one  which  I  can  only  indicate  here,  not 
discuss.  Its  discussion  is  for  experts  with  full  inside  knowledge  from 
month  to  month,  and  the  answer  varies  for  eveiy  comitry.  It  is — when 
will  the  inability  of  the  war-damaged  nations  to  pay  for  all  that  they 
want,  in  food  and  materials,  in  order  to  restart  full  economic  activity, 
make  itself  felt  by  the  nations  who  are  supplying  them,  primarily,  that 
is,  the  United  States  and  ourselves?  In  1814-16,  when  the  problem 
was,  of  course,  infinitely  smaller  because  nations  were  so  nmch  more 
self-sufficing,  the  reaction  came  at  once  for  lack  of  long  organised 
credits.  Conceivably,  all  other  combatants  might  do  in  turn  what  we 
seem  to  have  done — that  is,  adjust  their  trade  balance  within  a  reason- 
able period  and  so  avoid  renewal  of  special  credits.  In  that  case  the 
post-war  trade  slump  would  come,  not  as  an  international  crisis,  but  as  a 
gradual  decline,  when  the  first  abnormal  demand  for  goods  of  all  kinds 
to  replenish  stocks  is  over.  Already  this  type  of  demand  is  slackening 
'n  certain  quarters.  We  shall  do  vei-y  well  if  we  have  nothing  worse 
than  that  gradual  decline,  which  would  be  eased,  in  our  case,  by  our 

)  &. — ECONOMICS.  1*23 

extensive  connections  with  undamaged  countries,  and  by  our  willingness 
to  buy  most  things  which  any  nation  has  to  offer.  The  situation  would 
be  still  further  eased  if  countries  such  as  Germany  and  Eussia  were  to 
develop  in  turn  what  might  be  called  a  reconstruction  demand,  to  take 
the  place  of  the  satisfied  reconstruction  demands  of  our  Allies.  But  the 
fear,  as  I  think  the  quite  reasonable  fear,  expressed  in  some  well- 
infoi'med  quarters,  is  that,  in  view  of  the  complicated  and  dangerous  cur- 
rency position  in  many  countries ;  in  view-  of  the  difficulty  which  the  war- 
damaged  nations  have  in  collecting  taxes  enough  to  meet  their  obliga- 
tions;  in  view  of  the  slowness  with  which  some  of  them  are  raising 
production  to  the  level  of  consumption ;  in  view  of  the  complete  uncer- 
tainty of  the  political  and  economic  future  in  much  of  Central  and 
Eastern  Europe — that  in  view  of  these  things,  and  quite  apart  from  pos- 
sible political  disturbances,  we  shall  have  to  go  through  a  genuine  crisis, 
as  distinct  from  a  depression ;  a  crisis  beginning  in  the  field  of  finance, 
when  some  international  obligation  cannot  be  met  or  some  international 
credit  cannot  be  renewed,  spreading  to  industry  and  giving  us  a  bad  spell 
of  unemployment,  comparable  with  the  unemployment  of  the  post-war 
jicriod  a  century  ago,  and  more  dangerous  because  of  the  high  standai'd 
of  living  to  which  the  people  in  this  and  some  other  countries  is  becom- 
ing accustomed. 

Personally,  I  am  less  apprehensive  for  the  industries  of  this  country 
than  are  many  whose  opinions  T  should  ordinarily  be  disposed  to  prefer 
to  my  own.  A  demand,  an  effective  demand,  exists  for  many  things 
that  We  can  supply  in  great  regions  outside  the  war  area — in  China, 
for  instance,  where  there  is  said  to  be  at  this  moment  a  keen  demand 
for  machinery  which  the  United  Kingdom  is  too  much  preoccupied  with 
other  work  (o  supply.  Nor  do  I  fear  that  a  crisis  will  oiiginate  here, 
as  I  am  disposed  to  think  that  our  currency  and  taxation  position  is 
already  relatively  sound.  But  we  should  be  bound  to  feel  the  reactions 
of  a  crisis  which  might  occur  elsewhere;  to  what  extent  is,  however,  quite 
impossible  to  foresee. 

One  final  comparison.  An  extraordinary  feature  of  the  gi-eat  wars 
of  a  century  ago  was  that  they  coincided  with  a  steady  growth  of  popu- 
lation, and  were  followed  by  a  period  of  rapid  growth.  For  the 
United  Kingdom  that  fact  is  well  known  and  not  surprising.  We 
lost  i-elativelv  few  men  in  war.  But  the  official  French  figures, 
27,500,000  in  1801  and  29,500,000  in  1816,  are  so  remarkable  that 
one  is  tempted  to  doubt  the  first  enumeration.  Though  remarkable, 
the  figin-es  are,  however,  not  impossible ;  and  it  must  be  recalled  that 
the  losses  were  spread  over  many  years.  British  population  has  grown 
a  little  since  1914  ;  in  spite  of  separations  of  man  and  wife  and  our  three- 
quarters  of  a  million  dead.  A  main  reason  has,  however,  been  the 
suspension  of  emigration,  which  was  proceeding  at  a  rate  of  over  200,000 
a  vear  just  before  the  war.  France  estimates  a  dead  loss  of  over 
3,000,000  (on  39,700,000)  between  1913  and  1918  on  her  old  territory. 
Her  census  is  due  next  year.  Comparatively  early  in  the  war  the 
German  civilian  death  rate  was  above  the  birth  rate ;  so  presumably  she 
is  in  much  the  same  position  as  France.  But,  owing  to  changes  of 
frontier  and  continued  vmrest,  it  is  as  vet  too  earlv  to  estimate  the  total 


effect  of  the  Great  War  on  papulation.  For  Western  and  Central  Europe 
it  must,  I  think,  have  produced  a  considerable  net  loss.  For  Eussia 
one  can  hardly  guess ;  but  her  population  is  so  largely  rural  and  grew  so 
amazingly  fast  before  1914,  that  it  would  not  surprise  me  very  much  to 
learn  that,  with  all  her  miseries,  it  had  been  maintained. 

The  gix)wth  of  population  in  Europe  after  1815  coincided  with  the 
spread  of  the  first  industrial  and  agi'icultural  revolution  outwards  from 
the  United  Kingdom.  The  world  was  learning  new  ways  to  feed  and 
clothe  itself;  and  it  continued  to  learn  all  through  the  century.  I 
myself  do  not  suppose  that  the  age  of  discovery  is  at  an  end,  so  our 
troubles  may  be  eased  as  time  goes  on ;  and  although  I  have  not  the 
slightest  wish  that  population  should  ever  again  grow  so  fast  as  it  grew 
in  Europe  during  the  nineteenth  century,  I  see  no  reason  why  a  moderate 
rate  of  growth  should  not  be  resumed,  in  a  few  years  at  latest.  But 
jierhaps  I  have  already  committed  prophecy,  or  half  prophecy,  more 
than  is  altogether  wise  for  one  in  my  position. 






Professor  C.  F.  JENKIN,  C.B.E.,  M.A., 


The  importance  of  research  in  all  branches  of  industry  is  now  becoming 
fuJly  recognised.  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  point  out  the  great  possi- 
bilities of  the  Board  of  Scientific  and  Industrial  Eesearch,  formed 
just  before  the  war,  or  to  lay  str-ess  on  the  attention  which  has  been 
called  to  the  need  for  research  by  events  during  the  war.  Probably 
in  no  branch  of  the  Semces  was  more  research  work  done  than  in 
the  Air  Service,  and  the  advances  made  in  all  directions  in  connection 
with  flying  were  astonishing.  My  own  work  was  confined  to  problems 
connected  with  materials  of  construction,  and  as  a  result  of  that  work 
I  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  the  time  has  come  when  the  funda- 
mental data  on  which  the  engineering  theories  of  the  strength  and 
suitability  of  materials  are  based  require  thorough  overhauling  and 
revision.  I  believe  that  the  present  is  a  favourable  time  for  this  work, 
but  I  think  that  attention  needs  to  be  drawn  to  it,  lest  research  work 
is  all  diverted  to  the  problems  which  attract  more  attention,  owing 
to  their  being  in  the  forefront  of  the  advancing  engineering  knowledge, 
and  lest  the  necessary  drudgery  is  shirked  in  favour  of  the  more 
exciting  new  discoveries. 

It  has  been  very  remarkable  how  again  and  again  in  aeroplane 
engineering  the  problems  to  be  solved  have  raised  fundamental  ques- 
tions in  the  strength  and  properties  of  materials  which  had  never  been 
adequately  solved.  Some  of  these  questions  related  to  what  may  be 
termed  theory,  and  some  related  to  the  physical  properties  of  materials. 
I  propose  to-day  to  describe  some  of  these  problems,  and  to  suggest 
tlie  direction  in  which  revision  and  extension  of  our  fundamental 
fheories  and  data  are  required  and  the  lines  on  which  research  should 
be  undertaken.  Let  us  consider  first  one  of  the  oldest  materials  of 
construction — timber.  Timber  was  of  prime  importance  in  aircraft 
construction.  The  first  peculiarity  of  this  material  which  strikes  us 
is  that  it  is  anisotropic.  Its  grain  may  be  used  to  locate  three  principal 
axes — along  the  grain,  radially  across  the  grain,  and  tangentially  across 
the  gi-ain.  It  is  curious  that  there  do  not  appear  to  be  generally 
recognised  teraris  for  these  three  fundamental  directions.     A  very  few 


tests  are  sufficient  to  show  that  its  strength  is  enormously  greater 
along  the  grain  than  across  it.  How,  then,  is  an  engineer  to  calculate 
the  strength  of  a  wooden  member?  There  is  no  theory,  in  a  form 
available  for  the  engineer,  by  which  the  strength  of  members  made 
of  an  anisotropic  material  can  be  calculated. 

I  fancy  I  may  be  told  that  such  a  theoi-y  is  not  required — that 
experience  shows  that  the  ordinary  theory  is  quite  near  enough.  How 
utterly  misleading  such  a  statement  is  I  will  try  to  show  by  a  few 
examples.  Suppose  a  wooden  tie  or  strut  is  cut  from  the  tree  obliquely 
so  that  the  grain  does  not  lie  parallel  to  its  length.  In  practice  it 
is  never  possible  to  ensure  that  the  grain  is  accurately  parallel  to  the 
length  of  the  member,  and  often  the  deviation  is  considerable.  How 
much  is  the  member  weakened?  This  comparatively  simple  problem 
has  been  of  immense  importance  in  aeroplane  constiniction,  and,  thanks 
to  the  researclies  made  during  the  war,  can  be  answered.  The  solution 
has  thrown  a  flood  of  light  on  many  failures  which  before  were  obscure. 
If  the  tensile  strengths  of  a  piece  of  timber  are,  say,  18.000  Ib./sq.  hi. 
along  the  grain  and  800  Ib./sq.  in.  across  it  (radially  or  tangentially) 
and  the  shear  strength  is  900  Ib./sq.  in.  along  the  grai]i— these  figm'es 
coiTespond  roughly  with  the  strengths  of  silver  spruca — then  if  a 
tensile  stress  be  applied  at  any  angle  to  the  grain  tlie  components 
of  that  stress  in  the  principal  directions  must  not  exceed  the  above 
strengths,  or  failure  will  occur.  Thus  we  can  draw  curves  limiting 
the  stress  at  any  angle  to  the  grain,  and  similar  curves  may  be  drawn 
for  compression  stresses.  These  theoretical  curves  have  been  checked 
experimentally,  and  the  results  of  the  tests  confirm  llicm  closely,  except 
in  one  particular.  The  strengths  at  small  inclination  to  the  grain  fall 
even  faster  than  the  theoretical  curves  would  lead  \is  to  expect.  The 
very  rapid  drop  in  strength  for  quit-e  small  deviations  is  most  striking. 

Similar  curves  have  been  prepared  for  tensile  and  compressive 
stresses  inclined  in  each  of  the  thi'ee  principal  planes  for  spruce,  ash, 
walnut,  and  mahogany,  so  that  the  strengtlis  of  these  timbers  to  resist 
forces  in  any  direction  can  now  be  estimated  reasonably  accia-at-ely. 

As  a  second  example  consider  the  strength  of  plywood.  Plywood 
is  the  name  given  to  wood  built  up  of  several  tliicknesses  glued 
together  \vith  the  grain  in  alternate  thicknesses  running  along  and 
across  the  plank.  The  result  of  this  crossing  of  the  grain  is  that  tlie 
plywood  has  roughly  equal  strength  along  and  across  the  plank.  Ply- 
wood is  generally  built  up  of  thin  veneers,  which  are  cut  from  the 
log  by  slicing  them  off  as  the  log  revolves  in  a  lathe. 

Owing  to  the  tnper  in  the  trunk  of  the  tree  and  to  other  irregularities 
in  form,  the  grain  in  the  veneer  rarely  runs  parallel  to  the  surface, 
but  genei'ally  runs  through  the  sheet  at  a  more  or  less  oblique  angle. 
As  a  consequence  the  strength  of  plywood  is  very  variable,  and  tests 
show  that  it  is  not  possible  to  rely  on  its  having  more  than  hnlf  the 
strength  it  would  have  if  the  grain  in  the  veneers  were  not  oblique. 
It  is  therefore  obviously  possible  to  improve  the  manufacture  enor- 
mously by  using  veneers  split  off,  following  the  grain,  in  place  of  the 
present  sliced  veneers.  The  superiority  of  split  or  riven  wood  over 
cut  wood  has  been  recognised  for  ages.     I  believe  all  ladders  and  ladder 

G. — ^ENGINEERING .  1 27 

rungs  are  riven.  Hurdles,  hoops,  and  laths  are  other  examples.  Knees 
in  ships  are  chosen  so  that  the  grain  follows  the  required  outline. 

Owing  to  the  enormous  difference  in  strength  in  timber  along  and 
across  the  grain,  it  is  obviously  important  to  get  the  grain  in  exactly 
the  right  direction  to  bear  the  loads  it  has  to  carry.  The  most  perfect 
example  I  ever  saw  of  building  up  a  plywood  structure  to  support  all 
the  loads  on  it  was  the  frame  of  the  German  Schutte-Lanz  airship, 
which  was  made  entirely  of  wood.  At  the  complex  junctions  of  the 
various  girders  and  ties  the  wood,  which  was  built  up  of  very  thin 
veneers— hai-dly  thicker  than  plane  shavings — layers  were  put  on  most 
ingeniously  in  the  direction  of  every  sti'ess. 

During  the  war  I  have  had  to  reject  numerous  types  of  built-up 
struts  intended  for  aeroplanes,  because  the  grain  of  the  wood  was  in 
the  wrong  direction  to  bear  the  load.  The  example  shown — a  McGruer 
stmt — is  one  of  the  most  elegant  designs,  using  the  gi'ain  correctly. 

Many  of  the  tests  applied  to  timber  are  wrong  in  theory  and  conse- 
quently misleading.  For  example,  the  common  method  of  determining 
Young's  modulus  for  timber  is  to  measure  the  elastic  deflection  of  a 
beam  loaded  in  the  middle  and  to  calculate  the  modulus  by  the  ordinary 
theory,  neglecting  the  deflection  due  to  shear,  which  is  legitimate  in 
isotropic  materials ;  but  in  timber  the  shear  modulus  is  very  small — for 
example,  in  spruce  it  is  only  about  one-sixtieth  of  Young's  modulus — 
and  consequently  the  sliear  deflection  becomes  quite  appreciable,  and 
the  results  obtained  on  test  pieces  of  the  common  proportions  lead  to 
errors  in  the  calculated  Young's  modulus  of  about  10  per  cent. 

The  lantern  plates  show  thi-ee  standai'd  .tests :  the  first  is  supposed 
lo  give  the  shearing  strength  of  the  timber,  but  these  test  pieces  fail 
by  tension  across  the  grain — not  by  shearing.  Professor  Eobertson 
has  shown  that  the  true  shear  strength  of  spruce  is  about  three  times 
as  great  as  the  text-book  figures,  and  has  designed  a  test  which  gives 
fairly  reliable  results.  The  second  figure  repi'esents  a  test  intended  to 
give  the  mean  strength  across  the  grain,  l^it  the  ooncentration  of  stress 
at  the  gi'ooA'es  is  so  great  that  such  test  pieces  fail  under  loss  than  half 
the  pi'operload.  This  fact  was  shown  in  a  striking  manner  by  narrow- 
ing a  sample  of  this  shape  to  half  its  width,  when  it  actually  bore  a 
greater  total  load — i.e.,  more  llian  double  the  stress  borne  by  the 
original  sample.  The  third  figure  represents  a  test  piece  intended  to 
measure  the  I'athor  vague  quality,  'strength  to  resist  splitting.'  The 
results  actually  depend  on  the  tensile  strength  across  the  grain,  on  the 
elastic  constants,  and  on  the  accidental  position  of  the  bottom  of  the 
groove  relatively  to  the  spring  or  autumn  wood  in  the  annular  rings. 
Unless  the  theory  is  understood,  rational  tests  cannot  be  devised. 

There  are  some  valuable  tropical  timbers  whose  structm'e  is  far 
more  complex  than  that  of  our  ordinaiy  northern  woods.  The  grain  in 
tlieso  timbers  gro\^■s  in  alternating  spirals — an  arrangement  which  at 
first  sight  is  almost  incredible.  The  most  striking  example  of  this  type 
of  wood  I  have  seen  is  the  Indian  '  Poon.'  Tlie  sample  on  the  table 
has  been  split  in  a  series  of  tangential  planes  at  varying  distances  from 
the  centre  of  the  tree,  and  it  will  be  seen  that  the  grain  at  one  depth 
is  growing  in  0  right-hand  spiral  round  the  trunk;  a  little  farther  out 


it  grows  straight  up  the  trunk;  further  out  again  it  grows  in  a  left- 
hand  spiral,  and  this  is  repeated  again  and  again,  with  a  pitch  of  about 
two  inches.  The  timber  is  strong  and  probably  well  adapted  for  use 
in  large  pieces — it  someAvhat  resembles  plywood — ^but  it  is  doubtful 
whether  it  is  safe  in  small  pieces.  No  theory  is  yet  available  for  esti- 
mating its  strength,  and  very  elaborate  tests  would  he  needed  to 
determine  its  reliability  in  all  positions.  I  had  to  reject  it  for  aero- 
planes during  the  war  for  want  of  accurate  knowledge  of  its 

These  examples  show  how  necessary  it  is  to  have  a  theory  for  the 
strength  of  anisotropic  materials  before  we  can  either  understand  the 
causes  of  their  failure  or  make  full  use  of  their  properties  or  even  test 
them  rationally. 

The  second  material  we  shall  consider  is  steeT,  and  in  dealing  with 
it  I  do  not  wish  to  enter  into  any  of  the  dozen  or  so  burning  questions 
which  are  so  familiar  to  all  metallm'gists  and  engineers,  but  to  call 
your  attention  to  a  few  more  fundamental  questions.  Steel  is  not 
strictly  isotropic — but  we  may  consider  it  to  be  so  to-day.  The  first 
obvious  question  the  engineer  has  to  answer  is,  '  "What  is  its  strength?  ' 
The  usual  tests  give  the  Ultimate  Strength,  Yield  Point,  Elastic  Limit, 
the  Elongation,  the  E-eduction  of  Area,  and  perhaps  the  Brinell  and 
Izod  figiu'es.  On  which  of  these  figures  is  the  dimension  of  an  engine 
part,  which  is  being  designed,  to  be  based?  If  we  choose  the  Ultimate 
Strength  we  must  divide  it  by  a  large  factor  of  safety — a  factor  of 
ignorance.  If  we  choose  the  Yield  Point  we  must  remember  that  none 
of  the  higher-grade  steels  have  any  Yield  Point,  and  the  nominal  Yield 
Point  depends  on  the  fancy  of  the  tester.  This  entirely  imaginary 
point  cannot  be  used  for  accurate  calculation  except  in  a  very  few 
special  cases.  Can  we  base  our  calculation  on  the  Elongation — the 
Reduction  of  Area — ^the  Izod  test  ?  If  we  face  the  question  honestly  we 
realise  that  there  is  no  known  connection  between  the  test  results  and 
the  stress  we  can  safely  call  on  the  steel  to  bear.  The  only  connecting 
link  is  that  cloak  for  our  ignorance — the  factor  of  safety. 

I  feel  confident  that  the  only  reliable  property  on  which  to  base 
the  strength  of  any  engine  part  is  the  suitable  Fatigtie  Liinit.  We 
Have  not  yet  reached  the  position  of  being  able  to  specify  this  figure, 
but  a  considerable  number  of  tests  show  that  in  a  wide  range  of  steels 
(though  there  are  some  unexplained  exceptions)  the  Fatigue  Limit  for 
equal  ±  stresses  is  a  little  under  half  the  Ultimate  Strength,  and  is 
independent  of  the  Elastic  Limit  and  nominal  Yield  Point,  so  that  the 
Ultimate  Strength  may  be  replaced  as  the  most  reliable  guide  to  true 
strength,  with  a  factor — no  longer  of  ignorance,  but  to  give  the  fatigue 
Hmit — of  a  little  over  2. 

If  the  Fatigue  Limit  is  accepted  as  the  only  sound  basis  for  strength 
calculation  for  engine  parts,  and  it  is  difficult  to  find  any  valid  objection 
to  it,  then  it  is  obvious  that  there  is  urgent  need  for  extensive  researches 
in  fatigue,  for  the  available  data  are  most  meagre.  The  work  is 
laborious,  for  there  is  not  one  Fatigue  Limit,  but  a  continuous  series, 
as  the  signs  and  magnitudes  of  the  stresses  change.  Many  problems  in 
connection  with  fatigue  are  of  great  importance  and  need  much  fuller 


investigation  than  they  have  so  far  received — e.g.,  the  effect  of  speed 
of  .testing;  the  effect  of  rest  and  heat  treatment  in  restoring  fatigued 
material;  the  effect  of  previous  testing  at  higher  or  lower  stresses  on 
the  apparent  fatigue  limit  of  a  test  piece.  Some  observers  have  found 
indications  that  the  material  may  possibly  be  strengthened  by  subject- 
ing it  to  an  alternating  stress  below  its  fatigue  limit,  so  that  the  results 
of  fatigue  tests  may  depend  on  whether  the  limit  is  approached  by 
increasing  the  stress  or  by  decreasing  it. 

Improved  methods  of  testing  are  also  needed — particularly  methods 
which  will  give  the  results  quickly.  Stromeyer's  method  of  measur- 
ing the  first  rise  of  temperature,  which  indicates  that  the  fatigue  limit 
is  passed,  as  the  alternating  load  is  gradually  increased,  is  most  promis- 
ing; it  certainly  will  not  give  the  true  fatigue  limit  in  all  cases,  for  it 
has  been  shown  by  Bairstow  that  with  some  ranges  of  stress  a  finite 
extension  occurs  at  the  beginning  of  a  test  and  then  ceases,  under 
stresses  lower  than  the  fatigue  limit.  But  the  fatigue  limit  in  that 
case  would  not  be  a  safe  guide,  for  finite  changes  of  shape  are  not 
permissible  in  most  machines,  so  that  in  that  case  also  Stromeyer's 
test  may  be  exactly  what  is  wanted.  It  can  probably  be  simplified  in 
detail  and  made  practicable  for  commercial  use.  Better  methods  of 
testing  in  torsion  are  also  urgently  needed,  none  of  those  at  present 
used  being  free  from  serious  defects.  Finally,  there  is  a  fascinating 
field  for  physical  research  in  investigating  the  internal  mechanism  of 
fatigue  failure.  Some  most  suggestive  results  have  already  been 
obtained,  which  extend  the  results  obtained  by  Ewing. 

For  members  of  structures  which  are  only  subjected  to  steady  loads 
I  suggest  that  the  safe  stress  might  be  defined  by  limiting  the  corre- 
sponding permanent  set  to  a  small  amount — perhaps  ^  per  cent,  or 
J  per  cent.  This  principle  has  been  tentatively  adopted  in  some  of  the 
aircraft  material  specifications  by  specifying  a  Proof  Load  which  must 
be  sustained  without  a  permanent  extension  of  more  than  ^  per  cent. 
Whether  this  principle  is  suitable  for  all  materials  and  how  it  will 
answer  in  practice  remains  to  be  proved  by  experience.  It  is  at  any 
rate  a  possible  rational  basis  for  determining  the  useful  strength  of  a 
material  under  steady  loads. 

The  relation  between  the  proof  stress  and  the  shape  oi  the  stress- 
strain  diagram  is  shown  in  the  lantern  sUde.  The  curve  is  the  record 
of  an  actual  test  on  a  certain  copper  alloy.  If  a  length  A  B  correspond- 
ing to  ^  per  cent,  elongation  be  set  off  along  the  base  line  and  a  line  B  P 
be  drawn  through  the  point  B  parallel  to  the  elastic  line,  to  cut  the  curve 
in  P,  then  the  stress  at  P  is  the  stress  which  will  give  ^  per  cent, 
permanent  set.  Though  I  per  cent,  may  appear  rather  a  large 
permanent  set  to  allow  it  will  be  seen  from  the  figure  that  it  is  less 
than  the  elastic  elongation  would  have  been  at  the  same  stress,  and  we 
do  not  usually  find  elastic  elongations  serious. 

As  a  commercial  test  the  proof  load  is  very  easily  applied.  For  this 
alloy  the  specified  proof  load  is  shown  by  the  horizontal  line  so  labelled. 
This  load  is  to  be  applied  and  released,  and  the  permanent  ext>ensicn  is 
required  by  the  specification  to  be  Jess  than  ^  per  cent.  This  sample 
passes  the  test  easily.  On  the  figure  the  ■condition  for  complying  with 
1920  K 


the  specification  is  that  the  curve  shall  fall  above  Q.     But  the  test  does 
not  require  the  curve  to  be  determined. 

If  we  admit  that  the  fatigue  limit  is  the  proper  basis  for  engine- 
strength  calculations,  there  are  a  number  of  interesting  modifications 
required  in  the  common  theory  of  the  strength  of  materials.  It  will 
no  longer  be  possible  to  neglect,  as  has  been  so  general  in  the  past,  the 
uneven  distribution  of  stress  in  irregularly  shaped  parts  of  machines. 
It  has  been  generally  recognised  that  sharp  corners  should  be  avoided 
when  possible,  but  no  theory  is  available  to  enable  the  stresses  at  corners 
to  be  calculated  or  to  enable  their  effect  on  the  strength  of  the  member 
to  be  estimated.  If  fatigue  is  the  critical  factor  in  failure  under  fluc- 
tuating stresses  such  theory  is  most  necessary.  Even  the  roughest 
guide  would  be  of  great  value.  The  nature  and  magnitude  of  the  con- 
centrations of  stress  which  occur  in  practice  have  been  investigated 
experimentally  by  Pi'ofessor  Coker  by  his  elegant  optical  method  which 
has  given  most  valuable  results,  some  of  which  are  already  being  used 
in  designing  offices.  If  the  mathematical  theory  is  too  difficult,  it  may 
be  possible  to  lay  down  practical  rules  deduced  from  such  experimental 
results — but  the  method  still  has  many  limitations,  perhaps  the  most 
serious  being  that  it  can  only  be  used  on  flat  models.  I  believe  Professor 
Ooker  expects  to  be  able  to  extend  the  method  to  round  models. 

As  a  simple  example  to  show  the  importance  of  the  subject  let  us 
consider  the  effect  of  a  groove  round  a  straight  round  bar  subject  to 
alternating  tension  and  compression — such  a  groove  as  a  screw  thread. 
There  will  be  a  concentration  of  stress  at  the  bottom  of  the  groove. 
The  ratio  of  the  stress  at  the  bottom  of  a  groove  to  the  mean  stress  in 
the  bar  has  been  worked  out  mathematically  by  Mr.  A.  A.  Griffith,  and 
his  calculations  have  been  confirmed  experimentally  by  his  elegant  soap- 
bubble  method.  The  ratio  depends  on  the  relation  between  the  depth 
of  the  groove,  the  radius  at  the  bottom,  and  slightly  on  the 
angle  between  the  sides.  For  a  Whitworth  form  of  thread  the  ratio 
will  be  about  3.  If  the  Fatigue  Limit  is  exceeded  at  the  bottom  of  the 
groove  the  metal  will  fail  and  a  minute  crack  will  form  there ;  this  crack 
will  soon  spread  right  across  the  bar  and  total  failure  will  result.  Thus 
we  see  that  the  safe  mean  stress  in  the  bar  will  be  reduced  to  one-third 
what  a  plain  bar  will  bear.  The  truth  of  this  theory  regarding  the 
importance  of  concentrations  of  stress  has  still  to  be  proved  experi- 
mentally ;  if  true,  it  is  of  far-reaching  importance,  since  it  applies  to  all 
concentrations  of  stress  in  machine  parts  subject  to  fluctuating  loads. 

The  theory  does  not  apply  to  steadily  loaded  members ;  in  these  the 
local  excess  of  stress  is  relieved  by  the  stretching  of  the  minute  portion 
which  is  overloaded,  and  no  further  consequences  follow. 

The  theory  appears  to  apply  to  grooves  however  small,  and  has  an 
important  bearing  on  the  smoothness  of  the  finish  of  machine  parts. 
The  surface  of  any  engine  part  finished  by  filing  is  certainly  entirely 
covered  with  scratches.  Emery  likewise  leaves  the  surface  scratched — 
though  the  scratches  are  smaller.  If,  however,  polishing  be  carried 
further  the  surface  may  ultimately  be  freed  from  scratches  and  left  in  a 
burnished  condition.  In  this  condition  amorphous  metal  has  been 
smeared  over  the  surface — the  smooth  appearance  is  not  simply  due 


to  the  scratches  being  too  small  to  see.  The  strength — under  alternat- 
ing stresses — appears  to  depend  on  the  form  of  the  scratches,  and  if  the 
ratio  of  radius  at  the  bottom  of  the  scratch  to  its  depth  is  fairly  large, 
very  little  weakening  occurs.  It  seems  probable  in  the  ordinary  engineer- 
ing finish  produced  by  emery  and  oil  that  the  scratches  are  broad  and, 
shallow.  This  subject  is  being  investigated.  A  considerable  amount  of 
evidence  has  been  collected  from  practical  experience  pointing  to  the 
important  effect  which  a  smooth  finish  has  on  the  strength  of  heavily 
stressed  engine  parts. 

Fatigue  is  probably  the  cause  of  failure  of  wires  in  wire  ropes.  A 
good  deal  of  valuable  experimental  work  has  been  done  on  the  life  of 
ropes,  but  so  far  as  I  am  aware  there  is  no  satisfactory  theory  of  their 
strength.  This  subject  also  requires  research,  and  it  seems  probable 
that  valuable  practical  results  might  follow  if  the  true  explanation  of 
the  cause  of  the  breakages  of  the  wires  was  determined. 

These  are  only  examples,  but  they  may  be  sufficient  to  show  how 
much  work  both  experimental  and  theoretical  requires  to  be  done  to 
give  the  engineer  a  really  sound  basis  for  the  simplest  strength  calcula- 
tions on  any  moving  machinery.  But  there  are  more  fundamental 
questions  still  which  must  be  tackled  before  the  simplest  questions  of 
all  which  meet  the  engineer  can  be  answered  scientifically.  The  two 
most  urgent  and  most  important  questions  which  I  met  with  during  the 
war  in  connection  with  aircraft  were  always  the  same — Why  did  some 
part  break?  and,  What  is  the  best  material  to  use  for  that  part?  It  was 
most  disconcerting  to  find  how  inadequate  one's  knowledge  was  to 
answer  these  two  simple  questions.  The  common  answers  are :  To  the 
first :  '  It  broke  because  it  was  too  weak,  make  it  stronger, '  and  to  the 
second :  '  General  practice  indicates  such  a  material  as  the  best — better 
not  try  any  other  or  you  may  have  trouble. '  In  aircraft  weight  is 
paramount,  and  to  make  a  part  stronger— i.e.,  heavier — had  to  be  the 
last  resort,  and  when  used  was  almost  a  confession  of  failure.  '  General 
practice '  was  no  guide  in  aeroplane  engines,  which  are  built  of  the 
strangest  materials.  The  origins  of  fractures  were  traced  to  many 
causes,  often  lying  far  away  from  the  site  of  the  breakage;  but  with 
these  I  am  not  concerned  to-day.  I  wish  to  confine  our  consideration  to 
the  actual  fracture  and  to  ask,  '  What  stress  caused  the  fracture?  '  and 
'  What  property  of  the  metal  was  absent  which  would  have  enabled 
it  to  withstand  that  stress  ?  '  And  again,  '  What  other  material  pos- 
sesses suitable  properties  to  withstand  the  stresses  better?  '  These  are 
the  fundamental  questions  which  I  have  referred  to — and  which  urgently 
need  answers. 

As  an  example  I  will  take  a  broken  propeller  shaft.  It  has  broken 
in  a  beautiful  spiral  fracture.  What  stress  causes  that?  I  have  failed 
to  explain  it  by  any  of  the  facts  I  know  about  the  steel  it  is  made  of. 
It  is,  of  course,  a  fatigue  fracture — i.e.,  it  spread  gradually.  The 
questions  to  be  answered  are.  Did  it  fail  under  tension,  bending  or 
torsion?  and,  Why  was  a  spiral  direction  followed  by  the  failure  as  it 
spread?  j  "i 

It  may  be  objected  that  the  question  is  unimportant.  I  think  not. 
For  example,  till  we  can  determine  the  nature  of  the  stress  we  cannot 

K  a 


indicate  the  nature  of  the  load— thus  I  cannot  say  if  it  broks  under 
a  torsional  load  (possibly  torsional  vibration)  or  under  a  bending  load 
(possibly  due  to  some  periodic  variation  of  thrust  on  one  of  the  pro- 
peller blades  as  it  passed  an  obstruction).  Until  the  nature  of  the  load 
which  caused  the  failure  is  known,  it  is  very  difficult  to  take  steps  to 
^ard  against  similar  accidents.  For  the  most  urgent  reasons,  there- 
lore,  we  require  to  be  able  to  understand  the  fracture,  as  in  nearly  all 
aircraft  problems  men's  lives  hang  on  the  answer. 

Turning  now  to  the  question  of  the  most  suitable  material,  I  will 
take  as  an  example  the  material  for  the  crankshaft  of  an  aeroplane 
engine.  A  few  months  before  the  Armistice  there  were  difficulties  in 
getting  sufficient  supplies  of  the  high-grade  nickel-chrome  steel  forgings 
then  in  general  use  for  shafts,  and  proposals  were  made  to  use  a  plain 
carbon  steel.  Such  a  steel  would  be  about  30  per  cent,  weaker,  accord- 
ing to  the  ordinary  tests.  A  conference  of  leading  metallurgists  and 
engineers  was  held  to  discuss  the  suggestion.  No  one  present  ventured 
to  predict  whether  the  weaker  steel  would  answer  or  not,  or  whether 
the  dimensions  would  have  to  be  increased  or  not.  It  was  pointed  out 
that  a  French  engine  was  now  using  50-ton  steel  with  better  results 
than  when  using  the  100-ton  steel  for  which  it  was  designed,  no 
changes  in  dimensions  having  been  made.  Such  a  reduction  of  strength 
might  be  understood  in  ordinary  engineering  where  there  are  large 
margins  of  safety,  but  in  an  aeroplane  engine,  in  which  every  ounce 
of  metal  is  cut  off  which  can  be  spared,  they  show  how  completely 
ignorant  engineers  are  of  what  the  suitability  of  material  depends  on. 

As  another  example,  AVhy  are  oxygen  cylinders  annealed — repeat- 
edly ?  Annealing  reduces  the  steel  to  its  weakest  condition.  I  believe 
the  fondness  for  annealing  is  due  to  our  ignorance  of  the  properties 
we  i-equire.  Perhaps  the  quality  of  steel  which  an  engineer  fears  most 
is  brittleness.  He  believes  that  annealing  will  soften  it  and  reduce  the 
brittkness ;  so  he  anneals,  blindly.  The  fact  is  that  we  do  not  know 
what  brittleness  is — we  cannot  define  it — we  cannot  measure  it — 
though  there  are  endless  empirical  tests  to  detect  it.  Till  we  know 
what  it  means  and  can  measure  it  we  are  in  a  miserable  position. 
During  the  war  I  was  consulted  on  what  could  be  done  to  reduce  the 
enormous  weight  of  oxygen  cylinders,  and  I  advised  that  experiments 
should  be  made  on  the  high-quality  alloyed  steel  tubes  we  were  using 
in  aircraft  construction.  The  department  dealing  with  these  tubes 
took  the  matter  up,  and  alloyed  steel  cylinders,  properly  heat-treated, 
were  made.  These  were,  I  believe,  a  success,  and  only  weighed  a 
small  fraction  of  the  old-fashioned  cylinders.  But  my  suggestion  was 
little  more  than  a  guess,  and  no  means  was  known  of  accurately  testing 
the  suitability  of  the  material,  so  they  were  only  accepted  after  passing 
any  number  of  empirical  tests,  consisting  of  various  kinds  of  rough 
usage,  to  see  if  they  would  crack  or  burst.  Surely  an  engineer  should 
■be  able  to  sav  whether  a  cylinder  is  safe  without  dropping  it  from 
tTie  roof  or  rolling  it  down  the  front-dcor  steps  to  see  if  it  breaks. 

These  examples  refer  only  to  different  grades  of  the  same  material — 
steel — ^bnt  how  far  worse  off  we  are  when  the  problem  is  whether  some 
other  alloy  would  be  suitable  to  replace  steel.    Proposals  have  been 



made,  for  example,  to  replace  the  very  hard  steel  used  at  present 
for  connecting-rods  by  duralumin  or  some  other  forged  aluminium 
alloy.  It  seems  worth  trying ;  but  who,  in  our  present  state  of  ignorance 
of  tne  real  properties  of  metals,  will  say  if  the  experiment  will  be  a 
success '! 

How  difficult  it  is  to  prophesy  may  be  illustrated  by  the  results  of 
two  empirical  tests  on  durahuniu  and  steel  sheets  of  the  same  thick- 
nesses. The  ultimate  strengths  and  elongations  of  the  steel  and  the 
duralumin  were  roughly  equal.  The  lantern  slides  show  that  under 
reverse-bend  tests  they  both  follow  the  same  law,  the  steel  being  the 
better.     But  under  the  cupping  test  they  follow  opposite  laws. 

The  suitability  of  different  materials  presumably  depends  on  their 
fundamental  physical  properties.  These  may  be  many,  but  some 
physicists  think  that  they  are  probably  really  very  few,  and  that, 
knowing  these  few,  it  may  be  possible  to  deduce  all  the  complex 
properties  required  by  the  engineer  and  to  state  with  certainty  how 
materials  will  behave  under  any  conditions  of  service.  This  is  the  most 
fundamental  problem  which  needs  solution  to  enable  the  knowledge 
of  the  strength  of  materials  to  be  put  on  a  sound  foundation.  It  will 
need  the  co-operation  of  able  physicists,  metallurgists,  and  engineers 
to  solve  it. 

While  urging  the  importance  of  research  in  the  fundamental  theories 
of  stress  and  fundamental  properties  of  materials,  I  wish  to  lay  special 
stress  on  the  nature  of  the  researches  required.  Engineers  are  intensely 
practical  men,  and  their  practice  has  generally  been  ahead  of  their 
theory.  The  difficulties  they  have  met  have  been  dealt  with,  often  with 
the  greatest  ingenuity  and  skill,  as  special  problems.  They  have  seldom 
had  time  or  opportunity  to  solve  the  general  problems,  and  as  a  result 
they  are  used  to  making  their  experiments  and  trials  as  close  a  copy — 
usually  on  a  smaller  scale — of  the  real  thing  as  possible.  The  results 
obtained  in  this  way,  while  they  are  applicable  to  the  particular 
problem,  are  of  little  general  use.  They  depend  on  many  factors.  The 
researches  I  am  now  advocating  must  be  of  a  diametrically  opposite 
description.  They  must  be  absolutely  general,  and  the  results  must 
depend  on  one  factor  only  at  a  time,  so  that  general  laws  may  be 
established  which  will  be  applicable  to  all  special  problems. 

There  are  many  other  similar  gaps  in  our  knowledge  to  which  I 
have  not  time  to  refer  to  to-day.  I  have  tried  to  show  that  we  need 
most  of  all  a  real  knowledge  of  the  fundamental  properties  of  materials, 
from  which  we  shall  be  able  to  deduce  their  behaviour  in  any  condition 
of  service,  so  that  we  may  be  able  to  compare  the  relative  merits  of 
diverse  materials  for  any  particular  purpose. 

Secondly,  that  we  need  a  practical  method  of  calculating  the  stresses 
in  parts  of  any  form,  so  that  concentrations  of  stress  may  be  avoided 
or  that  their  magnitudes  may  be  known  and  allowed  for. 

Thirdly,  that  we  need  a  rational  connecting  link  between  the  tests 
made  on  materials  and  the  stresses  they  will  bear  in  service,  to  replace 
the  factor  of  safety.  I  have  suggested  two  tests,  the  Proof  Load  and 
the  Fatigue  Limit,  which  might  be  used  directly  in  estimating  the  allow- 
able  working  stress. 


Fourthly,  that  we  need  a  mathematical  theory  for  the  strength  of 
anisotropic  materials,  of  which  timber  is  an  extreme  and  important 

"When  the  notes  for  this  address  were  first  drafted  I  ended  by  an 
appeal  to  the  Board  of  Scientific  and  Industrial  Research  to  undertake 
the  necessary  research  work.  Since  then  the  Aeronautical  Research 
Committee  has  been  constituted,  and  a  sub-committee  has  been 
appointed  to  deal  with  '  Materials.'  I  have  great  hopes  that  the 
committee  will  tackle  many  of  these  problems.  I  will  therefore  conclude 
by  appealing  to  all  who  can  help  to  assist  that  committee  in  their 
endeavour  to  solve  these  most  important  and  fascinating,  but  most 
ditficult,  problems. 

SECTION  H:   CAEDIFP,  1920. 


TO    THE 



Pbof.  KARL  PEARSON,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S., 


Anthropology — the  Understanding  of  Man — should  be,  if  Pierre 
Charron  were  correct,  the  true  science  and  the  true  study  of  mankind.^ 
We  might  anticipate  that  in  our  days — in  this  era  of  science — anthro- 
pology in  its  broadest  sense  would  occupy  the  same  exalted  position 
that  theology  occupied  in  the  Middle  Ages.  We  should  hail  it  '  Queen 
of  the  Sciences,'  the  crowning  study  of  the  academic  curriculum. 
Why  is  it  that  we  are  Section  H  and  not  Section  A?  If  the  answer 
be  given  that  such  is  the  result  of  historic  evolution,  can  we  still  be 
satisfied  with  the  position  that  anthropology  at  present  takes  up  in  our 
British  Universities  and  in  our  learned  societies?  Have  our  univer- 
sities, one  and  all,  anthropological  institutes  well  filled  with  enthusi- 
astic students,  and  are  there  brilliant  professors  and  lecturers  teaching 
them  not  only  to  understand  man's  past,  but  to  use  that  knowledge  to 
forward  his  future?  Have  we  men  trained  during  a  long  life  of  study 
and  research  to  represent  our  science  in  the  arena,  or  do  we  largely 
trust  to  dilettanti — to  retired  civil  servants,  to  untrained  travellers  or 
colonial  medical  men  for  our  knowledge,  and  to  the  anatomist,  the  sur- 
geon, or  the  archaeologist  for  our  teaching?  Needless  to  say,  that  for  the 
study  of  man  we  require  the  better  part  of  many  sciences,  we  must 
draw  for  contributions  on  medicine,  on  zoology,  on  anatomy,  on 
archaeology,  on  folk-lore  and  travel-lore,  nay,  on  history,  psychology, 
geology,  and  many  other  branches  of  knowledge.  But  a  hotch- 
potch of  the  facts  of  these  sciences  does  not  create  anthropology.  The 
true  anthropologist  is  not  the  man  who  has  merely  a  wide  knowledge 
of  the  conclusions  of  other  sciences,  he  is  the  man  who  grasps  their 
bearing  on  mankind  and  throws  light  on  the  past  and  present  factors 
of  human  evolution  from  that  knowledge. 

1  "La  vraye  science  et  le  vray  estude  de  rhomme  c'est  rHomme."  Pierre 
Charron,  De  la  Sagesse,  Preface  du  Premier  Livre,  1601.  Pope,  with  his  "The 
proper  study  of  mankind  is  Man,"  1733,  was,  as  we  might  anticipate,  only  a 


I  am  afraid  I  am  a  scientific  heretic — an  outcast  from  the  true  ortho- 
dox faith — I  do  not  beheve  in  science  for  its  own  sake.  I  beheve  only  in 
science  for  man's  sake.  You  will  hear  on  every  side  the  argument  that 
it  is  not  the  aim  of  science  to  be  utile,  that  you  must  pursue  scientific 
studies  for  their  own  sake  and  not  for  the  utility  of  the  resulting  dis- 
coveries. I  think  that  there  is  a  great  deal  of  obscurity  about  this 
attitude,  I  will  not  say  nonsense.  I  find  the  strongest  supporters  of 
'  science  for  its  own  sake  '  use  as  the  main  argument  for  the  pursuit 
of  not  immediately  utile  researches  that  these  researches  will  be  useful 
some  day,  that  we  can  never  be  certain  when  they  will  turn  out  to  be 
of  advantage  to  mankind.  Or,  again,  they  will  appeal  to  non-utile 
branches  of  science  as  providing  a  splendid  intellectual  training — as  if 
the  provision  of  highly  trained  minds  was  not  itself  a  social  fimction 
of  the  greatest  utility  !  In  other  words,  the  argument  from  utility  is 
in  both  cases  indirectly  apphed  to  justify  the  study  of  science  for  its 
own  sake.  In  the  old  days  the  study  of  hyperspace — space  of  higher 
dimensions  than  that  of  which  we  have  physical  cognisance — used  to 
be  cited  as  an  example  of  a  non-utile  scientific  research.  In  view  of 
the  facts:  (i.)  that  our  whole  physical  outlook  on  the  universe — and 
with  it  I  will  add  our  whole  philosophical  and  theological  outlooks — are 
taking  new  aspects  under  the  theory  of  Einstein;  and  (ii.)  that  study 
of  the  relative  influences  of  Nature  and  Nurture  in  Man  can  be 
reduced  to  the  trigonometry  of  polyhedra  in  hyperspace — we  see  how 
idle  it  is  to  fence  off  any  field  of  scientific  investigation  as  non-utile. 

Yet  are  we  to  defend  the  past  of  anthropology — and,  in  particular, 
of  anthropometry — as  the  devotion  of  our  science  to  an  immediate  non- 
utile  which  one  day  is  going  to  be  utile  in  a  glorious  and  epoch-making 
manner,  like  the  Clifford-Einstein  suggestion  of  the  curvature  of  our 
space?  I  fear  we  can  take  no  such  flattering  unction  to  our  souls. 
I  fear  that  '  the  best  is  yet  to  be  '  cannot  be  said  of  our  multitudinous 
observations  on  '  height- sitting  '  or  on  the  censuses  of  eye  or  hair 
colours  of  our  population.  These  things  are  dead  almost  from  the  day 
of  their  record.  It  is  not  only  because  the  bulk  of  their  recorders  were 
untrained  to  observe  and  measure  with  scientific  accuracy,  it  is  not  only 
because  the  records  in  nine  out  of  ten  cases  omit  the  associated  factors 
without  which  the  record  is  valueless.  It  is  beciause  the  progress  of 
mankind  in  its  present  stage  depends  on  characters  wholly  different 
from  those  which  have  so  largely  occupied  the  anthropologist's  atten- 
tion. Seizing  the  superficial  and  easy  to  observe,  he  has  let  slip  the 
more  subtle  and  elusive  qualities  on  which  progress,  on  which  national 
fitness  for  this  or  that  task  essentially  depends.  The  pulse -tracing, 
the  reaction-time,  the  mental  age  of  the  men  under  his  control  are  far 
more  important  to  the  commanding  officer — nay,  I  will  add,  to  the 
employer  of  labour — than  any  record  of  span,  of  head-measurement, 
or  pigmentation  categories.  The  psycho-physical  and  psycho-physio- 
logical characters  are  of  far  greater  weight  in  the  struggle  of  nations 
to-day  than  the  superficial  measurements  of  man's  body.  Physique, 
in  the  fullest  sense,  counts  something  still,  but  it  is  physique  as 
measured  by  health,  not  by  stature  or  eye-colour.  But  character, 
strength  of  will,  mental  quickness  count  more,  and  if  anthropometry 

ft.— anthropoloov.  .  137 

is  to  be  useful  to  the  State  it  must  turn  from  these  rusty  old  weapons, 
these  measurements  of  stature  and  recoi'ds  of  eye-coiour  to  more 
certain  appreciations  of  bodily  health  and  mental  aptitude — to  what  we 
may  term  '  vigorimetry  '  and  to  psychometry. 

Some  of  you  may  be  inclined  to  ask :  And  how  do  you  know  that 
these  superficial  size-,  shape-,  and  pigment-characters  are  not  closely 
associated  with  measurements  of  soundness  of  body  and  soundness  of 
mind?  The  answer  to  this  question  is  twofold,  and  I  must  ask  you 
to  follow  me  for  a  moment  into  what  appears  a  totally  different  sub- 
ject. I  refer  to  a  '  pure  race.'  Some  biologists  apparently  believe 
they  can  isolate  a  pure  race,  but  in  the  case  of  man,  I  feel  sure  that 
pm-ity  of  race  is  a  merely  relative  term.  For  a  given  character  one 
race  is  purer  than  a  second,  if  the  scientific  measure  of  variation  of 
that  character  is  less  than  it  is  in  the  second.  In  loose  wording,  for 
we  cannot  express  ourselves  accurately  without  mathematical  symbols, 
that  race  is  purer  for  which  on  the  average  the  individuals  are  closer  to 
type  for  the  bulk  of  ascertainable  characters  than  are  the  characters 
in  a-  second  race.  But  an  absolutely  pure  race  in  man  defies  definition. 
The  more  isolated  a  group  of  men  ha-s  remained,  the  longer  it  has 
lived  under  the  same  environment,  and  the  more  limited  its  habitat, 
the  less  variation  from  type  it  will  exhibit,  and  we  can  legitimately 
speak  of  it  as  possessing  greater  purity.  We,  most  of  us,  probably 
believe  in  a  single  origin  of  man.  But  as  anthropologists  we  are 
inclined  to  speak  as  if  at  the  dawn  of  history  there  were  a  number  of 
pure  races,  each  with  definite  physical  and  mental  characteristics ;  if 
this  were  true,  which  I  do  not  believe,  it  could  only  mean  that  up  to 
that  period  there  had  been  extreme  isolation,  extremely  differentiated 
environments,  and  so  marked  differences  in  the  direction  and  rate  of 
mental  and  physical  evolution.  But  what  we  know  historically  of 
folk- wanderings,  folk-mixings,  and  folk-absorptions  have  undoubtedly 
been  going  on  for  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years,  of  which  we  know 
only  a  small  historic  fragment.  Have  we  any  real  reason  for  suppos- 
ing that  '  purity  of  race  '  existed  up  to  the  beginning  of  history,  and 
that  we  have  all  got  badly  mixed  up  since? 

Let  us,  however,  grant  that  there  were  purer  races  at  the  beginning 
of  history  than  we  find  to-day.  Let  us  suppose  a  Nordic  race  with 
a  certain  stature,  a  given  pigmentation,  a  given  shape  of  head,  and  a 
given  mentality.  And,  again,  we  will  suppose  an  Alpine  race,  differ- 
ing markedly  in  type  from  the  Nordic  race.  What  happens  if  we  cross 
members  of  the  two  races  and  proceed  to  a  race  of  hybrids?  A 
Mendelian  would  tell  us  that  these  characters  are  sorted  out  like,  cards 
from  a  pack  in  all  sorts  of  novel  combinations.  A  Nordic  mentality 
will  be  found  with  short  stature  and  dark  eyes.  A  tall  but  brachy- 
cephalic  individual  will  combine  Alpine  mentality  with  blue  eyes. 
Without  accepting  fully  the  Mendelian  theory  we  can  at  least  accept 
the  result  of  mass  observations,  which  show  that  the  association 
between  superficial  physical  measurements  and  mentality  is  of  the 
slenderest  kind.  If  you  keep  within  one  class,  my  own  measurements 
show  me  that  there  is  only  the  slightest  pelation  between  intelligence 
and  the  size  and  shape  of  the  head.    Pigmentation  in  this  country  seems 


to  have  little  relation  to  the  incidence  of  disease.  Size  and  shape  of 
head  in  man  have  been  taken  as  a  rough  measure  of  size  and  shape  of 
brain.  They  cannot  tell  you  more — perhaps  not  as  much  as  brain- 
weight — and  if  brain-weight  were  closely  associated  with  intelligence, 
then  man  should  be  at  his  intellectual  prime  in  his  teens. 

Again,  too  often  is  this  idea  of  close  association  of  mentality  and 
physique  carried  into  the  analysis  of  individuals  within  a  human  group, 
i.e.  of  men  belonging  to  one  or  another  of  the  many  races  which  have 
gone  to  build  up  our  population.  We  talk  as  if  it  was  our  population 
which  was  mixed,  and  not  our  germplasm.  We  are  accustomed  to  speak 
of  a  typical  Englishman.  For  example,  Charles  Darwin;  we  think  of 
his  mind  as  a  typical  English  mind,  working  in  a  typical  Enghsh 
manner,  yet  when  we  come  to  study  his  pedigree  we  seek  in  vain 
for  '  pmity  of  race. '  He  is  descended  in  four  different  lines  from 
Irish  kinglets;  he  is  descended  in  as  many  lines  from  Scottish  and 
Pictish  kings.  He  had  Manx  blood.  He  claims  descent  in  at  least 
three  lines  from  Alfred  the  Great,  and  so  links  up  with  Anglo-Saxon 
blood,  but  he  links  up  also  in  several  lines  with  Charlemagne  and  the 
Carlovingians.  He  sprang  also  from  the  Saxon  Emperors  of  Germany, 
as  well  as  from  Barbarossa  and  the  Hohenstaufens.  He  had  Nor- 
wegian blood  and  much  Norman  blood.  He  had  descent  from  the 
Dukes  of  Bavaria,  of  Saxony,  of  Flanders,  the  Princes  of  Savoy,  and 
the  Kings  of  Italy.  He  had  the  blood  in  his  veins  of  Franks,  Alamans, 
Merovingians,  Burgundians,  and  Longobards.  He  sprang  in  direct 
descent  from  the  Hun  rulers  of  Hungary  and  the  Greek  Ejnperors  of 
Constantinople.  If  I  recollect  rightly,  Ivan  the  Terrible  provides  a 
Eussian  link.  There  is  probably  not  one  of  the  races  of  Europe  con- 
cerned in  the  folk-wanderings  which  has  not  a  share  in  the  ancestry 
of  Charles  Darwin.  If  it  has  been  possible  in  the  case  of  one  English- 
man of  this  kind  to  show  in  a  considerable  number  of  lines  how  impure 
is  his  race,  can  we  venture  to  assert  that  if  the  like  knowledge  were 
possible  of  attainment,  we  could  expect  greater  purity  of  blood  in  any 
of  his  countrymen?  What  we  are  able  to  show  may  occur  by  tracing 
an  individual  in  historic  times,  have  we  any  valid  reason  for  supposing 
did  not  occur  in  prehistoric  times,  wherever  physical  barriers  did  not 
isolate  a  limited  section  of  mankind  ?  If  there  ever  was  an  association 
of  definite  mentality  with  physical  characters,  it  would  break  down 
as  soon  as  race  mingled  freely  with  race,  as  it  has  done  in  historic 
Europe.  Isolation  or  a  strong  feeling  against  free  inter- breeding — as 
in  a  colour  differentiation — could  alone  maintain  a  close  association 
between  physical  and  mental  characters.  Europe  has  never  recovered 
from  the  general  hybridisation  of  the  folk-wanderings,  and  it  is  only 
the  cessation  of  wars  of  conquest  and  occupation,  the  spread  of  the 
conception  of  nationality  and  the  reviving  consciousness  of  race,  which 
is  providing  the  barriers  which  may  eventually  lead  through  isolation 
to  a  new  linking-up  of  physical  and  mental  characters. 

In  a  population  which  consists  of  non-intermarrying  castes,  as  in 
India,  physique  and  external  appearance  may  be  a  measure  of  the  type 
of  mentality.  In  the  highly  and  recently  hybridised  nations  of  Europe 
there   are  really  but  few  fragments  of   '  pure  races  '  left,   and  it  is 

a. — ANTHROtOLOOV*  l39 

hopeless  to  believe  that  anthropometric  measurements  of  the  body  or 
records  of  pigmentation  are  going  to  help  us  to  a  science  of  the  psycho- 
physical characters  of  man  which  will  be  useful  to  the  State.  The 
modern  State  needs  in  its  citizens  vigour  of  mind  and  vigour  of  body, 
but  these  are  not  chaj-acters  with  which  the  anthropometry  of  the  past 
has  largely  busied  itself.  In  a  certain  sense  the  school  medical  officer 
and  the  medical  officer  of  health  are  doing  more  State  service  of  an 
anthropological  character  than  the  anthropologists  themselves. 

These  doubts  have  come  very  forcibly  to  my  notice  during  the  last 
few  years.  What  were  the  anthropologists  as  anthropologists  doing 
during  the  war?  Many  of  them  were  busy  enough  and  doing  valuable 
work  because  they  were  anatomists,  or  because  they  were  surgeons, 
or  perhaps  even  because  they  were  mathematicians.  But  as  anthropo- 
logists, what  was  their  position?  The  whole  period  of  the  war  pro- 
duced the  most  difficult  pi'oblems  in  folk-psychology.  There  were 
occasions  innumerable  when  thousands  of  lives  and  most  heavy  expen- 
diture of  money  might  have  been  saved  by  a  greater  knowledge  of 
what  creates  and  what  damps  folk-movements  in  the  various  races 
of  the  world.  India,  Egypt,  Ireland,  even  our  present  relations  with 
Italy  and  America,  show  only  too  painfully  how  difficult  we  find  it  to 
appreciate  the  psychology  of  other  nations.  We  shall  not  surmount 
these  difficulties  until  anthropologists  take  a  wider  view  of  the  material 
they  have  to  record,  and  of  the  task  they  have  before  them  if  they 
wish  to  be  utile  to  the  State.  It  is  not  the  physical  measurement  of 
native  races  which  is  a  fundamental  feature  of  anthropometry  to-day ; 
it  is  the  psychometry  and  what  I  have  termed  the  vigorimetry  of  white- 
as  well  as  of  dark-skinned  men  that  must  become  the  main  subjects 
of  our  study. 

Some  of  you  may  consider  that  I  am  overlooking  what  has  been 
contributed  both  in  this  country  and  elsewhere  to  the  science  of  folk- 
psychology.  I  know  at  least  that  Wilhelm  Wundt's  '  great  work  runs 
to  ten  volumes.  But  I  also  know  that  in  its  5452  pages  there  is 
not  a  single  table  of  numerical  measurements,  not  a  single  state- 
ment of  the  qiiantitative  association  between  mental  racial  characters, 
nor,  indeed,  any  attempt  to  show  numerically  the  intensity  of 
association  between  folk-mentality  and  folk  customs  and  institutions. 
It  is  folk-psychology  in  the  same  stage  of  evolution  as  present-day 
sociology  is  in,  or  as  individual  psychology  was  in  before  the  advent 
of  experimental  psychology  and  the  correlational  calculus.  It  is 
purely  descriptive  and  verbal.  I  am  not  denying  that  many  sciences 
must  for  a  long  period  still  remain  in  this  condition,  but  at  the  same 
time  I  confess  myself  a  firm  disciple  of  Friar  Roger  Bacon  ^  and  of 
Leonardo  da  Vinci,*  and  believe  that  we  can  really  know  very  little 

*  Its  last  volume  also  bears  evidence  of  the  non-judicial  mind  of  the  writer, 
who  expresses  strong  opinions  about  recent  events  in  the  language  of  the  party 
historian  rather  than  the  man  of  science. 

*  He  who  knows  not  Mathematics  cannot  know  any  other  science,  and  what 
is  more  cannot  discover  his  own  ignorance  or  find  its  proper  remedies. 

*  Nissuna  humana  investigatione  si  po  dimandare  vera  scientia  s'essa  non 
passa  per  le  mathematiche  dimostratione. 


about  a.  phenomenon  until  we  can  actually  measure  it  and  express  its 
relations  to  other  phenomena  in  quantitative  form.  Now  you  will 
doubtless  suggest  that  sections  of  folk-psychology  like  Language, 
Religion,  Law,  Art — much  that  forms  the  substance  of  cultural 
anthropology — are  incapable  of  quantitative  treatment.  I  am  not  con- 
vinced ,that  this  standpoint  is  correct.  Take  only  the  first  of  these  sec- 
tions— Language.  I  am  by  no  means  certain  that  there  is  not  a  rich 
harvest  to  be  reaped  by  the  first  man  who  can  give  unbroken  time  and 
study  to  the  statistical  analysis  of  language.  Whether  he  start  with 
roots  or  with  words  to  investigate  the  degree  of  resemblance  in 
languages  of  the  same  family,  he  is  likely,  before  he  has  done,  to 
learn  a  great  deal  about  the  relative  closeness  and  order  of  evolution 
of  cognate  tongues,  whether  those  tongues  be  Aryan  or  Sudanese. 
And  the  methods  applicable  in  the  case  of  language  will  apply  in  the 
same  manner  to  cultural  habits  and  ideas.  Strange  as  the  notion  may 
seem  at  first,  there  is  a  wide  field  in  cultural  anthropology  for  the  use 
of  those  same  methods  which  have  revolutionised  psychometric  tech- 
nique, to  say  nothing  of  their  influence  on  osteometry. 

The  problems  of  cultural  anthropology  are  subtle,  but  so  indeed 
are  the  problems  of  anthropometry,  and  no  instrument  can  be  too 
fine  if  our  analysis  is  to  be  final.  The  day  is  past  when  the  arithmetic 
of  the  kindergarten  sufficed  for  the  physical  anthropologist;  the  day 
is  coming  when  mere  verbal  discussion  will  prove  inadequate  for  the 
cultural  anthropologist. 

I  do  not  say  this  merely  in  the  controversial  spirit.  I  say  it  because 
I  want  to  find  a  remedy  for  the  present  state  of  affairs.  I  want  to 
see  the  full  recognition  of  anthropology  as  a  leadmg  science  by  the 
State.  I  want  to  see  the  recognition  of  anthropology  by  our  manu- 
facturers and  commercial  men,  for  it  should  be  at  least  as  important 
to  them  as  chemistry  or  physics — the  foundations  of  the  Anthropo- 
logical Institutes  with  their  museums  and  professors  in  Hamburg 
and  Frankfurt  have  not  yet  found  their  parallels  in  commercial  centres 
here.  I  want  to  see  a  fuller  recognition  of  anthropology  in  our  great 
scientific  societies,  both  in  their  choice  of  members  and  in  the  memoirs 
published.  If  their  doors  are  being  opened  to  psychology  under  its  new 
technique,  may  not  anthropology  also  seek  for  fuller  recognition? 

It  appears  to  me  that  if  we  are  to  place  anthropology  in  its  true 
position  as  the  queen  of  the  sciences,  we  must  work  shoulder  to  shoulder 
and  work  without  intermittence  in  the  following  directions  :  anthropolo- 
gists must  not  cease : 

(i)  To  insist  that  our  recorded  material  shall  be  such  that  it  is 
at  present  or  likely  in  the  near  future  to  be  utile  to  the  State,  using  the 
word  '  State  '  in  its  amplest  sense. 

(ii)  To  insist  that  there  shall  be  institutes  of  anthropology,  each 
with  a  full  staff  of  qualified  professors,  whose  whole  energy  and  time 
shall  be  devoted  to  the  teaching  of  and  research  in  anthropology, 
ethnology  and  prehistory.  At  least  three  of  our  chief  universities 
should  be  provided  with  such  institutes. 

(iii)  To  insist  that  our  technique  shall  not  consist  in  the  mere  state- 
ment of  opinion  on  the  facts  observed,  but    shall  follow,  if  possible 


with  greater  insight,  the  methods    which    are    coming    into    use    in 
epidemiology  and  psychology. 

I  should  like  to  enlarge  a  little  further  on  these  three  insistencies, 
the  fundamental  '  planks  '  of  the  campaign  I  have  in  view. 

(i)  Insistence  on  the  Nature  of  the  Material  to  be  dealt  with. 

I  have  already  tried  to  indicate  that  the  problems  before  us  to-day, 
the  grave  problems  that  are  pressing  on  us  with  regard  to  the  future, 
cannot  be  solved  by  the  old  material  and  by  the  old  methods.  We  have 
to  make  anthropology  a  wise  counsellor  of  the  State,  and  this  means 
a  counsellor  in  political  matters,  in  commercial  matters,  and  in  social 


The  Governments  of  Europe  have  had  military  advisers,  financial 
advisers,  transport  and  food  experts  in  their  service,  but  they  have 
not  had  ethnological  advisers ;  there  have  been  no  highly  trained  anthro- 
pologists at  their  command.  You  have  only  to  study  the  Peace  of 
Versailles  to  see  that  it  is  ethnologically  unsound  and  cannot  be  per- 
manent. It  is  no  good  asking  why  our  well-meaning  rulers  did  not 
consult  our  well-meaning  anthropologists.  I  for  one  confess  that 
we  have  not  in  the  past  dealt  with  actuality,  or  if  we  did  deal  with 
actuality,  we  have  not  treated  it  in  a  manner  likely  to  impress  either 
the  executive  or  the  public  at  large.  There  lacked  far  too  largely 
the  scientific  attitude  and  the  fundamental  specialist  training.  I  will 
not  go  so  far  as  to  say  that,  if  the  science  of  man  had  been  developed 
to  the  extent  of  physical  science  in  all  European  countries,  and  had 
then  had  its  due  authority  recognised,  there  would  have  been  no  war, 
but  I  will  venture  to  say  that  the  war  would  have  been  of  a  different 
character,  and  we  should  not  have  felt  that  the  fate  of  European  society 
and  of  European  culture  hung  in  the  balance,  as  at  this  moment  th«y 
certainly  do. 

No  one  can  allow  individual  inspiration  to-day,  and  you  may  justly 
cry  a  Daniel  has  no  right  to  issue  judgment  from  the  high  seat  of 
the  feast.  Daniel's  business  is  that  of  the  outsider,  the  stranger,  the 
unwelcome  person  interpreting,  probably  his  own,  scrawling  on  the  wall. 

Well,  if  it  be  hard  to  learn  from  friends,  let  us  at  least  study 
impassionately  from  our  late  foes.  Some  of  my  audience  may  have 
read  the  recent  manifesto  of  the  German  anthropologists,  tlieir  clarion 
cry  for  a  new  and  stronger  position  of  the  science  of  man  in  academic 
studies.  But  the  manifesto  may  have  escaped  some,  and  so  closely 
does  it  fit  the  state  of  affairs  here  that  I  venture  to  quote  certain  portions 
of  it.  After  reciting  the  sparsity  of  chairs  for  the  study  of  physical  and 
cultural  anthropology  in  the  German  universities  and  how  little  academic 
weight  has  been  given  to  such  studies,  it  continues:  'Where  these 
sciences  have  otherwise  found  recognition  in  the  universities,  they  are 
not  represented  by  specialists,  so  that  anthropology  is  provided  for  by 
the  anatomists,  ethnology  by  the  geographers,  and  prehistory  by 
Germanists,  archaeologists  and  geologists,  and  this  although,  in  the 
present  extent  of  these  three  sciences,  the  real  command  of  each  one  of 
them  demands  the  complete  working  powers  of  an  individual.    This  want 


of  teaching  posts  had  made  itself  felt  long  before  the  war,  so  that  th« 
number   of    specialists   and   of   those   interested    in   our   science    has 
receded. '  * 
And  again : 

'  During  the  war  we  have  often  experienced  how  in  political 
pamphlets  ethnology  and  ethnography — even  as  in  the  peace  treaty  of 
Brest-Litovsk — were  used  too  often  as  catchwords  without  their  users 
being  clear  about  the  ideas  those  words  convey.  The  sad  results  of 
our  foreign  policy,  the  collapse  of  all  our  calculations  as  to  national 
frames  of  mind,  were  based  in  no  small  degree  on  etlinographic  ignor- 
ance ;  oniB  has  only  to  take  for  example  the  case  of  the  Turks.  Ethnology 
should  not  embrace  only  the  spears  and  clubs  of  the  savages,  but  also 
the  psychology  and  demography  of  the  white  races,  the  European 
peoples.  At  this  very  moment,  when  the  right  of  self-determination 
has  become  a  foremost  question  of  the  day,  the  scientific  determination 
of  the  boundaries  of  a  people  and  its  lands  has  become  a  task  of  the  first 
importance.  But  our  Government  of  the  past  knew  nothing  of  the 
activity  of  the  ethnologists,  and  the  Universities  were  not  in  the  condition 
to  come  to  their  aid,  for  ethnological  chairs  and  institutes  were  wanting. 
The  foundation  of  such  must  be  the  task  of  the  immediate  future. '  * 

And  once  more : 

'  The  problems  of  the  military  fitness  of  our  people,  of  the  physical 
constitution  of  the  various  social  classes,  of  the  influence  of  the  social 
and  material  environment  upon  them,  the  problems  of  the  biological 
grounds  for  the  fall  in  the  birth-rate  and  its  results,  of  the  racial  com- 
position of  our  people,  of  the  eventual  racial  differences  and  the  accom- 
panying diverse  mental  capacities  of  the  individual  strata,  and  finally 
the  racial  changes  which  may  take  place  in  a  folk  under  the  influences 
of  civilisation,  and  the  bearing  of  all  these  matters  on  the  fate  of  a 
nation,  these  are  problems  which  can  alone  be  investigated  and  brought 
nearer  to  solution  by  anthropology.  Even  now  after  the  war  population- 
problems  stand  in  the  forefront  of  interest,  the  question  of  folk-increase 
and  of  the  falling  birtK-rate  is  the  vital  question  of  the  future. '  ^ 

I  must  ask  your  pardon  for  quoting  so  much,  but  it  seems  so  strongly 
to  point  the  moral  of  my  tale.  If  you  will  study  what  Germany  is 
feeling  and  thinking  to-day  do  not  hope  to  find  it  in  the  newspaper 
reports,  seek  it  elsewhere  in  personal  communication  or  in  German 
writings.  Then,  I  think,  you  will  agree  with  me  that  rightly  or  wrongly 
there  is  a  conviction  spreading  in  Germany  that  the  war  arose  and  that 
the  war  was  lost  because  a  nation  of  professed  thinkers  had  studied  all 
sciences,  but  had  omitted  to  study  aptly  the  science  of  man.  And  in 
a  certain  sense  that  is  an  absolutely  correct  conviction,  for  if  the  science 
of  man  stood  where  we  may  hope  it  will  stand  in  the  dim  and  distant 
future,  man  would  from  the  past  and  the  surrounding  present  have 
some  grasp  of  future  evolution,  and  so  have  a  greater  chance  of  guiding 
its  controllable  factors. 

5  Correspondenz  Blatt,  u.s.w.,  Jahrg.  1.,  S.  37. 
«  Ibid.  S.  41. 
^  Ihid.  S.  38, 


We  are  far  indeed  from  that  to-day ;  but  it  befits  us  none  the  less 
to  study  what  this  new  anthropological  movement  in  Germany  connotes. 
It  means  that  the  material  of  anthropology  is  going  to  change,  or  rather 
that  its  observations  will  be  extended  into  a  study  of  the  mental  as 
well  as  the  physical  characters,  and  these  of  the  white  races  as  well  as  of 
the  dark.  It  means  that  anthropologists  will  not  only  study  individual 
psychology,  but  folk-psychology.  It  means — and  this  is  directly  said — - 
that  Germany,  having  lost  her  colonies,  will  still  maintain  her  trade  by 
aid  of  consuls,  missionaries,  traders,  travellers,  and  others  trained 
academically  to  understand  both  savage  and  civilised  peoples.  This  is  a 
perfectly  fair  field,  and  if  the  game  be  played  squarely  can  solely  lead 
to  increased  human  sympathy,  and  we  shall  only  have  ourselves  to 
blaane  if  other  nations  are  before  us  in  their  anthropological  knowledge 
and  its  practical  applications.  The  first  condition  for  State  support 
is  that  we  show  our  science  to  be  utile  by  turning  to  the  problems 
of  racial  efficiency,  of  race-psychology,  and  to  all  those  tasks  that 
Galton  described  as  the  first  duty  of  a  nation — '  in  short,  to  make 
every  individual  efficient  both  through  Nature  and  by  Nurture.' 

Does  this  mean  that  we  are  to  turn  our  backs  on  the  past,  to 
desert  all  our  prehistoric  studies  and  to  make  anthropology  the  servant 
of  sanitation  and  commerce?  Not  in  tlie  least;  if  you  think  this  is  my 
doctrine  I  have  indeed  failed  to  make  myself  even  roughly  clear  to-day. 
Such  teaching  is  wholly  opposed  to  my  view  of  the  function  of  science. 
I  feel  quite  convinced  that  you  cannot  understand  man  of  to-day,  savage 
or  civilised,  his  body  or  his  mind,  unless  you  know  his  past  evolution, 
unless  you  have  studied  fully  all  the  scanty  evidence  we  have  of  the 
stages  of  his  ascent.  I  should  like  to  illustrate  this  by  an  incident 
which  came  recently  to  my  notice,  because  it  may  indicate  to  some 
of  those  present  the  difficulties  with  which  the  anthropologist  has  to 
contend  to  avoid  misunderstanding. 

Looking  into  the  ancestry  of  man  and  tracing  him  backward  to  a 
being  who  was  not  man  and  was  not  ape,  had  this  prot-simio-human, 
in  the  light  of  our  present  knowledge,  more  resemblance  to  the  gibbon 
or  to  the  chimpanzee  as  we  know  them  to-day?  Some  naturalists 
link  man  up  to  the  apes  by  a  gibbonlike  form,  others  by  a  troglodyte 
type  of  ancestor.  Some  would  make  a  push  to  do  without  either.  But 
granted  the  alternative,  which  is  the  more  probable?  This  is  the 
problem  of  the  hylobatic  or  the  troglodyte  origin  of  man.  I  had  given 
a  lecture  on  the  subject,  confining  my  arguments  solely  to  characters 
of  the  thigh-bone.  Now  there  chanced  to  be  a  statesman  present,  a 
man  who  has  had  large  responsibilities  in  the  government  of  many  races. 
I  have  been  honoured  by  seeing  his  comments  on  my  lecture.  '  I  am 
not,'  he  says,  'particularly  interested  in  the  descent  of  man.  I  do 
not  believe  much  in  heredity,  and  this  scientific  pursuit  of  the  dead 
bones  of  the  past  does  not  seem  to  me  a  vtery  useful  way  of  spending 
life.  I  am  accustomed  to  this  mode  of  study ;  learned  volumes  Have 
been  written  in  Sanscrit  to  explain  the  conjunction  of  the  two  vowels 
"  a"  and  "  u."  It  is  very  learned,  very  ingenious,  but  not  very  help- 
ful. ...  I  am  not  concerned  with  my  genealogy  so  much  as  with  my 
future.     Our  intellects  can  be  more  advantageously  employed  than  in 

144  SECTIONAL   ADDRESSES.  ■     ' 

finding  our  diversity  from  the  ape  .  .  .  There  may  be  no  spirit,  no 
soul :  there  is  no  proof  of  their  existence.  If  that  is  so,  let  us  do 
•away  with  shams  and  hve  like  animals.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  there 
is  a  soul  to  be  looked  after,  let  us  all  strain  our  nerves  to  the  task ; 
there  is  no  use  in  digging  into  the  sands  of  time  for  t\he  skeletons  of 
the  past :  build  your  man  for  the  future. ' 

"What  is  the  reply  of  anthropology  to  this  indictment  of  the  states- 
man? You  cannot  brush  it  lightly  aside.  It  is  the  statement  of  a 
good  man  and  a  strong  man  who  is  willing  to  spend  his  life  in  Ihe  service 
of  his  fellows.  He  sees  us  handling  fossils  and  potsherds  and  cannot 
perceive  the  social  utility  of  our  studies.  He  does  not  believe  any 
enthusiasm  for  human  progress  can  lie  beneath  the  spade  and  callipers 
of  the  scientdfic  investigator.  He  has  never  grasped  that  the  man  of 
to-day  is  precisely  what  heredity  and  his  genealogy,  his  past  history 
and  his  prehistory,  have  made  him.  He  does  not  recognise  that  it  is 
impossible  to  build  your  man  for  the  future  until  you  have  studied  the 
origin  of  his  physical  and  mental  constitution.  "Whence  did  he  draw 
his  good  and  evil  characteristics — are  they  the  product  of  his  nature  or 
his  nurture  ?  Man  has  not  a  plastic  mind  and  body  which  the  enthu- 
siastic reformer  can  at  will  mould  to  the  model  of  his  golden  age  ideals. 
He  has  taken  thousands  of  years  to  grow  into  what  he  is,  and  only  bv 
like  processes  of  evolution — intensified  and  speeded  up,  if  we  work 
consciously  and  with  full  knowledge  of  the  past — can  we  build  his 

It  does  matter  in  regard  to  the  gravest  problems  before  mankind 
-to-day  whether  our  ancestry  was  hylobatic  or  troglodyte.  For  five  years 
the  whole  world  has  been  a  stage  for  brutality  and  violence.  We  have 
seen  a  large  part  of  the  youth  who  were  best  fitted  mentally  and 
physically  to  be  parents  of  future  generations  perish  throughout  Europe  : 
the  dysgenic  effect  of  this  slaughter  will  show  itself  each  twenty  to 
twenty-five  years  for  centuries  to  come  in  the  census  returns  of  half 
the  countries  of  the  world.  Science  undertook  work  which  national 
feeling  bade  it  do,  but  on  which  it  will  ever  look  back  with  a  shuddering 
feeling  of  distaste,  an  uneasy  consciousness  of  having  soiled  its  hands. 
And  as  aftermath  we  see  in  almost  every  land  an  orgy  of  violent  crime, 
a  sense  of  lost  security,  and  at  times  we  dread  that  our  verv  civilisation 
may  perish  owing  to  the  weakening  of  the  social  ties,  a  deadening  of 
the  responsibilities  of  class  to  class.  This  outbreak  of  violence  which 
has  so  appalled  the  thinking  world,  is  it  the  sporadic  appearance  of  an 
innate  passion  for  the  raw  and  brutal  in  mankind,  or  is  it  the  outcome 
of  economic  causes  forcing  the  nations  of  the  world  to  the  combat  for 
limited  food  and  material  supplies?  I  wish  we  could  attribut-e  it  to 
the  latter  source,  for  then  we  could  eradicate  the  spirit  of  violence  by 
changing  environmental  conditions.  But  if  the  spirit  of  violence  be 
innate  in  man,  if  there  be  times  when  he  not  only  sees  red  but  rejoices 
in  it — and  that  was  the  strong  impression  T  formed  when  I  crossed 
Germany  on  August  1,  1914 — then  outbreaks  of  violence  will  not  cease 
till  troglodyte  mentality  is  bred  out  of  man.  That  is  why  the  question 
of  troglodyte  or  hylobatic  ancestry  is  not  a  pursuit  of  dead  bones.  It 
.is  ft  vital  problem  on  which  turns  much  of  folk- psychology.     It  is  a 


problem  utile  to  the  State,  in  that  it  throws  Hght  on  whether  nature 
or  nurture  is  the  more  Hkely  to  build  up  man's  future — and  save  him 
from  tie  recurrence  of  such  another  quinquennium. 

The  critic  to  whom  I  have  referred  was  not  idle  in  his  criticism. 
He  had  not  been  taught  that  evolutionary  doctrine  has  its  bearings  on 
practical  life.  The  biologist  and  the  anthropologist  are  at  fault;  they 
have  too  often  omitted  to  show  that  their  problems  have  a  very  close 
relation  to  those  of  the  statesman  and  the  social  reformer,  and  that  the 
problems  of  the  latter  cannot  be  solved  without  a  true  insight  into 
man's  past,  without  a  knowledge  of  the  laws  of  heredity,  and  without  a 
due  appreciation  of  the  causes  which  underlie  great  folk-movements. 

(ii)  Insistence  on  Institutes  of  Anthropology. 

The  anthropological  problems  of  the  present  day  are  so  numerous 
and  so  pressing  that  we  can  afford  to  select  those  of  the  greatest 
utihty.  Indeed,  the  three  university  institutes  of  anthropology  I  have 
suggested  would  have  to  specialise  and  then  work  hard  to  keep  abreast 
of  the  problems  which  will  crowd  upon  them.  One  might  take  the 
European  races,  another  Asia  and  the  Pacific,  and  a  third  Africa. 
America  in  anthropology  can  well  look  after  itself.  In  each  case  we 
need  something  on  the  scale  of  the  Paris  Ecole  d'Anthropologie,  with 
its  seventeen  professors  and  teachers,  with  its  museums  and  journals. 
But  we  want  something  else — a  new  conception  of  the  range  of 
problems  to  be  dealt  with  and  a  new  technique.  From  such  schools 
would  pass  out  men  with  academic  training  fit  to  become  officials, 
diplomatic  agents,  teachers,  missionaries,  and  traders  in  Europe,  in 
Asia,  or  in  Africa,  men  with  intelligent  appreciation  of  and  sympathy 
with  the  races  among  whom  they  proposed  to  woi'k. 

But  this  extra-State  work,  important  as  it  is,  is  hardly  comparable 
in  magnitude  with  the  intra-State  work  which  lies  ready  to  hand  for 
the  anthropological  laboratory  that  has  the  will,  the  staff,  and  the 
equipment  to  take  it  up  efficiently.  In  the  present  condition  of  affairs 
it  is  only  too  likely  that  much  of  this  work,  being  psychometric,  will 
fall  into  the  hands  of  the  psychologist,  whereas  it  is  essentially  the 
fitting  work  of  the  anthropologist,  who  should  come  to  the  task,  it 
fitly  trained,  with  a  knowledge  of  comparative  material  and  of  the 
past  history,  mental  and  physical,  of  mankind,  on  which  his  present 
faculties  so  largely  depend.  The  danger  has  arisen  because  the  anthro- 
pometer  has  forgotten  that  it  is  as  much  his  duty  to  measure  the 
human  mind  as  it  is  his  duty  to  measure  the  human  body,  and  that  it  is 
as  much  his  duty  to  measure  the  functional  activities  of  the  human 
body — its  dynamical  characters — as  its  statical  characters.  By  dyna- 
mical characters  I  understand  such  qualities  as  resistance  to  fatigue, 
facility  in  physical  and  mental  tasks,  immunity  to  disease,  excitability 
under  stimuli,  and  many  kindred  properties.  If  you  tell  me  that  we  are 
here  trenching  on  the  field  of  psychology  and  medicine,  I  reply:  Cer- 
tainly; you  do  not  suppose  that  any  form  of  investigation  which  deals, 
with  man — body  or  mind — is  to  be  omitted  from  the  science  of  man  ?  If 
you  do  you  have  failed  to  grasp  why  anthropology  is  the  queen  of  the 
sciences.     The  University  anthropological  institute  of  the  future  will 

1930  r, 


haiVe  attached  to  it  a  psychologist,  a  medical  officer,  and  a  biologist. 
They  are  essential  portions  of  its  requisite  staff,  but  this  is  a  very 
different  matter  from  lopping  off  large  and  important  branches  of  its 
fitting  studies,  to  lie  neglected  on  the  ground,  or  to  be  dragged  away, 
as  dead  wood,  to  be  hewn  and  shapen  for  other  purposes  by  scientific 
colleagues  in  other  institutes.  Eemember  that  I  am  emphasising  that 
side  of  anthropology  which  studies  man  in  the  service  of  the  State — 
anthropology  as  a  utile  science — and  that  this  is  the  only  ground 
on  which  anthropology  can  appeal  for  support  and  sympathy  from 
State,  from  municipality,  and  from  private  donors.  You  will  notice 
that  I  lay  stress  on  the  association  of  the  anthropological  institute 
with  the  university,  and  the  reasons  for  this  are  manifold.  In  the 
first  place,  every  science  is  stimulated  by  contact  with  the  workers  in 
allied  sciences ;  in  the  second  place,  the  institute  must  be  a  teaching 
as  well  as  a  researching  body,  and  it  can  only  do  this  effectively  in 
association  with  an  academic  centre — a  centre  from  which  to  draw 
its  students  and  to  recruit  its  staff.  In  the  third  place,  a  great  university 
provides  a  wide  field  for  anthi'opometric  studies  in  its  students  and 
its  staff.  And  the  advantages  are  mutual.  It  is  not  of  much  service 
to  hand  a  student  a  card  containing  his  stature,  his  weight,  his  eye 
colour,  and  his  head  length  !  Most  of  these  he  can  find  out  for  himself ! 
But  it  is  of  importance  to  him  to  know  something  of  how  his  eye,  heart, 
and  respiration  function  ;  it  is  of  importance  to  him  to  know  the  general 
character  of  his  mental  qualities,  and  how  they  are  associated  with 
the  rapidity  and  steadiness  of  muscular  responses.  Knowledge  on 
these  points  may  lead  him  to  a  fit  choice  of  a  career,  or  at  any  rate 
save  him  from  a  thoroughly  bad  choice. 

In  the  course  of  my  life  I  have  often  received  inquiries  from  school- 
masters of  the  following  kind :  We  are  setting  up  a  school  anthropo- 
metric laboratory,  and  we  propose  to  measure  stature,  weight,  height 
sitting,  &c.     Can  you  suggest  anything  else  we  should  measure? 

My  invariable  reply  is :  Don't  start  measuring  anything  at  all  until 
you  have  settled  the  problems  you  wish  to  answer,  and  then  just 
measure  the  characters  in  an  adequate  number  of  your  boys,  which 
will  enable  you  to  solve  those  problems.  Use  your  school  as  a  labora- 
tory, not  as  a  weighhouse. 

And  I  might  add,  if  I  were  not  in  dread  of  giving  offence:  And 
most  certainly  do  not  measure  anything  at  all  if  you  have  no  problem 
to  solve,  for  unless  you  have  you  cannot  have  the  true  spirit  of  the 
anthropologist,  and  you  will  merely  increase  that  material  up  and  down 
in  the  schools  of  the  country  which  nobody  is  turning  to  any  real  use. 

Which  of  us,  who  is  a  parent,  has  not  felt  the  grrave  responsibility 
of  advising  a  child  on  the  choice  of  a  profession?  We  have  before  us, 
perhaps,  a  few  meagre  examination  results,  an  indefinite  knowledge 
of  the  self-chosen  occupations  of  the  child,  and  perhaps  some  regard 
to  the  past  experience  of  the  family  or  clan.  Possibly  we  say  John  is 
good  with  his  hands  and  does  not  care  for  lessons ;  therefore  he  should 
be  an  engineer.  That  may  be  a  correct  judgment  if  we  understand 
by  engineer,  the  engine-driver  or  mechanic.  It  is  not  true  if  we  think  of 
the  builders  of  Forth  Bridges  and  Assuan   Dams.     Such  men  work 


with  the  head  and  not  the  hand.  One  of  the  functions  of  the  anthro- 
pological laboratory  of  a  great  university,  one  of  the  functions  of  a 
school  anthropometric  laboratory,  should  be  to  measure  those  physical 
and  mental  characters  and  their  inter-relations  upon  which  a  man's 
success  in  a  given  career  so  much  depends.  Its  function  should  be  to 
guide  youth  in  the  choice  of  a  calling,  and  in  the  case  of  a  school  to 
enable  the  headmaster  to  know  something  of  the  real  nature  of  indi- 
vidual boys,  so  that  that  much-tried  man  does  not  feel  compelled  to 
hide  his  ignorance  by  cabalistic  utterances  when  parents  question  him. 
on  what  their  son  is  fitted  for. 

Wide,  however,  as  is  the  anthropometric  material  in  our  universities 
and  public  schools,  it  toucTies  only  a  section  of  the  population.  The 
modem  anthropologist  has  to  go  further;  he  has  to  enter  the  doOrs  of 
the  primary  schools;  he  has  to  study  the  general  population  in  all  its 
castes,  its  craftsmen,  and  its  sedentary  workers.  Anthropology  has  to 
be  useful  to  commerce  and  to  the  State,  not  only  in  association  with 
foreign  races,  but  still  more  in  the  selection  of  the  right  men  and  women 
for  the  staff  of  factory,  mine,  office,  and  transport.  The  selection  of 
workmeri  to-day  by  what  is  too  often  a  rough  trial  and  discharge  method 
is  one  of  the  wasteful  factors  of  production.  Few  employers  even  ask 
what  trades  parents  and  grandparents  have  followed,  nor  consider  the 
relation  of  a  man's  physique  and  mentality  to  his  proposed  employment. 
I  admit  that  progress  in  this  direction  will  be  slow,  but  if  the  work 
undertaken  in  this  sense  by  the  anthropologist  be  well  devised,  accurate, 
and  comprehensive,  the  anthropometric  laboratory  will  gradually  obtain 
an  assured  position  in  commercial  appreciation.  As  a  beginning,  the 
anthropologist  by  an  attractive  museum,  by  popular  lectures  and  demon- 
strations, should  endeavour  to  create,  as  Sir  Francis  Galton  did  at 
South  Kensington,  an  anthropometric  laboratory  frequented  by  the 
general  population,  as  well  as  by  the  academic  class.  Thus  he  will 
obtain  a  wider  range  of  material.  But  the  anthropologist,  if  he  is  to 
advance  his  science  and  emphasise  its  services  to  the  State,  must  pass 
beyond  the  university,  the  school,  and  the  factory.  He  must  study 
what  makes  for  wastage  in  our  present  loosely  organised  society ;  he 
must  investigate  the  material  provided  by  reformatory,  prison,  asylums 
for  the  insane  and  mentally  defective;  he  must  cari-y  his  researches  into 
the  inebriate  home,  the  sanatorium,  and  the  hospital,  side  by  side  with 
his  medical  collaborator.  Here  is  endless  work  for  the  immediate 
future,  and  work  in  which  we  are  already  leagues  behind  our  American 
colleagues.  For  them  the  psychometric  and  anthropometric  laboratory 
attached  to  asylum,  prison,  and  reformatory  is  no  startling  innovation, 
to  be  spoken  of  with  bated  breath.  It  is  a  recognised  institution  of  the 
United  States  to-day,  and  from  such  laboratories  the  '  fieldworkers  ' 
pass  out,  finding  out  and  reporting  on  the  share  parentage  and  environ- 
ment have  had  in  the  production  of  the  abnormal  and  the  diseased,  of 
the  anti-social  of  all  kinds.  Some  of  this  work  is  excellent,  some  in- 
different, some  perhaps  worthless,  but  this  will  always  be  the  case  in  the 
expansion  of  new  branches  of  applied  science.  The  training  of  the 
Workers  must  be  largely  of  an  experimental  character,  the  technique  has 
to  be  devised  as  the  work  develops.   Instructors  and  directors  have  to  be 

I.  2 


appointed,  who  have  nob  been  trained  ad  hoc.  But  this  is  remedying 
itself,  and  if  indeed,  when  we  start,  we  also  do  not  at  first  limp  some- 
what lamely  along  these  very  paths,  it  will  only  be  because  we  have 
the  advantage  of  American  experience. 

There  is  little  wonder  that  in  America  anthropology  is  no  longer  the 
stepchild  of  the  State.  It  has  demanded  its  heritage,  and  shown  that 
it  can  use  it  for  the  public  good. 

If  I  have  returned  to  my  first  insistence  that  the  problems  handled 
by  tbie  anthropologist  shall  be  those  useful  to  the  State,  it  is  because 
I  have  not  seen  that  point  insisted  upon  in  this  country,  and  it  is 
because  my  first  insistence,  like  my  third,  involves  the  second  for  its 
effectiveness— the  establishment  in  our  chief  universities  of  anthro- 
pological institutes.  As  Gustav  Schwalbe  said  of  anthropology  in  1907 
— and  he  was  a  man  who  thought  before  he  spoke,  and  whose  death 
during  the  war  is  a  loss  to  anthropologists  the  whole  wt^rld  over — '  a 
lasting  improvement  can  only  arise  if  the  State  recognises  that  anthro- 
pology is  a  science  pre-eminently  of  value  to  the  State,  a  science  which 
not  only  deserves  but  can  demand  that  chairs  shall  be  officially  estab- 
lished for  it  in  every  university.  .  .  Only  this  spread  of  officially 
authorised  anthropology  in  all  Gennan  universities  can  enable  it  to  fulfil 
its  task,  that  of  training  men  who,  well  armed  with  the  weapon  of 
anthropological  knowledge,  will  be  able  to  place  their  skill  at  the  service 
of  the  State,  which  will  ever  have  need  of  them  in  increasing  numbers.' ' 

Our  universities  are  not,  as  in  Germany,  Government-controlled 
institutions,  although  such  control  is  yearly  increasing.  Here  we  have 
first  to  show  that  we  are  supporting  the  State  before  the  State  somewhat 
grudgingly  will  give  its  support  to  us.  Hence  the  immediate  aim  of  the 
anthropologist  should  be — not  to  suggest  that  the  State  should  a  ■priori 
assist  work  not  yet  undertaken,  but  to  do  what  he  can  with  the  limited 
resources  in  his  power,  and  when  he  has  shown  that  what  he  has 
achieved  is,  notwithstanding  his  limitations,  of  value  to  the  State,  then 
he  is  in  a  position  to  claim  effective  support  for  his  science. 

I  have  left  myself  little  time  to  place  fairly  before  you  my  third 

(iii)  Insistence  on  the  Adoption  of  a  New  Technique. 

"What  is  it  that  a  young  man  seeks  when  he  enters  the  university — 
if  we  put  aside  for  a  moment  any  social  advantages,  such  as  the  forma- 
tion of  lifelong  friendships  associated  therewith?  He  seeks,  or  ought 
to  seek,  training  for  the  mind.  He  seeks,  or  ought  to  seek,  an  open 
door\\'ay  to  a  calling  which  will  be  of  use  to  himself,  and  wherein  he 
will  take  his  part,  a  useful  part,  in  the  social  organisation  of  which 
he  finds  himself  a  member.  Much  as  we  may  all  desire  it,  in  the 
pressure  of  modern  life,  it  is  very  difficult  for  the  young  man  of  moderate 
means  to  look  upon  the  university  training  as  something  apart  from 
his  professional  training.  Men  more  and  more  select  their  academic 
studies  with  a  view  to  their  professional  value.  We  can  no  longer  com- 
bine the  senior  wranglership  with  the  pursuit  of  a  judgeship ;  we  cannot 

*  Correspond enz  Blatt,  Jahrg,  xxxviii.,   S.  68. 

,^        H. — ^ANTHROPOLOGY.  149 

pass  out  in  the  classical  tripos  and  aim  at  settling  down  in  life  as  a 
Harley  Street  consultant;  we  cannot  take  a  D.Sc.  in  chemistry  as  a 
preliminary  to  a  journalistic  career.  It  is  the  faculties  which  provide 
professional  training  that  are  crowded,  and  men  study  nowadays  physics 
or  chemistry  because  they  wish  to  be  physicists  or  chemists,  or  seek  by 
their  knowledge  of  these  sciences  to  reach  commercial  posts.  Even  the 
very  Faculty  of  Arts  runs  the  danger  of  becoming  a  professional  school 
for  elementary  school  teachers.  I  do  not  approve  this  state  of  affairs ;  I 
would  merely  note  its  existence.  But  granted  it,  what  does  anthro- 
pology offer  to  the  young  man  who  for  a  moment  considers  it  as  a 
possible  academic  study?  There  are  no  professional  posts  at  present 
open  to  him,  and  few  academic  posts.*  There  is  little  to  attract  the 
young  man  to  anthropology  as  a  career.  Is  its  position  as  a  training 
of  mind  any  stronger?  The  student  knows  if  he  studies  physics  or 
chemistry  or  engineeaing  that  he  will  obtain  a  knowledge  of  the  prin- 
ciples of  observation,  of  measurement,  and  of  the  interpretation  of  data, 
which  will  serve  him  in  good  stead  whenever  he  has  to  deal  with  pheno- 
mena of  any  kind.  But,  alas !  in  anthropology,  while  he  finds  many 
things  of  surpassing  interest,  he  discovers  no  generally  accepted  methods 
of  attacking  new  problems,  quot  hoviines,  tot  s&ntentice.  The  type  of 
man  we  want  in  anthropology  is  precisely  the  man  who  now  turns  to 
mathematics,  to  physics,  and  to  astronomy — the  man  with  an  exact 
mind  who  will  not  take  statements  on  authority  and  who  beUeves  in 
testing  all  things.  To  such  a  man  anthropometry — in  all  its  branches, 
craniometry,  psychometry,  and  the  wide  field  in  which  body  and  mind 
are  tested  together  under  dynamic  conditions — forms  a  splendid  training, 
provided  his  data  and  observations  are  treated  as  seriously  as  those  of 
the  physicist  or  astronomer  by  adequate  mathematical  analysis.  Such  a 
type  of  man  is  at  once  repelled  from  our  science  if  he  finds  in  its 
text-books  and  journals  nothing  but  what  has  been  fitly  termed  '  kinder- 
garten arithmetic'  Why,  the  other  day  I  saw  in  a  paper  by  a  dis- 
tinguished anthropologist  an  attempt  to  analyse  how  many  individual 
bones  he  ought  to  measure.  He  adopted  the  simple  process  of  comparing 
the  results  he  obtained  when  he  took  10,  20,  30  individuals.  He  was 
not  really  wiser  at  the  end  of  his  analysis  than  at  the  beginning,  though 
he  thought  he  was.  And  this,  notwithstanding  that  the  whole  matter 
had  been  thrashed  out  scientifically  by  John  Bernoulli  two  centuries 
ago,  and  that  its  solution  is  a  commonplace  of  physicist  and  astronomer ! 
How  can  we  expect  the  scientific  world  to  take  us  seriously  and 
to  treat  anthropology  as  the  equal  of  other  sciences  while  this  state 
of  affairs  is  possible?  What  discipline  in  logical  exactness  are  we 
offering  to  academic  youth  which  will  compare  with  that  of  the  older 
sciences  ?  What  claim  have  we  to  advise  the  State  until  we  have  intro- 
duced a  sounder  technique  and  ceased  to  believe  that  anthropometry  is 
a  science  that  any  man  can  follow,  with  or  without  training?  As  I 
have  hinted,  the  problems  of  anthropology  seem  to  me  as  subtle  as 

'  In  London,  for  example,  there  is  a  reader  in  physical  anthropology  who  is 
a  teacher  in  anatomy,  and  a  professorship  in  ethnology,  which  for  some 
mysterious  reason  is  included  in  the  faculty  of  economios  and  is,  I  belie\"0.  not 
a  full-time  appointment. 


those  of  physical  asti'dllomy,  and  we  are  not  going  to  solve  theiii  with 
rusty  weapons,  nor  solve  them  at  all  unless  we  can  persuade  the 
'  brainy  boys  '  of  our  universities  that  they  are  worthy  of  keen  minds. 
Hence  it  seems  to  me  that  the  most  fertile  training  for  academic  pur- 
poses in  anthropology  is  that  which  starts  from  anthropometry  in  its 
broadest  sense,  which  begins  to  differentiate  caste  and  class  and  race, 
bodily  and  mental  health  and  disease,  by  measurement  and  by  the 
analysis  of  measurement.  Once  this  sound  grounding  has  been  reached 
the  trained  mind  may  advance  to  ethnology  and  sociology,  to  prehistory 
and  the  evolution  of  man.  And  I  shall  be  surprised  if  equal  accuracy 
of  statement  and  equal  logic  of  deduction  be  not  then  demanded  in 
these  fields,  and  I  am  more  than  half  convinced,  nay,  I  am  certain, 
that  the  technique  the  student  will  apply  in  anthropometry  can  be 
equally  well  applied  in  the  wider  fields  into  which  he  will  advance  in 
his  later  studies.  Give  anthropology  a  technique  as  accurate  as  that 
of  physics,  and  it  will  forge  ahead  as  physics  have  done,  and  then 
anthropologists  will  take  their  due  place  in  the  world  of  science  and 
in  the  service  of  the  State. 

Francis  Galton  has  a  claim  upon  the  attention  of  anthropologists 
which  I  have  not.  He  has  been  President  of  your  Institute,  and  he 
spoke  just  thirty-five  years  ago  from  the  chair  I  now  occupy,  pressing 
on  you  for  the  first  time  the  claims  of  new  anthropological  methods, 
in  Galton 's  words:  '  Until  the  phenomena  of  any  branch  of  knowledge 
have  been  submitted  to  measurement  and  number  it  cannot  assume  the 
status  and  dignity  of  a  Science.'  Have  we  not  rather  forgotten  those 
warning  words,  and  do  they  not  to  some  extent  explain  why  our 
universities  and  learned  societies,  why  the  State  and  statesmen,  have 
turned  the  cold  shoulder  on  anthropology? 

This  condition  of  affairs  must  not  continue;  it  is  good  neither  for 
anthropology,  nor  for  the  universities,  nor  for  the  State  if  this  funda- 
mental science,  the  science  of  man,  remains  in  neglect.  It  will  not 
continue  if  anthropologists  pull  together  and  insist  that  their  problems 
shall  not  fail  in  utility,  that  their  scientific  technique  shall  be  up  to 
date,  and  that  anthropological  training  shall  be  a  reality  in  our  univer- 
sities— that  these  shall  be  fully  equipped  with  museums,  with  material, 
with  teachers  and  students. 

It  is  almost  as  difficult  to  reform  a  science  as  it  is  to  reform  a 
religion ;  in  both  cases  the  would-be  reformer  will  offend  the  sacrosanct 
upholders  of  tradition,  who  find  it  hard  to  discard  the  faith  in  which 
tliey  have  been  reared.  But  it  seems  to  me  that  the  difficulties  of  our 
time  plead  loudly  for  a  broadening  of  the  purpose  and  a  sharpening  of 
the  weapons  of  anthropology.  If  we  elect  to  stand  where  we  have 
done  a  new  science  will  respond  to  the  needs  of  State  and  Society;  it 
will  spring  from  medicine  and  psychology,  it  will  be  the  poorer  in 
that  it  knows  little  of  man's  development,  little  of  his  history  or  pre- 
history. But  it  will  devote  itself  to  the  urgent  problems  of  the  day. 
The  future  hes  with  the  nation  that  most  truly  plans  for  the  future, 
that  studies  most  accurately  the  factors  which  will  improve  the  racial 
qualities  of  future  generations  either  physically  or  mentally.  Is 
anthropology  to  lie  outside  this  essential  function  of  the  science  of 


man?  If  I  understand  the  recent  manifesto  of  the  German  anthropo- 
logists, they  are  determined  it  shall  not  be  so.  The  war  is  at  an  end, 
but  the  critical  time  will  be  with  us  again,  I  sadly  fear,  in  twenty 
to  thirty  years.  How  will  the  States  of  Europe  stand  then?  It 
depends  to  no  little  extent  on  how  each  of  them  may  have  cultivated 
the  science  of  man  and  applied  its  teaching  to  the  improvement  of 
national  physique  and  mentality.  Let  us  take  care  that  our  nation 
is  not  the  last  in  this  legitimate  rivalry.  The  organisation  of  existing 
human  society  with  a  view  to  its  future  welfare  is  the  crowning  task 
of  the  science  of  man;  it  needs  the  keenest-minded  investigators,  the 
most  stringent  technique,  and  the  utmost  sympathy  from  all  classes 
of  society  itself.  Have  we,  as  anthropologists,  the  courage  to  face  this 
greatest  of  all  tasks  in  the  light  of  our  knowledge  of  the  past  and 
with  our  understanding  of  the  folk  of  to-day  ?  Or  shall  we  assert  that 
anthropology  is  after  all  only  a  small  part  of  the  science  of  man,  and 
retreat  to  our  study  of  bones  and  potsherds  on  the  ground  that  science 
is  to  be  studied  for  its  own  sake  and  not  for  the  sake  of  mankind?  I 
do  not  know  what  answer  you  will  give  to  that  question,  yet  I  am 
convinced  what  the  judgment  of  the  future  on  your  answer  is  certain 
to  be.  It  will  be  similar  to  Wang  Yang  Ming's  reproof  of  the  com- 
placency of  the  Chinese  cultured  classes  of  his  day :  '  Thought  and 
Learning  are  of  little  value,  if  they  be  not  translated  into  Action.' 

SECTION  i:   CAKDIFF,  1920. 


TO    THE 



J.  BARCROFT,  C.B.E.,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 


Pkominent  among  the  pathological  conditions  which  claimed  attention 
during  the  war  was  that  of  insufficient  oxygen  supply  to  the  tissues,  or 
anoxaemia.  For  this  there  were  several  reasons;  on  the  one  hand, 
anoxaemia  clearly  was  a  factor  to  be  considered  in  the  elucidation  of  such 
conditions  as  axe  induced  by  gas-poisoning,  shock,  &c.  On  the  other 
hand,  knowledge  had  just  reached  the  point  at  which  it  was  possible  to 
discuss  anoxaemia  on  a  new  level.  It  is  not  my  object  in  the  present 
address  to  give  any  account  of  war-physiology — the  war  has  passed,  and 
I,  for  one,  have  no  wish  to  revive  its  memories,  but  anoxaemia  remains, 
and,  as  it  is  a  factor  scarcely  less  important  in  peace  than  in  war 
pathology,  I  think  I  shall  not  do  wrong  in  devoting  an  hour  to  its 

The  object  of  my  address,  therefore,  will  be  to  inquire,  and,  if  pos- 
sible to  state,  where  we  stand;  to  sift,  if  I  can,  the  knowledge  from 
the  half -knowledge ;  to  separate  what  is  ascertained  as  the  result  of 
unimpeachable  experiment  from  what  is  but  guessed  on  the  most  likely 
hypothesis.  In  war  it  was  often  necessary  to  act  on  defective  informa- 
tion, because  action  was  necessary  and  defective  information  was  the 
best  that  was  to  be  had.  In  this,  as  in  many  other  fields  of  know- 
ledge, the  whole  subject  should  be  reviewed,  the  hypotheses  tested  ex- 
perimentally, and  the  gaps  filled  in.  The  sentence  which  lives  in  my 
mind  as  embodying  the  problem  of  anoxaemia  comes  from  the  pen  of 
one  who  has  given  more  concentrated  thought  to  the  subject  than  per- 
haps any  other  worker — Dr.  J.  S.  Haldane.^  It  runs,  '  Anoxaemia  not 
only  stops  the  machine  but  vreecks  the  machinery.'  This  phrase  puts 
the  matter  so  clearly  that  I  shall  commence  by  an  inquiry  as  to  the 
limits  within  which  it  is  true. 

Anything  like  complete  anoxaemia  stops  the  machine  with  almost 
incredible  rapidity.  It  is  true  that  the  breath  can  be  held  for  a  con- 
siderable time,  but  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  tha,t  the  lungs  have  a 
volume  of  about  three  litres  at  any  moment,  that  they  normally 
contain  about  half  a  litre  of  oxygen,  and  that  this  will  suffice  for  the 
body  at  rest  for  upwards  of  two  minutes.  But  get  rid  of  the  residual 
oxygen  from  the  lungs  only  to  the  very  imperfect  extent  which   is 

*  See  References,  page  168. 

I. — PHYSIOLOGY.  153 

possible  by  the  breathing  of  some  neutral  gas,  such  as  nitrogen,  and  you 
will  find  that  only  with  difficulty  will  you  endure  half  a  minute.  Yet 
even  such  a  test  gives  no  real  picture  of  the  impotence  of  the  machine 
— which  is  the  brain — to  '  caiTy  on  '  in  the  absence  of  oxygen.  For, 
on  the  one  hand,  nearly  a  quarter  of  a  minute  elapses  before  the  reduced 
blood  gets  to  the  capillary  in  the  brain,  so  that  the  machine  has  only 
carried  on  for  the  remaining  quarter  of  a  minute;  on  the  other  hand, 
the  arterial  blood  under  such  circumstances  is  far  from  being  com- 
pletely reduced — in  fact,  it  has  very  much  the  composition  of  ordinary 
venous  blood,  which  means  that  it  contains  about  half  its  usual  quotum 
of  oxygen.  It  seems  doubtful  whether  complete  absence  of  oxygen 
would  not  bring  the  brain  to  an  instaiitaneous  standstill.  So  convincing 
are  the  experimental  facts  to  anyone  who  has  tested  them  for  himself 
that  I  will  not  further  labour  the  power  of  anoxaemia  to  stop  the 
machine.  I  will,  however,  say  a  word  about  the  assumption  which  I 
have  made  that  the  machine  in  this  connection  is  the  brain. 

It  cannot  be  stated  too  clearly  that  anoxaemia  in  the  last  resort  must 
affect  every  organ  of  the  body  directly.  Stoppage  of  the  oxygen  supply 
is  known,  for  instance,  to  bring  the  perfused  heart  to  a  standstill,  to 
cause  a  cessation  of  the  flow  of  urine,  to  produce  muscular  fatigue,  and 
at  last  immobility,  but  from  our  present  standpoint  these  eSects  of 
anoxaemia  seem  to  me  to  be  out  of  the  picture,  because  the  brain  is  so 
much  the  most  sensitive  to  oxygen  want.  Therefore,  if  the  problem  is 
the  stoppage  of  the  machine  due  to  an  insufficient  general  supply  of 
oxygen,  I  have  little  doubt  that  the  machine  stops  because  the  brain 
stops,  and  here  at  once  I  am  faced  with  the  question  how  far  is  this 
assumption  and  how  far  is  it  proven  fact  ?  I  freely  answer  that  research 
in  this  field  is  urgent ;  at  present  there  is  too  great  an  element  of  assimap- 
tion,  but  there  is  also  a  certain  amount  of  fact. 

To  what  extent  does  acute  anoxasmia  in  a  healthy  subject  wreck  the 
machinery  as  well  as  stop  the  machine?  By  acute  anoxaemia  I  mean 
complete  or  almost  complete  deprivation  of  oxygen  which,  in  the 
matter  of  time,  is  too  short  to  prove  fatal.  It  is  not  easy  to  obtain 
quite  clear-cut  experiments  in  answer  to  the  above  question.  No 
doubt  many  data  might  be  quoted  of  men  who  have  recovered  from 
drowning,  &c.  Such  data  are  complicated  by  the  fact  that  anoxaemia 
has  only  been  a  factor  in  their  condition;  other  factors,  such  as 
accumulation  of  carbonic  acid,  may  lalso  have  contributed  to  it. 
The  remarkable  fact  about  most  of  them,  however,  is  the  slight- 
ness  of  the  injury  which  the  machine  has  suffered.  These  data, 
therefore,  have  a  value  in  so  far  as  they  show  that  a  very  great  degree 
of  anoxaemia,  if  acute  and  of  short  duration,  may  be  experienced  with 
but  little  wreckage  to  the  machine.  They  have  but  little  value  in  show- 
ing that  such  wreckage  is  due  to  the  anoxaemia,  because  the  anoxaemia 
has  not  been  the  sole  disturbance.     Of  such  cases  I  will  quote  two. 

The  first  is  that  of  a  pupil  of  my  own  who  received  a  gunshot 
wound  in  the  head,  to  the  prejudice  of  his  cerebral  circulation.  I 
can  give  you  the  most  perfect  assurance  that  neither  intellectually 
nor  physically  has  the  catastrophe  which  befell  him  caused  any 
permanent  injury.        For  the   notes  of  the    case    I   am  indebted  to 


Colonel  Sir  William  Hale  White.  My  pupil  fell  wounded  at  6.50  a.m. 
on  20th  of  November  1917.  As  far  as  is  known,  he  lay  insensible 
for  about  two  hours.  Picked,  up  five  hours  after  the  wound,  he 
could  not  move  either  upper  or  lower  extremity.  Thirty-six  hours 
after  the  wound  he  underwent  an  operation  wliich  showed  that  the 
superior  sagittal  sinus  was  blocked,  happily  not  by  a  thrombus,  but  by 
being  torn  and  having  pieces  of  the  inner  table  of  the  skull  thrust  into 
it,  so  that  for  this  peiiod  of  time  the  motor  areas  on  both  sides  down 
to  the  face  area  were  asphyxiated,  the  right  being  much  moi'e  affected 
than  the  left.  Six  days  after  the  wound  the  cerebration  was  still  slow, 
with  typically  vacant  look. 

In  the  left  upper  extremity  the  muscular  power  was  much  improved ; 
he  could  raise  his  arm  to  his  mouth,  but  he  prefeiTed  to  be  fed. 

In  the  right  upper  extremity  there  were  no  movements  in  the 
shoulder,  elbow,  or  wrist,  but  he  could  flex  and  extend  the  fingers 

In  the  left  lower  extremity  there  were  fair  movements  of  hip  and 
knee,  no  movements  of  ankle  and  toes. 

In  the  right  lower  extremity  there  were  no  movements  of  hip,  knee, 
ankle,  or  toes. 

Six  weeks  after  the  wound  he  first  walked,  although  with  difficulty ; 
absolutely  the  last  place  in  which  the  paresis  remained  was  in  the 
muscles  of  the  right  toes.  Four  months  after  the  injury  these  toes 
were  spread  out  and  could  not  be  brought  together  voluntarily. 
Gradually  this  has  become  less,  but  even  now,  two  and  a-half  years 
later,  all  these  muscles  ai-e  weaker  than  those  on  the  other  side. 

Such,  then,  is  the  wreckage  of  the  machine  caused  by  thirty-six 
hours'  blockage  of  the  blood-flow  through  the  motor  areas  of  the  brain; 
wreckage  enough  but  not  irreparable. 

I  pass  to  the  second  case.  It  is  that  of  the  child  of  a  well-known 
Professor  of  Physiology  and  a  first  authority  on  the  subject  of  respira- 
tion.    I  am  indebted  to  him  for  the  following  notes : 

In  this  child,  a  male  twin,  bom  about  twelve  weeks  too  early,  it  was 
noticed  about  twenty-four  hours  after  birth  that  the  breathing  during 
sleep  was  in'egular  and  of  a  very  pronounced  Cheyne  Stokes  type,  six  to 
ten  breaths  being  followed  by  a  pause  during  which  no  respiratory  move- 
ment occurred.  Usually  the  pauses  were  of  fifteen  to  twenty  seconds' 
duration,  but  occasionally  (two  to  ten  times  a  day)  the  breathing  remained 
suspended  for  a  prolonged  peinod,  extending  in  some  cases  to  ten  and 
fifteen  minutes,  and  in  one  accurately  observed  case  even  to  twenty-five 
minutes,  intemipted  by  one  single  breath  and  a  cry  about  the  middle  of 
the  period.  The  breathing  invariably  started  again  before  the  heart- 
beats ceased. 

Cases  in  which  the  anoxsemia  has  been  uncomplicated  are  to  be 
found  among  those  who  have  been  exposed  to  low  atmospheric  pres- 
sures;  for  instance,  balloonists  and  aviators.  Of  these  quite  a  con- 
siderable number  have  suffered  from  oxygen  want  to  the  extent  of  being 
unconscious  for  short  intervals  of  time. 

No  scientific  observer  has  pushed  a  general  condition  of  anoxaemia 
either  on  himself  or  on  his  fellows  to  the  extent  of  complete  unconscious- 

»    t. — ^ftsYSiotoaV.  iW 

neSs.  The  most  severe  experiments  of  this  nature  are  those  carried  out 
by  Haldane  and  his  colleagues.  Ons  experiment  in  particular  demands 
attention.  Dr.  Haldane  and  Dr.  Ivellas^  together  spent  an  hour  in 
a  chamber  in  which  the  air  was  reduced  to  between  320  and  295  mm. 
It  is  difficult  to  say  how  far  they  were  conscious.  Clearly  each 
believed  the  other  to  be  complete  master  of  liis  own  faculties,  but  it  is 
evident  that  Dr.  Haldane  was  not  so.  I  gather  that  he  has  no  recollec- 
tion of  what  took  place,  that  whenever  he  was  consulted  about  the 
pressure  he  gave  a  stereotyped  answer  which  was  the  same  for  all 
questions,  that,  even  with  a  little  more  oxygen  present,  he  was  suffi- 
ciently himself  to  wish  to  investigate  the  colour  of  his  lips  in  the  glass, 
but  insufficiently  himself  to  be  conscious  that  he  was  looking  into  the 
back  and  not  the  front  of  the  mirror.  Dr.  Kellas,  who  could  make 
observations,  never  discovered  Dr.  Haldane's  mental  condition,  though 
boxed  up  with  him  tor  an  hour,  and  went  on  consulting  him  auto- 
matically. A  somewhat  similar  experiment  was  performed  on  the  other 
two  observers,  with  results  differing  only  in  degree. 

Yet  the  after-effects  are  summed  up  in  the  following  sentence : 
'  All  four  observers  suffered  somewhat  from  headache  for  several  hours 
after  these  experiments,  but  there  was  no  nausea  or  loss  of  appetite.' 

Of  real  importance  in  this  connection  are  the  results  of  carbon 
monoxide  poisoning.  Of  these  a  large  number  might  be  cited.  Those 
interest-ed  will  find  some  very  instructive  cases  described  in  a  volume 
entitled  '  The  Investigation  of  Mine  Air,'  by  the  late  Sir  0.  he  Neve 
Foster  and  Dr.  Haldane.*  The  cases  in  question  were  those  of  a 
number  of  officials  who  went  to  investigate  the  mine  disaster  on 
Snaefell,  in  the  Isle  of  Man,  in  May  1897.  Of  the  five  cases  cited  all 
suffered  some  after-effects,  by  which  I  mean  that  by  the  time  the  blood 
was  restored  sufficiently  to  its  normal  condition  for  the  tissues  to  get 
the  amount  of  oxygen  which  they  required,  the  effects  of  the  asphyxia 
had  not  passed  off  and  to  this  extent  the  machine  suffered,  e.g. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Kitto  says :  '  On  reaching  terra  firma  I  felt  very  ill  and 
wanted  to  vomit  .  .  .  through  the  night.  I  had  severe  palpitation  of  the  heart, 
a  thing  I  have  never  felt  in  my  life  before  or  since.  On  the  day  following, 
Thursday,  the  pain  in  my  knees  was  so  great  that  I  could  not  stand  properly, 
and  for  fully  a  week  1  had  gi'eat  pain  when  walking,  and  still  (a  month 
later)  feel  slight  effects  of  the  poisoning.' 

Of  the  five  whose  experiences  were  given,  the  one  who  received  the 
most  permanent  damage  was  Sir  Clement  Foster  himself. 

A  few  days  after  I  got  back  from  the  island  the  first  time,  about  the 
21st  or  22nd  of  May,  I  noticed  my  heart ;  it  could  scarcely  be  called  palpitation, 
as  I  understand  palpitations  to  be,  for  there  did  not  seem  to  be  any  increased 
rapidity  of  the  action,  but  I  was  conscious  of  its  beating;  as  a  rule,  I  am  not. 
This  passed  off,  and  then  on  the  1st  and  2nd  of  June  I  noticed  it  very  decidedly 
again,  so  much  so  that  I  went  to  my  doctor.  He  sounded  me,  and  said  the 
heart  was  all  right,  though  there  was  one  sound  which  was  not  very  distinct. 
This  consciousness  of  having  a  heart  still  returns  from  time  to  time,  though 
only  to  a  slight  extent.  On  the  19th  May  I  suffered  much  from  headache,  not 
regularly,  but  intermittently.  The  headache  lasted  for  several  days,  and  the 
feeling  in  the  legs  was  very  apparent ;  it  was  an  aching  in  the  legs '  from  the 
knees  to  the  ankles.  A  coldness  from  the  knees  to  the  solee  of  the  feet 
wa«  also  noticeiaible ;   it  came  on  occasionally  for   a  considerable  time.       The 


headaches  continued  at  intervals  for  some  time,  and  lasted  certainly  for  some 
months  after  the  accident;  indeed,  I  cannot  say  that  they  have  disappeared 

To  sum  up,  then,  what  may  be  said  of  the  permanent  damage  caused 
by  acute  anoxaemia,  it  seems  to  me  to  be  as  follows :  No  degree  of 
anoxaemia  which  produces  a  less  effect  than  that  of  complete  uncon- 
sciousness leaves  anything  more  than  the  most  transient  effects ;  if  the 
anoxaemia  be  pushed  to  the  point  at  which  the  subject  is  within  a 
measurable  distance  of  death,  the  results  may  take  days  or  weeks  to  get 
over,  but  only  in  the  case  of  elderly  or  unsound  persons  is  the  machine 
wrecked  beyond  repair. 

Chronic  AnoxcBViia. 

And  now  to  pass  to  the  consideration  of  what  I  may  call  chronic 
anoxaemia;  that  is  to  say,  oxygen  want  which  perhaps  is  not  very  great 
in  amount — and  I  shall  have  to  say  something  later  about  the  measure- 
ment of  anoxaemia  in  units — 'but  which  is  continued  over  a  long  time : 
weeks,  months,  or  perhaps  years.  We  have  to  ask  ourselves,  how  far 
does  chronic  anoxaemia  stop  the  machinery ;  how  far  does  it  wreck  the 
machine?  Here  we  are  faced  with  a  much  more  difficult  problem,  for 
the  distinction  between  stopping  the  machinery  and  wrecking  the 
machine  tends  to  disappear.  In  fact  so  indistinct  does  it  become  that 
you  may  ask  yom'self,  with  some  degree  of  justice,  does  chronic 
anoxaemia  stop  tlie  machine  in  any  other  way  than  by  wrecking  it  ? 

The  most  obvious  instances  of  men  subject  to  chronic  anoxaemia 
are  the  dwellers  at  high  altitudes.  Now,  it  is  quite  clear  that  in  many 
instances  of  mountain-dwellers  the  anoxaemia  does  not  wreck  the 
machine.  On  what  I  may  call  the  average  healthy  man  anoxaemia 
begins  to  tell  at  about  18,000  feet.  At  lower  altitudes  no  doubt  he 
will  have  some  passing  trouble,  but  it  seems  to  me  from  my  own 
experience  that  this  altitude  is  a  very  critical  one.  Yet  there  are  mining 
camps  at  such  heights  in  South  America  at  which  the  work  of  life 
is  carried  on.  Under  such  circumstances  the  machine  is  kept  going 
by  a  process  of  compensation.  This  is  in  part  carried  out  by  a  modifi- 
cation in  the  chemical  properties  of  the  blood.  It  would  appear  that 
both  the  carbonic  acid  in  the  blood  and  the  alkali  diminish.  The 
result,  according  to  my  interpretation  of  my  own  observations  on  the 
Peak  of  Teneriffe,  which  appeared  to  be  confirmed  by  the  experi- 
ments in  a  chamber  in  Copenhagen''  from  which  the  air  was  partially 
exhausted,  was  this :  The  hydrogen  ion  concentration  of  the  blood 
increased  slightly,  the  respiratory  centre  worked  more  actively,  and  the 
lung  became  better  ventilated  with  oxygen,  with  the  natural  result  that 
the  blood  became  more  oxygenated  than  it  would  otherwise  have  been. 

The  difference  which  this  degree  of  accUmatisation  made  was  very 
great.  Take  as  an  example  one  of  my  colleagues,  Dr.  Roberts.  On 
Monte  Eosa  in  his  case,  as  in  that  of  the  rest  of  the  party,  15  mm.  of 
oxygen  pressure  were  gained  in  the  lungs.  To  put  the  matter  another 
way,  the  atnount  of  oxygen  in  our  lungs  at  the  summit  was  what  it 
would  otherwise  have  been  5,000  or  6,000  feet  lower  down.  No  actual 
analyses  of  the  oxygen  in  Roberts'  arterial  blood  were  made,  but  from 
what  we  now  know  it  seems  probable  that  his  blood  was  about  82  per 

I. — PHYSIOLOGY.  157 

cent,  saturat-ed ;  that  is  to  say,  that  few.'  every  hundred  grams  of 
haemoglobin  in  the  blood  82  were  oxyhsemoglobin  and  18  reduced 
haemoglobin ;  had  this  degree  of  acclimatisation  not  taken  place  his  blood 
would  have  contained  as  many  as  38  parts  of  unoxidised  haemoglobin 
out  of  every  hundred,  and  this  would  probably  have  made  all  the  differ- 
ence between  the  machine  stopping  and  going  on. 

The  body,  then,  had  fought  the  anoxaemia  and  reduced  it  very  much 
in  degree,  but  at  the  same  time  the  anoxaemia  had,  in  a  subtle  way, 
done  much  to  stop  the  powers  of  the  body,  for  this  very  acclimatisation 
is  effected  at  the  expense  of  the  ultimate  reserve  which  the  body  has 
at  its  disposal  for  the  purpose  of  cariying  out  muscular  or  other  work. 
The  oxygen  in  tlie  lungs  was  obtained  essentially  by  breathing  at  rest 
as  you  would  normally  do  when  taking  some  exercise.  Clearly,  then,  if 
you  are  partly  out  of  breath  before  you  commence  exercise  you  cannot 
undertake  so  much  as  you  otherwise  would  do.  As  a  friend  of  mine, 
who  has,  I  believe,  camped  at  a  higher  altitude  than  any  other  man, 
put  it  to  me,  '  So  great  was  the  effort  that  we  thought  twice  before  we 
turned  over  in  bed. ' 

One  of  the  interesting  pix>blems  with  regard  to  chronic  anoxaemia 
is  its  effect  upon  the  mind.  Working  from  the  more  acute  type  of 
anoxaemia  to  the  more  chronic,  the  following  quotation  will  give  an 
account  of  the  condition  of  a  person  in  the  acute  stage.  It  is  Sir 
Clement  Le  Neve  Foster's  account  of  himself  during  CO  poisoning,  and 
shows  loss  of  memory,  some  degree  of  intelligence,  and  a  tendency  to 
repeat  what  is  said : 

How  soon  I  realised  that  we  were  in  what  is  commonly  called  '  a  tight  place  ' 
1  cannot  say,  but  eventually,  from  long  force  of  habit,  I  presume,  I  took  out 
my  note-book.  At  what  o'clock  I  first  began  to  -write  I  do  not  know,  for 
the  few  words  written  on  the  first  page  have  no  hour  put  to  them.  They  were 
simply  a  few  words  of  good-bye  to  my  family,  badly  scribbled.  The  next  page 
is  headed  '  2  p.m.,'  aiid  I  perfectly  well  recollect  taking  out  my  watch  from 
time  to  time.  As  a  rule  I  do  not  take  a  watch  underground,  but  I  carried 
it  on  this  occasion  in  order  to  be  sure  that  I  left  the  rat  long  enough  when 
testing  with  it.  In  fact,  my  note  on  the  day  of  our  misadventure  was 
'  5th  ladder.  Bat  two  minutes  at  man,'  meaning  by  the  side  of  the  corpse. 
My  notes  at  2  p.m.  were  as  follows  :  '2  p.m.,  good-bye,  we  are  all  dying,  your 
Clement,  I  feel  we  are  dying,  good-bye,  all  my  darlings  all,  no  help  coming,  good- 
bye we  are  dying,  good-bye,  good-bye  we  are  dying,  no  help  comes,  good-bye, 
good-bye.'  Then  later,  partly  scribbled  over  some  'good-byes'  I  find,  'We 
saw  a  body  at/ 1.30  and  then  all  became  affected  by  the  bad  air,  we  have  got  to  the 
115  and  can  get  no  further,  the  box  does  not  come  in  spite  of  our  ringing  for  help. 
It  does  not  come,  does  not  come — I  wish  the  box  would  come.  Captain  R.  is 
shoutJH'g.  my  legs  are  bad,  and  I  feel  very  i,  my  knees  are  i.'  The  so-called 
'  ringing '  was  signalling  to  the  surface  by  striking  the  air-pipe  with  a  hammer 
or  bar  of  iron.  We  had  agreed  upon  signals  before  we  went  down.  There  is 
TiTiting  over  other  writing,  as  if  I  did  not  see  exactly  where  I  placed  my 
pencil,  and  then :  '  I  feel  as  if  I  were  dreaming,  no  real  pain,  good-bye, 
good-bye,  I  feel  as  if  I  were  sleeping.'  '  2.15  we  are  all  done.  No  i.  or 
scarcely  any,  we  are  done,  we  are  done,  godo-bye  my  darlings.'  Here  it  is 
rather  interesting  to  note  the  '  godo  '  instead  of  '  good.'  Before  very  long  the 
fresh  men  who  had  climbed  down  to  re<!cue  us  seemed  to  have  arrived,  and 
explained  that  the  '  box  '  was  caught  in  the  shaft.  Judging  by  my  notes  I  did 
not  realise  thoroughly  that  we  should  be  rescued.  Among  them  occur  the  words 
'No  pain,  it  is  merely  like  a  diream,  no  pain.'  I  frequently  wrote  the  same 
sentence  over  and  over  again.     My  last  note  on  reaching  the  surface  tells  of 

*  in  the  above  quotation  indicates  an  illegible  word  in  the  notes. 


that  resistance  to   authority  which  likewise  appears  to    be  a   symptom  of  the 

These  notes  afford  ample  confirmation  of  the  effect  produced  by  carbonic 
oxide  poisoning  of  causing  reiteration.  I  wrote  the  same  words  over  and  over 
again  unnecessarily.  The  condition  I  was  in  was  rather  curious.  I  had 
absorbed  enough  of  the  poison  to  paralyse  me  to  a  certain  extent  and  dull  my 
feelings,  but  at  the  same  time  my  reason  had  not  left  me. 

The  whole  train  of  symptoms  strongly  suggests  some  form  of 
intoxication,  and  is  not  dissimilar  to  that  produced  by  alcoholic  excess. 
Here  it  may  be  noted  that,  as  far  as  isolated  nerves  are  concerned,  there 
is  pretty  good  evidence  that  alcohol  and  want  of  oxygen  produce 
exactly  the  same  effects,  i.e.  they  cause  a  decrement  in  the  conducting 
power  of  the  nerve.  And  herein  lies  a  part  of  its  interest,  for  pharma- 
cologists of  one  school  at  all  events  tell  me  that  the  corresponding 
effects  of  alcohol  are  really  due  to  an  inhibition  of  the  higher  centres  of 
the  mind ;  you  can  therefore  conceive  of  the  mental  mechanism  of  self- 
control  being  knocked  out  either  because  it  has  not  oxygen  enough  with 
which  to  '  carry  on,'  or  because  it  is  drugged  by  some  poison  as  a 
secondary  result  of  the  anoxsemia. 

And  now  to  pass  to  the  results  of  more  chronic  anoxsemia.  If  I 
were  to  try  to  summarise  them  in  a  sentence  I  should  say  that,  just  as 
acute  anoxaemia  simulates  drunkenness,  chronic  anoxeemia  simulates 

The  following  slide  shows  you  a  photograph  taken  from  a  page  in 
my  note-book  written  at  the  Alta  Vista  Hut,  at  an  altitude  of  12,000 
feet.  You  will  see  that  the  page  commences  with  a  scrawl  which  is 
crossed  out,  then  '6  Sept.,'  the  word  'Sept.'  is  crossed  out  and 
'  March  '  is  inserted,  '  March  '  shares  the  same  fate  as  '  Sept.,'  and 
'April,'  the  correct  month,  is  substituted,  and  so  on,  more  crossings 
out  and  corrections.  All  this  you  might  say  with  justice  is  the  action 
of  a  tired  man.  The  other  pages  written  at  lower  altitudes  do  not, 
however,  bear  out  the  idea  that  I  was  out  of  health  at  the  time,  and 
there  was  no  reason  for  tiredness  on  that  particular  day.  Another 
symptom  frequently  associated  with  mental  fatigue  is  irritability. 
Anyone  who  has  experience  of  high  altitudes  knows  to  his  cost  that  life 
does  not  run  smoothly  at  10,000  feet.  If  the  trouble  is  not  with  one's 
own  temper,  it  is  with  those  of  one's  colleagues  :  and  so  it  was  in  many 
cases  of  gas-poisoning  and  in  the  case  of  aviators.  In  these  subjects 
the  apparent  fatigue  sometimes  passed  into  a  definitely  neurasthenic 
condition.  At  this  point  an  issue  appeared  to  arise  between  the 
partisans  of  two  theories.  One  camp  said  that  the  symptoms  were 
definitely  those  of  anoxsemia,  the  other  that  they  were  due  to  nerv<e 
strain.  As  I  have  indicated  later  on,  it  is  not  clear  that  these  two 
views  are  mutually  exclusive.  It  takes  two  substances  to  make  an 
oxidation,  the  oxygen  and  the  oxidised  material.  If  the  oxidation  does 
not  take  place,  the  cause  may  lie  in  the  absence  of  either  or  of  both,  in 
each  case  with  a  similar  effect.  The  subject  really  is  not  ripe  for 
controversy,  but  it  is  amply  ripe  for  research,  research  In  which  both 
the  degree  of  anoxsemia  and  the  symptoms  of  fatigue  are  clearly 

So  much,  then,  for  the  injury  to  the  machine  wrought  by  Qhronio 

I. — PHYSIOLOGY.  199 

Types  of  Anoxceviia. 

And  now  to  pass  to  the  consideration  of  the  various  types  of 

Anoxcemia  is  by  derivation  want  of  oxygen  in  the  blood. 

Suppose  you  allow  your  mind  to  pass  to  some  much  more  homely 
substance  than  oxygen — such,  for  instance,  as  milk — and  consider  the 
causes  which  may  conspire  to  deprive  your  family  of  milk,  three 
obvious  sources  of  milk  deficiency  will  occur  to  you  at  once : 

(1)  There  is  not  enough  milk  at  the  dairy ; 

(2)  The  milk  is  watered  or  otherwise  adulterated  so  that  the  fluid 
on   sale  is   not  really  all  milk;  and 

(3)  The  milkman  from  that  particular  dairy  does  not  come  down  your 

These  three  sources  of  milk  deficiency  are  typical  of  the  types  of 
oxygen  deficiency. 

The  first  is  insufficient  oxygen  dispensed  to  the  blood  by  the  lungs. 
An  example  of  this  type  of  anoxaemia  is  mountain-sickness.  The 
characteristic  of  it  is  insufficient  pressure  of  oxygen  in  the  blood.  In 
mountain-sickness  the  insufficiency  of  pressure  in  the  blood  is  due  to 
insufficient  pressure  in  the  air,  for,  according  to  our  view  at  all  events, 
the  pressure  in  the  blood  will  always  be  less  than  that  in  air.  But 
this  type  of  anoxaemia  may  be  due  to  other  causes.  The  sufferer  may 
be  in  a  normal  atmosphere,  yet  for  one  reason  or  another  the  air  may 
not  have  access  to  his  whole  lung.  In  such  cases,  either  caused  by 
obstruction,  by  shallow  respiration,  or  by  the  presence  of  fluid  in  the 
alveoli,  the  blood  leaving  the  affected  areas  will  contain  considerable 
quantities  of  reduced  haemoglobin.  This  will  mix  with  blood  from  un- 
affected areas  which  is  about  95  per  cent,  saturated.  The  oxygen  will 
then  be  shared  round  equally  among  the  corpuscles  of  the  mixed  blood, 
and  if  the  resultant  is  only  85-90  per  cent,  saturated  the  pressure  of 
oxygen  will  only  be  about  half  the  normal,  and,  as  I  said,  deficiency  of 
oxygen  pressure  is  the  characteristic  of  this  type  of  anoxaemia. 

The  second  type  involves  no  want  of  oxygen  pressure  in  the  arterial 
blood ;  it  is  comparable  to  the  watered  milk :  the  deficiency  is  really  in 
the  quality  of  the  blood  and  not  in  the  quantity  of  oxygen  to  which  the 
blood  has  access.  The  most  obvious  example  is  anaemia,  in  which 
from  one  cause  or  other  the  blood  contains  too  low  a  percentage  of 
Esemoglobin,  and  because  there  is  too  little  haemoglobin  to  carry  the 
oxygen  too  little  oxygen  is  carried.  Anaemia  is,  however,  only  one 
example  which  might  be  given  of  this  type  of  anoxaemia.  There  may 
be  sufficient  haemoglobin  in  the  blood,  but  the  haemoglobin  may  be 
useless  for  the  purpose  of  oxygen  transport ;  it  may  be  turned  in  part 
into  methaemoglobin,  as  in  several  diseases,  e.g.  among  workers  in  the 
manufacture  of  some  chemicals,  and  in  some  forms  of  dysentery  con- 
tracted in  tropical  climates,  or  it  may  be  monopolised  by  carbon 
monoxide,  as  in  mine-air. 

Thirdly,  the  blood  may  have  access  to  sufficient  oxygen  and  may 
contain  sufficient  functional  hasmoglobin,  but  owing  to  transport  trouble 
it  may  not  be  circulated  in  sufficient  quantities  to  the  tissues.  The 
quantity  of  oxygen  which  reaches  the  tissue  in  unit  time  is  too  smaU, 



Eilerally,  according  to  the  strict  derivation  of  the  word  'anoxaemia,' 
the  third  type  should  perhaps  be  excluded  from  the  category  of  con- 
ditions covered  by  that  word,  but,  as  the  result  is  oxygen  starvation 
in  the  tissues,  it  will  be  convenient  to  include  it.  Indeed,  it  would  be 
an  act  of  pedantry  not  to  do  so,  for  no  form  of  anoxaemia  has  any 
significance  apart  from  the  fact  that  it  prevents  the  tissues  from  obtain- 
ing the  supply  of  oxygen  requisite  for  their  metabolic  processes. 

The  obvious  types  of  anoxaemia  may  therefore  be  classified  in  some 
such  scheme  ns  the  following,  and,  as  it  is  difficult  to  continue  the  dis- 
cussion of  them  without  some  sort  of  nomenclature,  I  am  giving  a  name 
to  each  type: 


1.  Anoxic  Type. 

The   pressure   of   oxygen 

in  the  blood  is  too  low. 
The    haemoglobin   is   not 

saturated  to  the  normal 

The  blood  is  dark.^, 

Examples  : 

1.  Rare  atmospheres. 

2.  Areas  of   lung  par- 
tially unventilated. 

3.  Fluid  or  fibrin  on 
surface  of  cells. 


2:  Ansemic  Type. 

The  quantity  of  functional 

haemoglobin       is      too 

The  oxygen    pressure    is 

The   blood  is   normal   in 


Examples : 

1.  Too    little    haemo- 

2.  CO  haemoglobin. 

3.  Methaemoglobin. 

3.  Stagnant  Type. 

The  blood  is  normal,  but 
is      supplied    to      the 
tissues     in    insufficient 
Examples : 

1.  Secondary  result  of 
histamine  shock. 

2.  Haemorrhage. 

3.  Back  pressure: 

Anoxic  anoxaemia  is  essentially  a  general  as  opposed  to  a  local  con- 
dition. Not  only  is  the  pressure  of  oxygen  in  the  blood  too  low,  but 
the  lowness  of  the  pressure  and  not  the  deficiency  in  the  quantity  is 
the  cause  of  the  symptoms  observed. 

Proof  of  the  above  statement  is  to  be  found  in  the  researches  of  most 
workers  who  have  carried  out  investigations  at  low  oxygen  pressures, 
and  it  can  now  be  brought  forward  in  a  much  more  convincing  way  than 
formerly  that  oxygen  secretion  is,  for  the  time  at  all  events,  not  a 
factor  to  be  counted  with. 

The  workers  on  Pike's  Peak,  for  instance,  emphasised  the  fact  that 
the  increase  of  red  blood  corpuscles  during  their  residence  at  14,000  feet 
was  due  to  deficient  oxygen  pressure.  No  doubt  they  were  right,  but 
the  point  was  rather  taken  from  their  argument  by  their  assertion  in 
another  part  of  the  paper  that  the  oxygen  pressure  in  their  arterial  blood' 
was  anything  up  to  about  100  mm.  of  mercury.  Let  me  therefore 
take  my  own  case,  in  which  the  alveolar  pressures  are  known  to  be  an 
index  of  the  oxygen  pressures  in  the  arterial  blood.  I  will  compare  my 
condition  on  two  occasions,  the  point  being  that  on  these  two  occasions 
the  quantities  of  oxygen  united  with  the  haemoglobin  were  as  nearly  as 
may  be  the  same,  whilst  the  pressures  were  widely  different. 

As  I  sit  here  the  haemoglobin  value  of  my  blood  is  96-97,  which 
corresponds  to  an  oxygen  capacity  of  '178  c.c.  of  O2  per  c.c.  of  blood. 
In  the  oxygen  chamber  on  the  last  day  of  my  experiment,  to  which  I 
refer  later,"  the  oxygen  capacity  of  my  blood  was  '201  c.c.  Assuming 
the  blood  to  be  95  per  cent,  saturated  now  and  84  per  cent,  saturated 

I. — PHYSIOLOGY.  161 

then,  the  actual  quantity  of  oxygen  in  the  blood  on  the  two  occasions 
would  be : 

Oxygen  Capacity. 

Percentage  Saturation. 

Oxygen  Content. 







Here,  I  am  in  my  usual  health.  In  the  chamber,  I  vomited;  my 
pulse  was  86 — it  is  now  56  ;  my  head  ached  in  a  most  distressing  fashion, 
it  was  with  the  utmost  difficulty  that  I  could  carry  out  routine  gas 
analyses,  and  when  doing  so  the  only  objects  which  I  saw  distinctly 
were  those  on  which  my  attention  was  concentrated. 

In  the  anoxic  type  of  anoxaemia  there  may  then  be  quite  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  oxygen  in  the  blood,  but  a  sufficient  quantity  does  not  avail 
in  the  face  of  an  insufficient  pressure.  Indeed,  as  I  shall  show 
presently,  the  anoxic  type  of  anoxaemia  is  the  most  serious.  We  are 
therefore  confronted  with  something  of  a  paradox  in  that  the  most 
severe  tjrpe  of  anoxaemia  is  one  in  which  there  is  not  necessarily  an 
insufficient  quantity  of  oxygen  in  the  blood  at  all. 

And  here  let  me  justify  fhe  statement  that  the  anoxic  type  is  the 
most  to  be  feared.  I  can  justify  it  on  either  or  both  of  two  grounds. 
Firstly,  of  the  thi^ee  types  it  places  the  tissues  at  the  greatest  disadvan- 
tage as  regards  oxygen  supply,  and  secondly,  it  is  of  the  three  the  least 
easy  type  for  the  organism  to  circumvent. 

Let  me  dwell  for  a  moment  upon  the  efficiency  of  the  blood  as  a 
medium  for  the  supply  of  oxygen  to  the  tissue  in  the  three  types.  The 
goal  of  respiration  is  to  produce  and  maintain  as  high  an  oxygen  pres- 
sure in  the  tissue  fluids  as  possible.  For  the  velocity  of  any  particular 
oxidation  in  the  tissues  must  depend  upon  the  products  of  the  concen- 
trations (active  masses)  of  the  material  to  be  oxidised  and  of  the  oxygen. 
Now  the  concentration  of  oxygen  in  the  tissue  is  proportional  to  its 
partial  pressure,  and  the  highest  partial  pressure  in  the  tissue  must, 
other  things  being  equal,  be  the  result  of  that  type  of  anoxaemia  in 
which  there  is  the  highest  partial  pressure  in  the  blood  plasma. 

It  is  interesting  and  not  uninstructive  to  try  to  calculate  the  degree 
to  which  the  tissues  are  prejudiced  by  being  subjected  to  various  types 
of  anoxa3mia.  Let  us  suppose  that  we  have  a  piece  of  tissue,  muscle  for 
instance,  which  normally  is  under  the  following  conditions : 

(a)  One  cubic  centimetre  of  blood  per  minute  runs  through  it. 

(b)  The  total  oxygen  capacity  of  this  blood  is  '188  c.c.  of  oxygen 

per  c.c.  of  blood. 

(c)  The  percentage  saturation  is  97. 

(d)  The  oxygen  pressure  is  100  mm. 

(e)  The  oxygen  used  is  '059  c.c. 

(f)  The  oxygen  pressure  in  the  tissues  is  half  of  that  in  the  veins, 

in  this  case  19  mm. 

Compare  with  this  a  severe  case  of  anoxic  anoxasmia,  one  in  which 
the  blood-flow  is  the  same  as  above,  and  also  the  oxygen  capacity  value 
of  the  blood,  but  in  which  the  oxygen  pressure  is  only  31  mm.  and  the 
percentage  saturation  of  tlie  arterial  blood  66  per  cent.  Let  us  further 
'etain  the  assumption  that  the  oxygen  pressure  in  the  tissues  is  half 
1920  M 


tEafc  in  the  veins.  It  is  possible  to  calculate,  as  indeed  has  been  done 
by  my  colleague,  Mr.  Eoughton,  what  the  amount  of  oxygen  leaving 
the  capillaries  is.  The  answer  is  not  "059,  as  in  the  case  of  the  normal, 
but  '026 — less  than  half  the  normal.  So,  other  things  being  equal, 
cutting  down  the  oxygen  pressure  in  the  arterial  blood  to  31  and  the 
percentage  saturation  to  66  would  deprive  the  tissues  of  half  their 
oxygen.  With  this  compare  an  example  of  the  anaemic  type.  The 
arterial  blood  shall  have  the  same  total  quantity  of  oxygen  as  in  the 
anoxic  case,  but  instead  of  being  66  per  cent,  saturated  it  shall  contain 
66  per  cent,  of  the  total  haemoglobin,  which  shall  be  normally  satm-ated. 
The  amount  of  oxygen  which  would  pass  to  the  tissues  under  these 
conditions  is  '041  c.c. — more  than  half  as  much  again  as  from  the 
anoxic  blood  laden  with  the  same  quantity  of  oxygen. 

And  thirdly,  let  us  take  for  comparison  a  case  of  stagnant  anoxaemia 
in  which  the  same  quantity  of  oxygen  goes  to  the  tissue  in  the  cubic 
centimetre  of  blood  as  in  the  anoxic  and  anaemic  types.  On  the  assump- 
tion which  we  have  made  the  quantity  of  oxygen  which  would  lea^TQ 
the  blood  would  be  '045  c.c.  » 

In  round  numbers  therefore  the  prejudice  to  the  tissues  may  be 
expressed  by  the  following  comparison.  In  this  case  both  of  the 
oxygen  going  to  the  blood  and  going  into  the  tissues  I  have  called  the 
normal  100.  This  does  not,  of  course,  mean  that  the  two  amounts  are 
the  same.  The  former  in  absolute  units  is  about  three  times  the  latter. 
The  figure  100  at  the  top  of  each  column  is  merely  a  standard  with 
which  to  compare  the  figures  beneath  it. 

Oxygen  in  1)100(1  going  Oxygen  leaving  the  blood 

to  vessels  of  tissue.  to  supply  the  tissues. 

Per  cent.  Per  cent. 

Normal        ....        100  100 

("Anoxic      .         .           66  42 

Anoxaemia  \  Anaemic    .         .          6fi  66 

I  Stagnant  .         .          66  75 

Measure7nent  of  Anoxminia. 

In  the  study  of  all  physical  processes  there  comes  a  point,  and  that 
very  early,  when  it  becomes  necessary  to  compare  them  one  with 
another,  to  establish  some  sort  of  numerical  standard  and  have  some 
sort  of  quantitative  measurements.  The  study  of  anoxaemia  has  reached 
that  point.     By  what  scale  are  we  to  measure  oxygen  want  ? 

Let  us  take  the  anoxic  type  first.  There  are  two  scales  which 
might  be  applied  to  it,  both  concern  the  arterial  blood;  the  one  is  the 
oxygen  pressure  in  it,  the  other  is  the  actual  percentage  of  the  haemo- 
globin which  is  oxyhaemoglobin.  A  third  possibility  suggests  itself, 
namely,  the  actual  amount  of  oxygen  present,  but  this  would  be  in- 
fluenced as  much  by  the  anaemic  as  by  the  anoxic  conditions.  Of  the 
two  possibilities — that  of  measuring  the  pressure,  and  that  of  measuring 
the  saturation  of  the  blood  with  oxygen — the  latter  is  the  one  which  is 
likely  to  come  into  vogue,  because  it  is  susceptible  of  direct  measurement. 

Two  convei'ging  lines  of  work  have  within  the  last  few  years  brought 
us  nearer  to  being  able  to  state  the  degree  of  anoxaemia  in  man  in  terms 
of  the  percentage  saturation  of  oxygen  in  his  blood.     The  first,.  inti'O- 

I. — PHYSIOLOGY.  163 

3uced  by  the  American  researcher  Stadie,*  is  the  method  of  arterial 
puncture.  It  had  long  been  the  wish  of  physiologists  to  make  direct 
examinations  of  the  gases  in  human  arterial  blood,  yet,  as  far  as  I  know, 
this  had  only  once  been  accomplished,  namely,  by  Dr.  Arthur  Cooke 
and  myself  in  a  case  in  which  the  radial  artery  was  opened  for  the  pur- 
pose of  transfusion.  But  the  matter  now  seems  to  be  relatively 
simple.  The.  needle  of  a  Hypodermic  syringe  can  be  put  right  into  the 
radial  artery  and  art-erial  blood  withdrawn.  I  am  not  sure  that  the 
operation  is  less  painful  than  that  of  dissecting  out  the  radial  artery 
and  opening  it — and  in  this  matter  I  speak  with  experience — but  it  is 
less  alarming,  and  it  has  the  great  merit  that  it  does  not  injure  the 

Anotlier  method  of  determining  the  percentage  saturation  of  arterial 
Blood  has  invited  the  attention  of  researchers,  appearing  like  a  will- 
o'-the-wisp,  at  one  time  within  grasp,  at  another  far  off.  That  method 
is  to  deduce  the  percentage  saturation  from  the  composition  of  the 
alveolar  air.  Into  the  merits  of  the  rival  methods  for  the  determina- 
tion of  the  oxygen  in  alveolar  air  I  will  not  go :  the  method  of  Haldane 
and  Priestley  will  suffice  for  persons  at  rest.  Granted,  then,  that  a 
subject  has  a  partial  pressiure  of  50  mm.  of  oxygen  in  his  alveolar  air, 
what  can  we  infer  as  regards  his  arterial  blood  ?  A  long  controversy  has 
raged  about  whether  or  no  any  assumption  could  be  made  about  the 
condition  of  the  arterial  blood  from  that  of  the  alveolar  air,  for  it  was 
an  article  of  faith  with  the  school  of  physiologists  which  was  led  by 
Haldane  that  when  the  oxygen  pressure  in  the  alveolar  air  sank,  tlie 
oxygen  in  the  arterial  blood  did  not  suffer  a  corresponding  reduction. 
The  experimental  evidence  at  present  points  in  the  opposite  direction, 
and  unless  some  further  facts  are  brought  to  light  it  may  be  assumed 
that  the  oxygen  pressure  in  the  arterial  blood  of  a  normal  person  at 
rest  is  some  five  millimetres  below  that  in  his  alveolar  air.  And  having 
obtained  a  figure  for  the  pressure  of  oxygen  in  the  arterial  blood,  where 
do  we  stand  as  regards  the  percentage  of  saturation?  The  relation 
between  the  one  and  the  other  is  known  as  the  oxygen  dissociation 
curve.  It  differs  but  slightly  in  normal  individuals,  and  at  different 
times  in  the  same  individual.  To  infer  the  percentage  saturation  from 
the  oxygen  pressure,  no  doubt  the  actual  dissociation  curve  should  be 
determined,  but  in  practice  it  is  doubtful  whether  as  a  first  approxi- 
mation this  is  necessary,  for  a  curve  determined  as  the  result  of  a  few 
observations  is  unlikely  to  be  much  nearer  the  mark  than  a  standard 
curve  on  which  twenty  or  thirty  points  have  been  determined. 
Therefore  an  approximation  can  be  made  for  the  percentage  saturation 
as  follows :  In  a  normal  individual  take  the  oxygen  in  the  alveolar  air, 
subtract  five  millimetres,  and  lay  the  result  off  on  the  mean  dissociation 
curve  for  man. 

Whether  measured  directly  or  indirectly,  the  answer  is  a  statement 
of  the  relative  quantities  of  oxyhfemoglobin  and  of  reduced  haemoglobin 
in  the  arterial  blood.  The  important  thing  is  that  there  should  be  as 
little  reduced  haemoglobin  as  possible.  The  more  reduced  haemoglobin 
there  is  present  the  less  saturated  is  the  blood,  or,  as  the  American 
authors  say,   the  more  imsaturated  is  the   blood.       They  emphasise 

H  2 


the  fact  tHat  it  is  the  quantity  of  reduced  hsemoglobin  that  is  the  index 
of  the  anoxic  condition.  They  speak  not  of  the  percentage  saturation, 
but  of  the  percentage  of  unsaturation.  A  blood  which  would  ordinarily 
be  called  85  per  cent,  saturated  they  speak  of  as  15  per  cent,  unsaturated. 

Anoxic  anoxaemia,  in  many  cases  of  lung  affection,  should  be 
measured  by  the  direct  method  of  arterial  puncture,  for  the  simple 
reason  that  the  relation  between  the  alveolar  air  and  the  arterial  blood 
is  quite  unknown.  Such,  for  instance,  are  cases  of  many  lung  lesions 
of  pneumonia  in  which  the  lung  may  be  functioning  only  in  parts,  of 
pneumothorax,  of  pleural  effusions,  of  emphysema,  of  multiple  pul- 
monary embolism,  in  phases  of  which  the  arterial  blood  has  been  found 
experimentally  to  be  unsaturated.  In  addition  to  these  definite  lung 
lesions,  there  is  another  type  of  case  on  which  gi'eat  stress  has  been 
laid  by  Haldane,  Meakins,  and  Priestley,  namely,  cases  of  shallow 
respiration.'  A  thorough  investigation  of  the  arterial  blood  in  such 
cases  is  urgently  necessary.  Indeed,  in  all  cases  in  which  it  is  prac- 
ticable, the  method  of  arterial  puncture  is  desirable.  But  in  the  cases 
of  many  normal  persons—as,  for  instance,  those  airmen  at  different 
altitudes — alveolar-air  determinations  would  give  a  useful  index. 

The  ansemic  type  of  anoxaemia  is  gauged  by  the  quantity  of  oxy- 
haemoglobin  in  the  blood.  In  the  case  of  simple  anaemias  this  is 
measured  by  the  scale  in  which  the  normal  man  counts  as  100  and  the 
haemoglobin  in  the  anaemic  individual  is  expressed  as  a  percentage  of 
this.  This  method  has  been  standardised  carefully  by  Haldane,  and  we 
now  know  that  the  man  who  shows  100  on  the  scale  has  an  oxygen 
capacity  of  "185  c.c.  of  oxygen  for  every  c.c.  of  blood.  ^Ye  can  therefore, 
in  cases  of  carboxyhaemoglobin,  or  methaemoglobin  poisoning,  express 
the  absolute  amount  of  oxyhaemoglobin  pressure  either  by  stating  the 
oxygen  capacity  and  so  getting  an  absolute  measurement,  or  in  relative 
units  by  dividing  one  hundred  times  the  oxygen  capacity  by  •185,  and 
thus  getting  a  figure  on  the  ordinary  haemoglobin  metre  scale. 

The  MecJianisiii  of  Anoxtsmia. 

Perhaps  the  most  difficult  phase  of  the  discussion  is  that  of  how 
anoxaemia  produces  its  baneful  results.  In  approaching  this  part  of 
the  subject  I  should  like  to  warn  my  readers  of  one  general  principle 
the  neglect  of  which  seems  to  be  responsible  for  a  vast  dissipation  of 
energy.  Before  you  discuss  v,'hether  a  certain  effect  is  due  to  cause  A  or 
cause  B,  be  clear  in  your  own  mind  that  A  and  B  are  mutually  exclusive. 

Let  me  take  an  example  and  suppose 

(1)  That  the  energy  of  muscular  contraction   in   the  long  run 

depends  in  some  way  on  the  oxidation  of  sugar; 

(2)  That  in  the  absence  of  an  adequate  supply    of    oxygen   the 


CJl.^O,  -f  6  O^  =  6  CO^  +  6  H^O 

cannot  take  place  in   its  entirety ; 
(31  That  under  such  circumstances  some  lactic  acid  is  formed  as 
well  as  carbonic  acid; 

I. — PHYSIOLOGY,  165 

(I)  Tlial.  the  liydiogcii  ion  couceniratioii  ul'  tliu  blood  rises  ami 
the  total  ventilation  increases.  On  what  hnes  are  you  to 
discuss  whether  the  increased  ventilation  is  due  to 
'  acidosis,'  by  which  is  meant  in  this  connection  the  increased 
hydrogen  ion  concentration  of  the  blood,  or  to  '  anoxaemia  ' ';' 
Clearly  not  on  the  lines  that  it  must  be  due  to  one  or  other. 

In  the  above  instance  anoxaemia  and  acidosis  are  to  some  extent 
dependant  variables.  I  have  chosen  the  above  case  because  measure- 
ments have  been  made  throughout  which  make  the  various  assump- 
tions fairly  certain,  and  tell  us  pretty  clearly  in  what  sort  of  chain 
to  string  up  the  events,  what  is  cause  and  what  is  effect.  Clearly 
it  would  be  ridiculous  to  start  a  discussion  as  to  whether  the  breath- 
lessness  was  due  to  '  acidosis  '  or  '  anoxaemia.'  Each  has  its  place 
in  the  chain  of  events.  But  I  have  heard  discussions  of  whether  other 
phenomena  of  a  more  obscure  nature  were  due  to  oxygen  want  or  to 
acidosis.     Such  discussions  tend  to  no  useful  end. 

Nor  is  this  the  only  problem  with  regard  to  oxygen  want  concerning 
which  my  warning  is  needed.  Oxygen  want  may  act  immediately  in 
at  least  two  ways : 

(1)  In  virtue  of  absence  of  oxygen  some  oxidation  which  otherwise 

might  take  place  does  not  do  so,  and  thei'efore  something 
which  might  otherwise  happen  may  not  happen.  For 
instance,  it  naay  be  conceived  that  the  respiratory  centre  can 
only  go  througla  the  rhythmic  changes  of  its  activity  as  the 
result  of  the  oxidation  of  its  own  substance. 

(2)  A  deficient  supply  of  oxygen  may  produce,  not  the  negation 

of  a  chemical  action,  but  an  altered  chemical  action  which 
in  its  turn  produces  toxic  products  that  have  a  secondary 
effect  on  such  an  organism  as  the  respiratory  centre. 

Now  these  effects  are  not  mutually  exclusive.  In  the  same  category 
are  many  arguments  about  whether  accumulations  of  carbonic  acid 
act  specifically  as  such  or  merely  produce  an  effect  in  virtue  of  their 
effect  on  the  hydrogen  ion  concentration..  Here  again  the  two  points 
of  view  are  not,  strictly  speaking,  alternatives,  and,  in  some  cases  at 
all  events,  both  actions  seem  to  go  on  at  the  same  time. 

It  will  be  evident  that  in  any  balanced  action  in  which  CO,  is 
produced  its  accumulation  will  tend  to  slow  the  reaction ;  but,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  same  accumulation  may  very  likely  raise  the  hydrogen 
ion  concentration,  and  in  that  way  produce  an  effect. 

The  relation  of  oxygen  to  haemoglobin  seems  to  furnish  a  case  in 
point.  Carbonic  acid  is  known  to  reduce  the  affinity  of  hfemoglobin 
tor  oxygen,  and  other  acids  do  the  same.  On  analogy,  therefoi'e,  it 
might  have,  and  has,  been  plausibly  argued  that  CO2  acts  in  virtue  of  the 
change  in  reaction  which  it  produces.  Put  into  mathematical  language, 
tbe  relation  of  the  percentage  saturation  of  oxygen  to  the  oxygen 
pressure  of  the  gas  dissolved  in  the  haemoglobin  solution  is  expressed 
by  the   equation 

y  Kx"  a;"  ,        .^       1 

100  =  i  +  K^  =  L  +  of '  ''^''''  ^'  =  K' 


where  y  is  the  percentage  satui'afcion  and  x  the  oxygen  pressure.  The 
value  of  K  is  the  measure  of  the  af&nity  of  oxygen  for  lieemoglobin : 
the  less  the  value  of  K  the  less  readily  do  the  two  substances  unite. 

Now  =-  has  been  shown  by  Laurence  J.  Henderson,'  and  indepen- 
dently by  Adair,  to  vary  directly  with  the  concentration  of  COj.  The 
value  of  this  constant  is,  according  to  Henderson,  too  gi'eat  to  be  a 
direct  effect  of  the  CO2  on  the  hsemoglobin,  and  involves  as  well  the 
assumption  that  the  hsemoglobin  in  blood  is  in  four  forms — an  acid 
and  a  salt  of  reduced  hsemoglobin  and  an  acid  and  a  salt  of 
oxyhaemoglobin.  The  presence  of  COo  alters  the  balance  of  these  four 

It  is  rather  fashionable  at  present  to  say  that  '  the  whole  question 
of  acidosis  and  anoxaemia  is  in  a  hopeless  muddle. '  To  this  I  answer 
that,  if  it  is  in  a  muddle,  I  believe  the  reason  to  be  largely  because 
schools  of  thought  have  rallied  round  words  and  have  taken  sides  under 
the  impression  that  they  have  no  common  ground.  The  '  muddle, ' 
in  so  far  as  it  exists,  is  not,  I  think,  by  any  means  hopeless;  but  I 
grant  freely  enough  that  we  are  rather  at  the  commencement  than  at 
the  end  of  the  subject,  that  much  thought  and  much  research  must 
be  given,  firstly,  in  getting  accurate  data,  and,  secondly,  on  relating 
cause  and  effect,  before  the  whole  subject  will  seem  simple.  No  effort 
should  be  spared  to  replace  indirect  by  direct  measurements.  My  own 
inference  with  regard  to  changes  of  the  reaction  of  the  blood,  based 
on  interpretations  of  the  dissociation  curve,  should  be  checked  by  actual 
hydrogen  ion  measurements,  as  has  been  done  by  Hasselbach  and  is 
being  done  by  Donegan  and  Parsons.'  Meakins  also  is,  I  think, 
doing  great  work  by  actually  testing  the  assumptions  made  by  Haldane 
and  himself  as  regards  the  oxygen  in  arterial  blood. 

The  Compensations  for  Anoxamia. 

For  the  anoxic  type  of  anoxaemia  two  forms  of  compensation  at 
once  suggest  themselves.  The  one  is  increased  hsemoglobin  in  the 
blood;  the  other  is  increased  blood-flow  through  tlie  tissues.  Let  us, 
along  the  lines  of  the  calculations  already  made,  endeavour  to  ascertain 
how  far  these  two  types  of  compensation  will  really  help.  To  go  back 
to  the  extreme  anoxic  case  already  cited,  in  which  the  hsemoglobin 
was  66  per  cent,  saturated,  let  us,  firstly,  see  what  can  be  accomplished 
by  an  increase  of  the  hsemoglobin  value  of  the  blood.  Such  an  increase 
takes  place,  of  course,  at  high  altitudes.  Let  us  suppose  that  the 
increase  is  on  the  same  gi'and  scale  as  the  anoxaemia,  and  that  it  is 
sufficient  to  restore  the  actual  quantity  of  oxygen  in  one  c.c.  of  blood 
to  the  normal.  This,  of  course,  means  a  rise  in  the  hsemoglobin  value 
of  the  blood  from  100  to  150  on  the  Gowers'  scale.  Yet  even  so  great 
an  increase  in  the  hsemoglobin  will  only  increase  the  oxygen  taken 
up  in  the  capillary  from  each  c.c.  of  blood  from  '031  to  '036  c.c,  and 
will  therefore  leave  it  far  short  of  the  '06  c.c.  which  every  cubic  centi- 
metre of  normal  blood  was  giving  to  the  tissue.  So  much,  then,  for 
increased  hsemoglobin.  It  gives  a  little,  but  only  a  little,  respite.  Let 
us  turn,  therefore,  to  increased  blood-flow. 


III  Lhe  sLagiiaut  type  of  anoxaemia  the  principal  change  which  is 
seen  to  take  place  is  an  increase  in  the  quantity  of  hfemoglobin  per 
cubic  millimetre  of  blood. 

This  increase  is  secondary  to  a  loss  of  water  in  the  tissues,  the 
result  in  some  cases,  as  appears  from  the  work  of  Dale,  Richards,  and 
Laidlaw,"  of  a  formation  of  histamine  in  the  tissues.  Whether  this 
mcrease  of  haemoglobin  is  to  be  regarded  as  merely  au  accidental  occur- 
rence or  as  a  compensation  is  difficult  to  decide  at  present.  Houghton's 
calculations  rather  sm'prised  us  by  indicating  that  increased  haemoglobin 
acted  less  efficiently  as  a  compensatory  mechanism  than  we  had 
expected.  This  conclusion  may  have  been  due  to  the  inaccuracy  of 
our  assumptions.  I  must  therefore  lemind  you  that  much  experimental 
evidence  is  required  before  the  assumptions  which  are  made  above  are 
anything  but  assumptions.  But,  so  far  as  the  evidence  available  at  the 
present  time  can  teach  any  lesson,  that  lesson  is  this:  The  only  way 
of  dealing  satisfactorily  with  the  anoxic  type  of  anoxaemia  is  to  abohsh 
it  by  in  some  way  supplying  the  blood  with  oxygen  at  a  pressm'e  suffi- 
cient to  saturate  it  to  the  normal  level. 

It  has  been  maintained  strenuously  by  the  Oxford  school  of  physio- 
logists that  Nature  actually  did  this ;  that  when  the  partial  pressure  in 
the  air-cells  of  the  lung  was  low  the  cellular  covering  of  that  organ 
could  clutch  at  the  oxygen  and  force  it  into  the  blood  at  an  unnatural 
pressure,  creating  a  sort  of  forced  draught.  This  theory,  as  a  theory, 
has  much  to  recommend  it.  I  am  sorry  to  say,  however,  that  I  cannot 
agree  with  it  on  the  present  evidence.  I  will  only  make  a  passing 
allusion  to  the  experiment  which  I  performed  in  order  to  test  the  theory, 
living  for  six  days  in  a  glass  respiration-chamber  in  which  the  partial 
pressure  of  oxygen  was  gradually  reduced  until  it  was  at  its  lowest — 
about  45  mm.  Such  a  pressure,  if  the  lung  was  incapable  of  creating 
what  I  have  termed  a  forced  draught,  would  mean  an  oxygen  pressm-e 
of  38-40  mm.  of  mercury  in  the  blood,  a  change  sufficient  to  make 
the  arterial  blood  quite  dark  in  colour,  whereas,  did  any  considerable 
forced  draught  exist,  the  blood  in  the  arteries  would  be  quite  bright  in 
colour.  Could  we  but  see  the  blood  in  the  arteries,  its  appearance  alone 
would  almost  give  the  answer  as  to  whether  or  no  oxygen  was  forced, 
or,  in  technical  language,  secreted,  through  the  lung  wall.  And,  of 
course,  we  could  see  the  blood  in  the  arteries  by  the  simple  process  of 
cutting  one  of  them  open  and  shedding  a  little  into  a  closed  glass  tube. 
To  the  surgeon  this  is  not  a  difficult  matter,  and  it  was,  of  course,  done. 
The  event  showed  that  the  blood  was  dark,  and  the  most  careful  analyses 
failed  to  discover  any  evidence  that  the  body  can  force  oxygen  into 
the  blood  in  order  to  compensate  for  a  deficiency  of  that  gas  in  the  air. 

Yet  the  body  is  not  quite  powerless.  It  can,  by  breathing  more 
deeply,  by  increasing  the  ventilation  of  the  lungs,  bring  the  pressure 
of  oxygen  in  the  air-cells  closer  to  that  in  the  atmosphere  breathed 
than  would  otherwise  be  the  case.  I  said  just  now  that  the  oxygen 
in  my  lungs  ckopped  to  a  minimal  pressure  of  45  mm. ;  but  it  did  not 
remain  at  that  level.  \Yhen  I  bestirred  myself  a  little  it  rose,  as  the 
result  of  increased  ventilation  of  the  lung,  to  56  mm.,  and  at  one  time, 
when  I  was  breathing  through  valves,  it  reached  68  mm.     Nature  will 


Jo  sometbiug,  but  what  NdLure  does  iiol  do  sliuuld  be  done  by  arfcitice. 
Explctt-ation  of  the  conditioii  of  the  arterial  blood  is  only  in  its  infancy, 
yet  many  cases  have  been  recorded  in  which  in  illness  the  arterial  blood 
has  lacked  oxygen  as  much  as  or  more  than  my  own  did  in  the  respira- 
tion chamber  when  I  was  lying  on  the  last  day,  with  occasional  vomit- 
ing, racked  with  headache,  and  at  times  able  to  see  clearly  only  as  an 
effort  of  concentration.  A  sick  man,  if  Ms  blood  is  as  anoxic  as  mine 
was,  cannot  be  expected  to  fare  better  as  the  result,  and  so  he  may 
be  expected  to  have  all  my  troubles  in  addition  to  the  graver  ones 
which  are,  perhaps,  attributable  to  some  toxic  cause.  Can  he  be  spared 
the  anoxaemia  ?  The  result  of  our  calculations,  so  far,  points  to  the  fact 
that  the  efficient  way  of  combating  the  anoxic  condition  is  tO'  give 
oxygen.  During  the  war  it  was  given  with  success  in  the  field  in  cases 
of  gas-poisoning,  and  also  special  wards  were  formed  on  a  small  scale 
in  this  country  in  which  the  level  of  oxygen  in  the  atmosphere  was 
kept  up  to  about  40  per  cent.,  with  great  benefit  to  a  large  percentage 
of  the  cases.  The  practice  then  inaugurated  is  being  tested  at  Guy's 
Hospital  by  Dr.  Himt,  who  administered  the  treatment  during  the  war. 
Nor  are  the  advantages  of  oxygen  respiration  confined  to  patho- 
logical cases.  One  of  the  most  direct  victims  of  anoxic  anoxaemia  is 
the  airman  who  flies  at  great  heights.  Everything  in  this  paper  tends 
to  show  that  to  counteract  the  loss  of  oxygen  which  he  sustains  at  high 
altitudes  there  is  but  one  policy,  namely,  to  provide  him  with  an 
oxygen  equipment  which  is  at  once  as  light  and  as  efficient  as  possible — 
a  consummation  for  which  Haldane  has  striven  unremittingly.  And 
here  I  come  to  the  personal  note  on  which  I  should  like  to  conclude. 
In  the  pages  which  I  have  read  views  have  been  expressed  which  differ 
from  those  which  he  holds  in  matters  of  detail — perhaps  in  matters 
of  important  detail.  But  Haldane 's  teaching  transcends  mere  detail. 
He  has  always  taught  that  the  physiology  of  to-day  is  the  medicine 
of  to-morrow.  The  more  gladly,  therefore,  do  I  take  this  opportunity 
of  saying  how  mucli  I  owe,  and  how  much  I  think  medicine  owes 
and  will  owe,  to  the  inspiration  of  Haldane's  teaching. 


1.  Haldane. 

2.  Haldane,  Kellas,  and  Kennaway.     Journal  of   Phy.siology ,  liii. 

.3.  Foster   ami   Haldane.     The   Investigation   of   Mine    Air.     Griffin    &   Co. 

4.  Keogh  and  Lindhard.  qnoted  by  Bainbridge. 

5.  Barcroft,    Cooke,     Hartridge,    Par.sons     and    Parsons.       Journal    of 
Physiology,  liii.  p.  451,  1920. 

6.  Stadie.     Joui-nal  of  Experimental  Medicine,  xxx.  p.  215.     1919. 

7.  Haldane,   Meakins,  and  Priestley.     Journal  of   Phvsiology,   lii.   p.   420. 

8.  L.  J.  Henderson.     The  Journal  of  Biological  Chemistrv,  vol.  xli.  p.  401. 

9.  Donegan  and  Parsons.     Journal  of  Physiologv,  lii.    p.   315.     1919. 

10.  Dale  and    Eichards.     Journal   of   Physiology",    lii.    p.    110.     1919.     Dale 
and  Laidlaw.     Ibid.  p.  3.55. 

SECTION  K  :    CARDIFF,  1920. 




Miss  E.  R.  SAUNDERS,  F.L.S., 


Year  by  year  we  see  the  meetings  of  the  Association  recur,  pursuing  ;i 
course  whicli  neither  geographer  nor  astronomer  would  venture  to 
predict  and  leaving  traced  out  behind  them  a  figure  unknown  to  the 
mathematician.  Nevertheless  the  path  of  its  journeyings  is  ever  retuini- 
ing  upon  itself.  As  this  recurrence  is  brought  afresh  to  one's  mind, 
there  is  a  natural  impulse  to  reflect  upon  the  piogress  which  has 
been  made  in  the  intervening  period  in  the  science  which  one  here  finds 
oneself  called  upon  to  represent.  Not  quite  thirty  years  have  elapsed 
since  the  last  occasion  on  which  the  Association  was  welcomed  to 
Cardiff.  Curiosity  to  learn  whether  the  matter  of  the  discourse 
delivered  by  my  predecessor  on  that  occasion  had  a  connection,  close 
or  remote,  with  the  particular  subject  with  \\hich  I  proposed  to  deal 
in  this  Address  led  me  to  refer  to  the  Annual  Report  of  the  Association 
for  1891.  I  thus  became  aware  how  recent  was  the  occurrence  of  the 
mutation — or  should  I  rather  say  of  the  dichotomy '? — which  led  to  the 
appearance  of  a  Botanical  Section,  for  twenty-nine  years  ago  Section  K 
had  not  yet  come  into  existence.  At  that  period  the  problems  relating 
to  living  organisms,  whether  concerned  with  plant  or  animal,  whether 
of  a  morphological  or  physiological  nature,  were  all  embraced  within 
the  wide  field  of  Section  D,  the  Section  of  Biology.  Though  in  succeeding 
years  discovery  at  an  ever-increasing  rate  and  in  many  new  fields 
of  investigation  has  made  inevitable  the  separation  first  of  Physiology, 
and  then  of  Botany  from  their  common  parent,  we  may  with  advantage 
follow  the  precedent  set  by  the  Association  as  a  whole,  and,  as  a  Section, 
return  from  time  to  time  upon  our  course  of  evolution.  I  shall  there- 
fore invite  your  attention  to  a  subject  which  lies  within  the  wide  province 
of  Biology  and  makes  its  appeal  alike  to  the  botanist,  zoologist  and 
physiologist — the  subject  of  Heredity. 

By  the  term  Inheritance  we  are  accustomed  to  signify  the  obvious 
fact  of  the  resemblance  displayed  by  all  living  organisms  between 
offspring  and  parents,  as  the  direct  outcome  of  the  contributions  received 
fmm  the  two  sides  of  the  pedigree  at  fertilisation :   to  indicate,  in  fact, 


owiug  to  lack  of  knowledge  of  the  workiugs  of  llie  hereditary  process, 
merely  the  visible  consequence — the  final  result  of  a  chain  of  events. 
Now,  however,  that  we  have  made  a  beginning  in  our  analysis  of  the 
stages  which  culminate  in  the  appearance  of  any  character,  a  certain 
looseness  becomes  apparent  in  our  oi'dinary  use  of  the  word  Heredity, 
covering  as  it  does  the  two  concomitant  essentials,  genetic  potentiality 
and  somatic  expression — a  looseness  which  may  lead  us  into  the  para- 
doxical statement  that  inheritance  is  wanting  in  a  case  in  which  never- 
theless the  evidence  shows  that  the  genetic  constitution  of  the  children 
is  precisely  like  that  of  the  parents.  When  we  say  that  a  character  is 
inherited  no  ambiguity  is  involved,  because  the  appearance  of  the 
character  entails  the  inheritance  of  the  genetic  potentiality.  But  when 
a  character  is  stated  not  to  be  inherited  it  is  not  thereby  indicated  whether 
this  result  is  due  to  environmental  conditions,  to  genetic  constitution, 
or  to  both  causes  combined.  That  we  are  now  able  in  some  measure 
to  analyse  the  genetic  potentialities  of  the  individual  is  due  to  one  of 
those  far-reaching  discoveries  wMch  change  our  whole  outlook,  and 
bring  immediately  in  their  train  a  i-apidly  increasing  array  of  new  facts, 
falling  at  once  into  line  with  our  new  conceptions,  or  by  some  orderly 
and  constant  discrepancy  pointing  a  fresh  direction  for  attack.  An 
historical  survey  of  the  steps  by  which  we  have  advanced  to  the  present 
state  of  our  knowledge  of  Heredity  has  so  frequently  been  given  during 
the  last  twenty  years  that  the  briefest  reference  to  this  part  of  my 
subject  will  suffice. 

The  earliest  attempts  to  frame  some  general  law  which  would  co- 
ordinate and  explain  the  observed  facts  of  inheritance  were  those  of 
Galton  and  Pearson.  Galton's  observations  led  him  to  formulate  two 
principles  which  he  believed  to  be  capable  of  general  application — the 
liaw  of  Ancestral  Heredity  and  the  Law  of  Eegression.  The  Law  of 
Ancestral  Heredity  was  intended  to  furnish  a  general  expression  for  the 
sum  of  the  heritage  handed  on  in  any  generation  to  the  succeeding  off- 
spring. Superposed  upon  the  working  of  this  law  were  the  effects  of 
the  Law  of  Eegression,  in  which  the  average  deviation  from  the  mean 
of  a  whole  population  of  any .  fraternal  group  within  that  population 
was  expressed  in  terms  of  the  average  deviation  of  tTie  parents.  These 
expressions  represent  statements  of  averages  which,  in  so  far  as  they 
apply,  hold  only  when  large  numbers  are  totalled  together.  They  afford 
no  means  of  certain  prediction  in  the  individual  case.  These  and  all 
similar  statistical  statements  of  the  effects  of  inheritance  take  no  account 
of  the  essentially  physiological  nature  of  this  as  of  all  other  processes 
in  the  living  organism.  They  leave  us  unenlightened  on  the  funda- 
mental question  of  the  nature  of  the  means  by  which  the  results  we 
witness  came  to  pass.  We  obtain  from  them,  as  from  the  melting-pot, 
various  new  products  whose  properties  are  of  interest  from  other  view- 
points, but,  corresponding  to  no  biological  reality,  they  have  failed  to 
bring  us  nearer  to  our  goal — a  fuller  comprehension  of  the  workings 
of  the  hereditary  mechanism.  Progress  in  this  direction  has  resulted 
from  the  opposite  method  of  inquiry — the  study  of  a  single  character 
in  a  single  hne  of  descent,  the  method  which  deals  with  the  unit  in 
place  of  the  mass.    The  revelation  came  with  the  opening  of  the  present 

K. — BOTANY.  171 

century,  for  in  1900  was  announced  the  rediscovery  of  Mendel's  work, 
actually  given  to  the  world  thirty-live  years  earlier,  but  at  the  time 
leaving  no  impress  upon  scientific  thought.  The  story  of  the  Austrian 
monk  and  the  details  of  his  experiments  earned  out  in  the  monastery 
garden  upon  races  of  the  edible  pea  are  now  familiar  history,  and  1 
need  not  recount  them  here.  Having  formed  the  idea  that  in  order 
to  arrive  at  a  clearer  understanding  of  the  relation  of  organisms  to 
their  progeny  the  problem  must  be  studied  in  its  simplest  form,  Mendel 
came  to  see  that  a  scheme  of  analysis  must  deal  not  with  mass  popula- 
tions but  with  a  smaller  unit — the  family,  and  that  each  character  of 
the  individual  must  be  separately  investigated. 

Selecting  for  his  experiments  races  v/hich  showed  themselves  to  be 
pure-breeding  and  mating  together  those  exhibiting  chai'acters  of  such 
opposite  nature  as  to  constitute  a  pair — e.g.,  tall  with  short,  yellow- 
seeded  with  green-seeded— he  obtained  results  which  could  be  accounted 
for  if  it  were  supposed  that  these  opposite,  or  as  we  should  now  term 
them  allelomorphic,  characters  were  distributed  unaltered  and  in  equal 
profortion  to  the  reproductive  cells  of  the  cross-bred  organism.  It  is 
this  conception  of  the  pure  nature  of  the  germ-cells,  irrespective  of 
whether  the  oi'ganism  forming  them  be  of  pure-bred  or  cross-bred 
descent,  which  revolutionised  our  conceptions  of  Heredity  and  laid  the 
foundations  upon  which  we  build  to-day.  For  the  intervening  years 
have  seen  the  instances  in  which  the  Mendelian  theory  is  found  to 
hold  mount  steadily  from  day  to  day,  furnishing  a  weight  of  evidence 
in  its  support  which  is  incontrovertible. 

It  chanced  that  in  each  pair  of  characters  selected  by  Mendel  for 
experiment  the  opposites  are  related  to  each  other  in  the  following 
simple  manner:  An  individual  which  had  received  both  allelomorphs, 
one  from  either  parent,  exhibited  one  of  the  two  characteristics,  hence 
called  the  dominant,  to  the  exclusion  of  the  other.  Among  the  offspring 
of  such  an  individual  both  characteristics  appeared,  the  dominant  in 
some,  its  opposite,  the  recessive,  in  others,  in  the  proportion  approxi- 
mately of  three  to  one.  This  is  the  result  which  might  be  expected 
from  random  pairing  in  fertilisation  of  two  opposites,  where  the  mani- 
festation in  the  zygote  of  the  one  completely  masks  the  presence  of  the 
other.  As  workers  along  Mendelian  lines  increased  and  the  field  of 
inquiry  widened,  it  soon,  however,  became  apparent  that  the  dominant- 
recessive  relationship  is  not  of  universal  occurrence.  It  likewise 
became  clear  that  the  simple  ratios  which  obtained  in  Mendel's  experi- 
ments are  not  characteristic  of  every  case.  Mendel's  own  results  were 
all,  as  it  happened,  explicable  on  the  supposition  that  the  two  alterna- 
tive forms  of  each  character  were  dependent  on  a  single  element  or 
factor.  By  a  fortunate  accident  none  of  ,the  complex  factorial  inter- 
relations which  have  since  been  brought  to  light  in  other  cases  obscured 
the  expression  in  its  simplest  form  of  the  results  of  germ  purity.  It 
is  our  task,  in  the  light  of  ,this  guiding  principle,  to  attempt  to  elucidate 
these  more  complicated  types  of  inheritance. 

We  now  know,  for  example,  that  many  characters  are  not  con- 
trolled by  one  single  factor,  but  by  two  or  more.  One  of  the  most 
familiar  instances  of  the  two-factor  character  is  the  appearance  of  the 


oolomiug  matter  authocyaiiin  in  the  petals  of  plaiits  siicli  as  ilie  .Stock 
and  Sweet  Pea.  Our  proof  that  two  iactorti  (at  least)  are  here  involved 
is  obtained  when  we  find  that  two  true  breeding  forms  devoid  of  colour 
yield  coloured  offspring  when  mated  together.  In  this  case  the  two 
complementary  factors  are  can-ied,  one  by  each  of  the  two  crossed 
forms.  When  both  factors  meet  in  the  one  individual,  colom-  is 
developed.  We  have  in  such  cases  the  solution  of  the  famihar,  but 
previously  unexplained,  phenomenon  of  Reversion.  Confirmatory  evi- 
dence is  afforded  when  among  the  offspring  of  such  cross-bred  indi- 
viduals we  find  the  simple  3  to  1  ratio  of  the  one-factor  difference 
replaced  by  a  ratio  of  9  to  7.  Similarly  we  deduce  from  a  ratio  of 
27  to  37  that  three  factors  are  concerned,  from  a  ratio  of  81  to  175 
four  factors,  and  so  on.  The  occunence  of  these  higher  ratios  proves 
that  the  hereditaiy  process  follows  the  same  course  whatever  the 
number  of  factors  controlliTig  the  character  in  question. 

And  here  I  may  pause  to  dwell  for  a  moment  upon  a  point  of  which 
it  is  well  that  we  should  remind  ourselves  from  time  to  time,  since, 
though  tacitly  recognised,  it  finds  no  explicit  expression  in  our  ordinary 
representation  of  genetic  relations.  The  method  of  factorial  analysis 
based  on  the  results  of  inter-breeding  enables  us  to  ascertain  the  least 
possible  number  of  genetic  factors  concerned  in  controlling  a  particular 
somatic  character,  but  what  the  total  of  such  factors  actually  is  we 
cannot  tell,  since  our  only  criteiiou  is  the  number  by  which  the  forais 
we  employ  are  found  to  differ.  How  many  may  be  common  to  these 
forms  remains  unknown.  In  illusti'ation  I  may  take  the  case  of  sur- 
face character  in  the  genera  Lychnis  and  Mailhiohi.  In  L.  vesperthia 
the  type  forn:  is  hairy;  in  the  variety  glabra,  recessive  to  the  type, 
hairs  are  entirely  lacking.  Here  all  glabrous  individuals  have  so  far 
pi'oved  to  be  similar  in  constitution,  and  when  bred  with  the  type  give  a 
3  to  1  ratio  in  F„.'  We  speak  of  Hairiness  in  this  case,  therefore,  as 
being  a  one-factor  character.  In  the  case  of  Matthiola  incana  v. 
glabra,  of  which  many  strains  are  in  cultivation,  it  so  happened  that 
the  commercial  material  originally  employed  in  these  investigations 
contained  all  the  factors  since  identified  as  present  in  the  type  and 
essential  to  the  manifestation  of  hairiness  except  one.  Hence  it 
appeared  at  first  that  here  also  hairiness  must  be  controlled,  as  in 
Lychnis,  by  a  single  factor.  But  farther  experiment  revealed  the  fact 
that  though  tlie  total  number  of  factors  contained  in  these  glabrous 
forms  was  the  same,  the  respective  factorial  combinations  wei'e  not 
identical.  By  inter-breeding  these  and  other  strains  obtained  later, 
hairy  F^  cross-breds  were  produced  giving  ratios  in  F,  which  proved 
that  at  least  four  distinct  factors  are  concerned.^  Whereas,  then,  the 
glabrous  appearance  in  Lychnis  always  indicates  the  loss  (if  for  con- 
venience we  may  so  represent  the  nature  of  the  recessive  condition) 
of  one  and  the  same  factor,  analysis  in  the  Stock  shows  that  the 
glabrous  condition  results  if  any  factor  out  of  a  growp  of  four  is  repre- 
sented by  its  recessive  allelomorph.  Hence  w'e  describe  hairiness  in 
the  latter  case  as  a  four-factor  character. 

1  ItepoTt  to  the  Evolution  Committef,  Iloyal  Society,  i. ,  1902. 

2  Proc.  Roy.  Hoc.  B,  vol.  85,  1912. 

K. — BOTANY.  173 

It  will  be  apparent  from  the  cases  cited  that  we  cannot  infer  from 
I  lie  genetic  analysis  of  one  type  that  the  factorial  relations  involved 
are  the  same  for  the  corresponding  character  in  another.  That  this 
should  be  so  in  wholly  unrelated  plants  is  not  perhaps  surprising,  but 
we  find  it  to  be  true  also  where  the  nature  of  the  characteristic  and 
the  relationship  of  the  types  might  have  led  us  to  expect  uniformity. 
This  is  well  seen  in  the  case  of  a  morphological  feature  distinctive  of 
the  N.O.  Graminete.  The  leaf  is  normally  ligulate,  but  individuals  are 
occasionally  met  with  in  which  the  ligule  is  wanting.  In  these  plants, 
as  a  consequence,  the  leaf  blade  stands  nearly  erect  instead  of  spread- 
ing out  horizontally.  Nilsson-Ehle  *  discovered  that  in  Oats  there  are 
at  least  four  and  possibly  five  distinct  factors  determining  ligule  forma- 
tion, all  with  equal  potentialities  in  this  direction.  Hence,  only  when 
the  complete  series  is  lacking  is  the  ligule  wanting.  In  mixed  families 
the  proportion  of  ligulate  to  non-ligulate  individuals  depends  upon  the 
number  of  these  ligule-producing  factors  contained  in  the  dominant 
parent.  Emerson'  found,  on  the  other  hand,  that  jn  Maize  mixed 
families  showed  constantly  a  3  to  1  ratio,  indicating  the  existence  of 
only  one  controlling  factor. 

From  time  to  time  the  objection  has  been  raised  that  the  Mendelian 
type  of  inheritance  is  not  exhibited  in  the  case  of  specific  characters. 
That  no  such  sharp  line  of  distinction  can  be  drawn  between  the 
behaviour  of  varietal  and  specific  features  has  been  repeatedly  demon- 
strated. As  a  case  in  point  and  one  of  the  earliest  in  which  clear 
proof  of  Mendehan  segregation  was  obtained,  we  may  instance  Datura. 
The  two  forms,  D.  Stramonium  and  D.  Tatula,  are  ranked  by  all 
systematists  as  distinct  species.  Among  other  specific  differences  is 
the  flower  colour.  The  one  form  has  purple  flowers,  the  other  pure 
white.  In  the  case  of  both  species  a  variety  inermis  is  known  in  which 
the  prickles  characteristic  of  the  fruit  in  the  type  are  wanting.  It  has 
been  found  that  in  whatever  way  the  two  pairs  of  opposite  characters 
are  combined  in  a  cross  between  the  species,  the  Fo  generation  is  mixed, 
comprising  the  four  possible  combinations  in  the  proportions  which 
we  should  expect  in  the  case  of  two  independently  inherited  pairs  of 
characters,  when  each  pair  of  opposites  shows  the  dominant-recessive 
relation.  Segregation  is  as  sharp  and  clean  in  the  specific  character 
flower  colour  as  in  the  varietal  character  of  the  fruit.  Among  the 
latest  additions  to  the  list  of  specific  hybrids  showing  Mendelian  inheri- 
tance, those  occurring  in  the  genus  Salix  are  of  special  interest,  since 
heretofore  the  data  available  had  been  interpreted  as  conflicting  with 
the  Mendelian  conception.  The  recent  observations  of  Heribert- 
Nilsson  '  show  that  those  characters  which  are  regarded  by  systematists 
as  constituting  the  most  distinctive  marks  of  the  species  are  referable 
to  an  extremely  simple  factorial  system,  and  that  the  factors  mendelise 
in  the  ordinary    way.      Furthermore,    these  specific-character  factors 

^  KreuzunqaunttTsuchungen  an  Hafer  und   Weizen,  Lund,  1909. 

•*  Annual  Eeport  of  the  Agricultural  Experiment  Station  of  the  University  of 
Nebraska,  1912. 

■'  Experhnentelle.  Studuv  uber  Vnriahilitnt,  Spalf.iniff,  Artbildunff  und 
Evolution  in  der  Gattung  Salix,  1918. 


control  not  only  the  large  constant  morphological  features,  but  funda- 
mental reactions  such  as  those  determining  the  condition  of  physio- 
logical equilibrium  and  vitality  in  general.  In  so  far  as  any  distinction 
can  be  drawn  between  the  behaviour  of  factors  determining  the  varietal 
as  opposed  to  the  specific  characters  of  the  systematist,  Heribert- 
Nilsson  concludes  that  the  former  are  more  localised  in  their  action, 
while  the  latter  produce  more  diffuse  results,  which  may  affect  almost 
all  the  organs  and  functions  of  the  individual,  and  thus  bring  about 
striking  alterations  in  the  general  appearance.  S.  caprea,  for  example, 
is  regarded  as  the  reaction  product  of  two  distinct  factors  which  together 
control  the  leaf-breadth  character,  but  which  also  affect,  each  separately 
and  in  a  different  way,  leaf  form,  leaf  colour,  height,  and  the  periodicity 
of  certain  phases.  We  cannot,  however,  draw  a  hard-and-fast  line 
between  the  two  categories.  The  factor  controlling  a  varietal  charac- 
teristic often  produces  effects  in  different  parts  of  the  plant.  For 
example,  the  factors  which  lead  to  the  production  of  a  coloured  flower 
no  doubt  also  in  certain  cases  cause  the  tinging  seen  in  the  vegetative 
organs,  and  affect  the  colour  of  the  seed.  Heribert-Nilsson  suggests 
that  fertility  between  species  is  a  matter  of  close  similarity  in  genotypic 
(factorial)  constitution  rather  than  of  outward  morphological  resem- 
blance. Forms  sundered  by  the  systematist  on  the  ground  of  gross 
differences  in  certain  anatomical  features  may  prove  to  be  more  akin, 
more  compatible  in  constitution,  than  others  held  to  be  more  nearly 
related  because  the  differentiating  factors  happen  to  control  less 
conspicuous  features. 

Turning  to  the  consideration  of  the  more  complex  types  of  inheri- 
tance already  referred  to,  we  find  numerous  instances  where  a  somatic 
character  shows  a  certain  degree  of  coupling  or  linkage  with  another 
perhaps  wholly  unrelated  character.  This  phenomenon  becomes  still 
further  complicated  when,  as  is  now  known  to  occur  fairly  frequently, 
somatic  characters  are  linked  also  with  the  sex  character.  The  results 
of  such  linkages  appear  in  the  altered  proportions  in  which  the  various 
combinations  of  the  several  characters  appear  on  cross-breeding. 
Linkage  of  somatic  characters  can  be  readily  demonstrated  in  the  garden 
Stock.  Some  strains  have  flowers  with  deeply  coloured  sap,  e.g.,  full 
red  or  pmrple ;  others  are  of  a  pale  shade  such  as  a  light  purple  or 
flesh-colour.  In  most  commercial  strains  the  '  eye  '  of  the  flower  is 
white  owing  to  absence  of  colour  in  the  plastids,  but  in  some  the  plastids 
are  cream-coloured,  causing  the  sap  colour  to  appear  of  a  much  richer 
hue  and  giving  a  cream  'eye.'  Cream  plastid  colour  is  recessive  to 
white  and  the  deep  sap  colours  are  recessive  to  the  pale.  "When  a 
cream-eyed  strain  lacking  the  pale  factor  is  bred  with  a  white-eyed 
plant  of  some  pale  shade,  the  four  possible  combinations  appear  in 
p.  but  not,  as  we  should  expect  in  the  case  of  two  independently 
inherited  one-factor  characters,  in  the  proportions  9:3:3:1,  with  the 
double  recessive  as  the  least  abundant  of  the  four  forms.  We  find 
instead  that  the  double  dominant  and  the  double  recessive  are  both 
in  excess  of  expectation,  the  latter  being  more  abundant  than  either 
of  the  combinations  of  one  dominant  character  with  one  recessive. 
The  two    forms   which     preponderate    are    those   which   exhibit    the 

K. — BOTANY.  175 

combinations  seen  in  the  parents,  the  two  smaller  categories  are  those 
representing  the  new  combinations  of  one  paternal  with  one  maternal 
characteristic.  In  the  Sweet  Pea  several  characters  are  linked  in  this 
manner,  viz.  :  flower  colour  with  pollen  shape,  flower  colom'  with 
form  of  standard,  pollen  shape  with  form  of  standard,  colour  of  leaf 
axil  with  functioning  capacity  of  the  anthers.  If  in  these  cases  the 
cross  happens  to  be  made  in  such  a  way  that  the  two  dominant 
characters  are  brought  in  one  from  each  side  of  the  pedigree  instead 
of  both  being  contributed  by  one  parent,  we  get  again  a  result  in  which 
the  two  parental  combinations  occur  more  frequently,  the  two  recom- 
binations or  '  crossovers  '  less  often  than  we  should  expect.  In  the 
first  case  the  two  characters  appear  to  hang  together  in  descent  to  a 
certain  extent  but  not  completely,  in  the  latter  similarly  to  repel  each 
other.  This  type  of  relationship  has  been  found  to  be  of  very  general 
occurrence.  The  linked  characters  do  not  otherwise  appear  to  be  con- 
nected in  any  way  that  we  can  trace,  and  we  therefore  conclude  that 
the  explanation  must  be  sought  in  the  mechanism  of  distribution.  Two 
main  theories  having  this  fundamental  principle  as  their  basis  but 
otherwise  distinct  have  been  put  forward,  and  are  usually  refen-ed  to 
as  the  reduplication  and  the  chromosome  view  respectively.  The 
reduplication  view,  proposed  by  Bateson  and  Punnett,'  rests  on  the  idea 
that  segregation  of  factors  need  not  necessarily  occur  simultaneously 
at  a  particular  cell  division.  The  number  of  divisions  follow- ing  the 
segregation  of  some  factors  being  assumed  to  be  greater  than  those 
occurring  in  the  case  of  others,  there  would  naturally  result  a  larger 
number  of  gametes  carrying  some  factorial  combinations  and  fewer 
carrying  others.  If  this  differential  process  is  conceived  as  occurring 
in  an  orderly  manner  it  would  enable  us  to  account  for  the  facts 
obsei^ved.  We  could  imagine  how  it  came  about  that  gametic  ratios 
such  as  3  :  1 :  1 :  3 .  7  :  1 :  1 :  7,  15  :  1 :  1 :  15,  and  so  on  arose  giving  the 
series  of  linkages  observed.  It  has,  however,  to  be  said  that  we  cannot 
say  why  segregation  should  be  successive  nor  at  what  moments,  on 
this  view,  it  must  be  presumed  to  occur.  On  the  other  hand,  .the 
conceptions  embodied  in  the  chromosome  hypothesis  as  formulated  by 
Morgan  and  his  fellow-workers'  are,  in  these  respects,  quite  precise. 
They  are  built  around  one  cardinal  event  in  the  life  cycle  of  animals 
and  plants  (some  of  the  lowest  forms  excepted),  viz.  :  the  peculiar  tvpe 
of  cell  division  at  which  the  number  of  chromosomes  is  reduced  to 
half  that  to  be  found  during  the  period  of  the  life  cycle  extending 
backwards  from  this  moment  to  the  previous  act  of  fertilisation.  In 
the  large  number  of  cases  already  investigated  the  chromosome  number 
has  been  found  as  a  rule  to  be  the  same  at  each  division  of  the  somatic 
cells.  "We  can,  in  fact,  take  it  as  established  that  it  is  ordinarily  con- 
stant for  the  species.  These  observations  lend  strong  support  to  the 
view  that  the  chromosomes  are  persistent  structures ;  that  is  to  say, 
that  the  chromatin  tangle  of  the  resting  nucleus,  whether  actually 
composed  of  one  continuous   thread    or    not,    becomes  resolved  into 

*  Proc.  Roy.  Soc,  1911. 

'  7'he    Mechanism    of    Meiidelian    Heredity    (Morgan,    SUirtewant,    Hnller. 
Bridges),  1915. 


separate  chromosomes  at  corresponding  loci  at  each  successive  mitosis. 
The  reduction  from  the  diploid  to  the  haploid  number,  according  to 
the  more  generally  accepted  interpretation  of  the  appearances  during 
the  meiotic  phase,  is  due  to  the  adhering  together  in  pairs  of  homologous 
chromosomes,  each  member  of  the  set  originally  received  from  one 
parent  lying  alongside  and  in  close  contact  with  its  mate  received  from 
the  other.  Later  these  bivalent  chromosomes  are  resolved  into  their 
components  so  that  the  two  groups  destined  one  for  either  pole  consist 
of  whole  dissimilar  chromosomes,  which  then  proceed  to  divide  again 
longitudinally  to  furnish  equivalent  half  chromosomes  to  each  of  the 
daughter  nuclei.  According  to  the  view  of  Farmer  the  homologous 
chromosomes  do  not  lie  alongside,  but  become  joined  end  to  end.  The 
longitudinal  split  seen  in  the  bivalent  structure  is  interpreted  as  a 
separation  not  of  whole  chromosomes  but  of  half  chromosomes  already 
formed  in  anticipation  of  the  second  division  of  the  meiotic  phase.  As 
however  on  either  interpretation  the  same  result  is  ultimately  secured, 
viz.  :  the  distribution  of  whole  paternal  and  maternal  chromosomes  to 
different  nuclei  which  now  contain  the  haploid  number,  it  is  not  essen- 
tial to  our  present  purpose  to  discuss  the  cytologioal  evidence  in  support 
of  these  opposing  views  in  fuither  detail.  Nor,  indeed,  would  it 
be  practicable  within  the  limits  of  this  Address.  The  obvious  close 
parallel  between  the  behaviour  of  the  cliromosomes — their  pairing  and 
separation — and  that  of  Mendelian  allelomorphs  which  similarly  show 
pairing  and  segregation,  first  led  to  the  suggestion  that  the  factors 
controlling  somatic  characters  are  located  in  these  structures.  The 
ingenious  extension  of  this  view  which  has  been  elaborated  by  Morgan 
and  his  co-workers  presumes  the  arrangement  of  the  factors  in  linear 
series  after  tlie  manner  of  the  visible  chromomeres— tlie  bead-like 
elements  which  can  be  seen  in  many  organisms  to  compose  the 
chromatin  structure — each  factor  and  its  opposite  occupying  correspond- 
ing loci  in  homologous  chromosomes.  From  this  conception  follows 
the  important  corollary  of  the  segregation  of  the  factors  during  the 
process  of  formation  and  subsequent  resolution  of  the  bivalent  chromo- 
somes formed  at  the  reduction  division.  We  should  suppose,  according 
to  Morgan,  in  the  case  of  characters  showing  independent  inheritance 
and  giving  identical  Mendelian  ratios  whichever  way  the  mating  is 
made,  and  however  the  factorial  combination  is  brought  about,  that  the 
factors  controlling  the  several  characters  are  located  in  different 
chromosomes.  Thus,  in  the  case  of  Datura  already  mentioned,  the  two 
factors  affecting  sap  colour  and  prickliness  respectively  would  be  pre- 
sumed to  be  located  so  far  apart  in  the  resting  chromatin  thread  that 
when  separation  into  chromosomes  takes  place  they  become  distributed 
to  different  members.  Where  unrelated  character's  show  a  linhed 
inheritance  the  factors  concerned  are  held  on  the  other  hand  to  lie  so 
near  together  that  they  are  always  located  in  one  and  the  same  chromo- 
some. Furthermore,  and  here  we  come  to  the  most  debatable  of  the 
assumptions  in  Morgan's  theory,  when  the  bivalent  chromosome  com- 
posed of  a  maternal  and  a  paternal  component  gives  rise  at  the  reduction 
division  to  two  single  dissimilar  chromosomes,  these  new  chromosomes 
do    not    always    represent   the    original  intact  maternal   and  paternal 

K. — BOTANY.  177 

components.  It  has  been  observed  in  many  forms  that  the  bivalent  struc- 
ture has  tlie  appearance  of  a  twisted  double  thread.  Ah-eady  in  1909 
cytological  study  oi  the  salamander  had  led  Janssen '  to  conclude 
that  fusion  might  take  place  at  the  crossing  points,  so  that  when  the 
twin  members  ultimately  draw  apart  each  is  composed  of  alternate 
portions  of  the  original  pair.  Morgan  explains  the  breeding  results 
obtained  with  Drosophila  by  a  somewhat  similar  hypothesis.  He  also 
concei\"es  that  in  the  process  of  separation  of  the  twin  lengths  of 
chromatin  cleavage  between  the  two  is  not  always  clean,  portions  of 
the  ono  becoming  interchanged  with  corresponding  segments  of  the 
other,  so  that  both  daughter  chromosomes  are  made  up  of  comple- 
mentary sections  of  the  maternal  and  paternal  members  of  the  duplex 
chromosome.  To  picture  this  let  us  imagine  that  two  bars  of  that 
delectable  substance,  Turkish  Delight,  one  pink  and  one  white,  are  laid 
alongside  and  are  then  given  a  half  twist  round  each  other  and  pressed 
together.  If,  with  a  knife  inserted  between  the  two  pieces  at  one 
end,  the  double  bar  is  now  sliced  longitudinally  down  the  middle  neither 
of  the  two  halves  will  be  wholly  pink  or  wholly  white.  Each  half  will  be 
pai-ticoloured,  the  pink  portion  in  one  and  the  portion  which  is  white  in 
the  other  representing  corresponding  regions  of  the  original  bars.  If 
the  complete  twist  is  made,  or  if  the  number  of  turns  is  still  further 
increased  before  the  slicing,  the  number  of  alternately  coloured  por- 
tions will  naturally  be  increased  coi'respondingly.  Though  the  precise 
manner  in  which  the  postulated  chromosomal  interchange  is  brought 
about  in  Janssen 's  '  chiasmatype  '  and  Morgan's  '  crossing-over  ' 
scheme  is  different,  the  resulting  gametic  output  would  be  the  same. 
A  critical  examination  by  Wilson  and  Morgan,"  from  different  aspects, 
of  Janssen 's  interpr-etation  of  the  cytological  evidence  including  dis- 
cussion of  his  latest  suggestion  that  in  the  case  of  compound  ring- 
chromosomes  cleavage  in  one  plane  would  result  in  the  separation  of 
homologous  elements  in  one  ring  but  not  in  another  has  just  appeared. 
These  authors  are  not  disposed  to  accept  Janssen 's  conclusions,^"  but 
reserve  their  final  statement  pending  the  appearance  of  his  promised 
further  contribution.  Should  Janssen 's  view  of  the  evolutions  of  these 
complex  chromosome  structures  be  upheld,  the  process  of  segregation 
might  in  such  cases  become  extended  over  more  than  one  mitosis,  as 
on  the  reduplication  theory  is  conceived  to  be  the  case  at  some  point, 
though  evidence  in  this  direction  has  hitherto  been  lacking.     Bisection 


of  a  bivalent  chromosome  in  this  fashion  might,  moreover,  yield  the 
class  of  results  to  explain  which  Morgan  has  found  it  necessary  to 
have  recourse  to  hypothetical  lethal  factors.  On  the  main  issue,  how- 
ever, both  schemes  are  in  accord.  A  physical  basis  for  the  phenomenon 
of  linkage  is  found  in  the  presumed  nature  and  behaviour  of  the 
chromosomes,  viz.  :  their  colloidal  consistency,  their  adhesion  after 
pairing  at  the  points  of  contact,  when  in  the  twisted  condition,  and 
their  consequent  failure  to  separate  cleanly  before  undergoing  the 
succeeding  division. 

*  La  Cellule,  xxv. 
»  A7n.  Nat.,  vol.  54,  1920. 
'"  See  Com-piex  Rendiis  Sloe.   Relg.  Biol..  1919 
1920  N 


According  ro  Morgan  the  frequency  of  separation  of  linked 
characters  is  a  measui'e  of  tHe  distance  apart  in  the  chromosome  of  the 
loci  for  the  factors  concerned,  and  it  becomes  possible  to  map  their 
position  in  the  chromosome  relatively  to  one  another.  In  this  attempt 
to  find  in  cytological  happenings  a  basis  for  the  observed  facts  of 
inheritance  our  conception  of  the  material  unit  in  the  sorting-out 
process  has  been  pushed  beyond  the  germ  cell  and  even  the  entire 
chromosome  to  the  component  sections  and  particles  of  the  latter 

To  substantiate  the  '  chromosome  '  view  the  primary  requisite  was 
to  obtain  proof  that  a.  particular  character  is  associated  with  a  particular 
chromosome.  With  this  object  in  view  it  was  sought  to  discover  a 
type  in  which  individual  chromosomes  could  be  identified.  Several 
observers  working  on  different  animals  found  that  a  particular  chromo- 
some differing  in  form  from  the  rest  could  be  traced  at  the  maturation 
division,  and  that  this  chromosome  was  always  associated  with  the  sex 
character  in  the  following  manner.  The  female  possessed  an  even 
number  of  chromosomes  so  that  each  egg  received  an  identical  number, 
including  this  particular  sex -chromosome.  The  male  contained  an 
uneven  number,  having  one  fewer  than  the  female,  with  the  result 
that  half  the  sperms  received  the  same  number  as  the  egg  including 
the  sex-chromosome,  and  half  were  deficient  in  tliis  particular  chromo- 
some. Eggs  fertilised  with  spenns  containing  the  full  number  of 
chromosomes  developed  into  females,  while  those  fertilised  with  sperms 
lacking  this  distinctive  chromosome  produced  males.  Morgan  made 
the  further  discovery  in  the  fruit  fly  Drosophila  ampelophila  that  certain 
factors  controlling  various  somatic  characters  were  located  in  the  sex- 
chromosome.  The  inheritance  of  these  characters  and  of  sex  evidently 
went  together.  A  male  exhibiting  the  dominant  condition  of  such  a 
sex-linked  character  bred  to  a  recessive  female  gave  daughters  all 
dominant  and  sons  all  recessive  (fig.  2),  but  in  the  reciprocal  cross  both 
sons  and  daughters  proved  to  be  all  dominants  (fig.  1).  Since  the 
mother  with  the  dominant  factor  contributed  it  to  all  her  children 
(fig.  1),  whereas,  where  the  father  bore  it,  it  descended  only  to  his 
daughters  (fig.  2),  it  was  apparent  that  the  female  was  homozygous 
and  the  male  heterozygous  for  the  somatic  character.  Further, 
although  no  distinction  is  observable  in  this  species  between  the  sperms, 
the  occvuTence  of  this  sex-linked  form  of  inheritance  indicated  that  here, 
as  in  the  other  cases  mentioned,  it  is  the  female  which  behaves  as  a 
homozygote  for  the  sex  character  and  the  male  as  a  heterozygote,  the 
sex-chromosomes  of  some  sperms  differing  presumably  in  character, 
though  not  in  appearance,  from  those  of  others.  The  sperms  of 
Drosophila  are  therefore  conceived  as  of  two  kinds,  one  containing  the 
same  sex-chromosome  as  the  eggs,  the  so-called  X  chromosome,  and 
the  other  a  mate  of  a  different  nature,  the  Y  chromosome,  which 
appears  to  be  inert  and  unable  to  carry  the  dominant  allelomorphs. 
If.  now,  we  suppose  the  factor  for  the  sex-linked  somatic  character 
to  be  located  in  the  X  chromosomes  we  understand  whv  the  dominant 
female,  which  is  XX,  and  therefore  furnishes  an  X  chromosome 
to  every  egg,   should  contribute  the  dominant   character    to    all    her 

K. — BOTANY.  179 

offspring.  And  conversely,  why  the  dominant  male,  which  is  XY,  when 
bred  to  a  recessive  female,  produces  offspring  which  are  either  female 
and  dominant  or  male  and  recessive. 

Tracing  the  chromosomes  into  the  next  (Fj)  generation  we  see  also 
the  reason  for  the  different  result  obtained  from  the  reciprocal  matings 
if  the  Fj  individuals  are  inbred.  When  the  female  parent  has  the 
dominant  sex-Unked  character  half  the  eggs  of  the  daughters  and  half 
the  sperms  of  the  sons  receive  this  character.  As  the  sperms  receive 
it  along  with  the  X  chromosome  fertilisation  of  either  kind  of  egg  by 
these  X  sperms  will  cause  the  character  to  descend  to  each  grand- 
daughter. The  grandsons,  on  the  other  hand,  since  they  arise  from 
fertilisation  by  the  sperms  lacking  the  dominant  character — i.e.,  by  the 
Y  sperms — will  be  dominant  or  recessive  according  as  these  sperms 
unite  with  the  one  type  of  egg  or  with  the  other.  Thus  we  get  the 
Mendelian  F^  ratio  3D  to  IE  (fig.  1),  but  so  linked  with  sex  that  the 
dominant  class  comprises  half  the  males  and  all  the  females,  while 
the  remaining  half  of  the  males  make  up  the  recessive  class.  Where 
it  is  the  male  parent  that  carries  the  dominant,  and  where  therefore 
the  dominant  character  passes  along  with  the  X  chromosome  only 
to  the  daughters  in  F^,  their  eggs,  as  in  the  reciprocal  cross,  are  of 
two  kinds,  hut  the  sons'  spei'ms  all  carry  the  recessive  allelomorphs. 
Both  kinds  of  eggs  being  fertilised  with  both  X  sperms  and  Y  sperms, 
the  dominant  and  recessive  characters  will  occur  equally  in  both  sexes 
among  the  grandchildren,  and  we  get  the  Mendehan  ratio  of  ID  to 
IE  (fig.  2).  Muller  ^^  puts  the  number  of  factors  already  located  in  the 
X  chromosome  of  Drosophila  at  not  less  than  500,  and  in  those  that 
have  so  far  been  investigated  this  form  of  inheritance  has  been  found 
to  hold. 

Instances  of  sex-linked  inheritance  are  now  known  in  many  animals, 
some  of  which  are  strictly  comparable  with  Drosophila,  others  follow 
the  same  general  principle,  but  have  the  relations  of  the  sexes  reversed, 
as  exemplified  by  the  moth  Abraxas,  which  has  been  worked  out  by 
Doncaster,^^  whose  sudden  death  we  have  so  recently  to  deplore.  Here 
the  female  is  the  heterozygous  sex,  and  contains  the  dummy  mate  of 
the  sex-chromosome. 

The  behaviour  of  the  sex-cKromosomes  as  here  outlined  suffices  to 
account  for  the  occurrence  of  sex-linked  inheritance,  but  the  relations 
found  to  hold  between  one  sex-linked  character  and  another  need 
further  explanation.  If  a  cross  is  made  involving  two  sex-linked 
characters,  the  Fi  females  when  tested  hy  a  double  recessive  male  are 
found  to  produce  the  expected  four  classes  of  gametes,  but  not  in  equal 
proportions,  nor  in  the  same  proportions  in  the  case  of  different  pairs  of 
sex-hnked  characters.  Partial  linkage  (coupling)  occurs  of  the  kind 
which  has  already  been  described  for  the  Stock  and  the  Sweet  Pea. 
The  parental  combinations  predominate,  the  recombinations  ('  cross- 
overs ')  comprise  the  smaller  categories.  The  strength  of  the  linkage 
vai-ies,  however,  for  different  characters,  but  is  found  to  be  constant 
for  any  given  pair.        Siiice  the  sex-linked   factors  are  by  hypothesis 

i>  Aw.  A'Cit.,  vol.  liv..  1920. 

'-  Rep.  Evolution  Committee,  iv.,  1908. 

N  2 
























/             \ 

*  Sperms  • 


3  D   :   I  R 



I  D 

I   R 


carried  in  tlie  sex-chromosomes,  a  clean  separation  of  homologous 
members  at  meiosis  shotild  result  in  the  characters  which  were  asso- 
ciated m  the  parents  remaining  strictly  in  the  same  combination  in 
each  succeeding  generation.  The  fact  that  this  is  not  the  case  has 
led  Morgan  to  conclude  that  an  interchange  of  qhromosome  material 
must  take  place  at  this  phase  among  a  proportion  of  the  gametes,  and 
that  the  percentage  of  these  '  cross-overs  '  will  depend  on  the  distance 
apart  of  the  loci  of  the  factors  concerned.  This  phenomenon  of  linkage 
may  also  be  exhibited  by  pairs  of  characters  wliich  show  no  sex- 
linkage  in  their  inheritance.  The  factors  involved  in  these  latter  cases 
must  presumably,  therefore,  be  disposed  in  one  of  the  chromosomes 
which  is  not  the  sex-chromosome. 

To  this  brief  sketch  of  the  main  points  of  Morgan's  chromosome 
theory  must  be  added  mention  of  the  extremely  interesting 
relation  which  lends  strong  support  to  his  view,  and  the  significance  of 
which  seems  scarcely  to  admit  of  question,  viz.  :  that  in  Drosophila 
avjpelophila  there  are  four  pairs  of  chromosomes,  and  that  the  linkage 
relations  of  the  hundred  and  moi'e  characters  investigated  indicate  that 
they  form  four  distinct  groups.  It  is  hardly  possible  to  suppose  that 
the  one  fact  is  not  directly  connected  with  the  other.  The  interesting 
discovery  of  Bridges  ^^  that  the  appearance  of  certain  unexpected  cate- 
gories among  Drosophila  offspring,  where  females  of  a  particular 
strain  were  used,  coincided  with  the  presence  in  these  females  of  an 
additional  chromosome  adds  another  link  in  the  chain  of  evidence.  On 
examination  it  was  found  that  in  these  females  the  X  chromosome  pair 
occasionally  failed  to  separate  at  the  reduction  division,  and  conse- 
quently that  the  two  XX  chromosomes  sometimes  both  remained  in  the 
egg,  and  sometimes  both  passed  out  into  the  polar  body.  Hence  there 
arose  from  fertilisation  of  the  XX  eggs  some  individuals  containing 
three  sex-chromosomes,  with  the  resulting  upset  of  the  expectation  in 
regard  to  sex-limitation  of  characters  which  was  observed. 

It,  however,  remains  a  curious  anomaly  that  in  the  cross-bred 
Drosophila  male  no  corresponding  crossing-over  of  linked  characters, 
whether  associated  with  the  sex  character  or  not,  has  yet  been  ob- 
served. His  gametes  carry  only  the  same  factorial  combinations 
which  he  received  from  his  parents.  For  this  contrast  in  the  behaviour 
between  the  sexes  there  is  at  present  no  explanation.  The  reverse  con- 
dition has  been  described  by  Tanaka"  in  the  silkworm.  Here  inter- 
change takes  place  in  the  male  but  not  in  the  female. 

It  must  then  be  acknowledged  that  Morgan's  interpretation  of  the 
cytological  evidence  has  much  in  its  favour.  The  striking  parallel 
between  the  behaviour  of  the  chromosomes  and  the  distributional  rela- 
tions of  Mendelian  allelomorphs  is  obvious.  The  existence  in  Droso- 
phila ampelophila  of  four  pairs  of  chromosomes  and  of  four  sets  of 
linked  characters  can  hardly  be  mere  coincidence.  The  employment  of 
the  smaller  physical  unit  in  accounting  for  the  reshuffling  of  characters 
in  their  transmission  commends  itself  in  principle.  The  necessity  for 
postulating  the  occurrence  of  some  orderly  irregularity  in  the  hereditary 

13  .7.  Exp.  Zool.  XV..  1913. 

14  /.  Coll.  Agr.,  Sapporo,  Japan,  191.3-14. 



process  in  order  lo  explain  the  phenomenon  of  partial  hnkage  is,  it 
will  be  seen,  inherent  alike  in  both  theories.  When,  however,  we  come 
to  examine  the  general  applicability  of  Morgan's  theory  we  are  con- 
fronted with  a  considerable  body  of  facts  among  plants  which  we  find 
difficult  to  reconcile  with  the  requirement  that  factorial  segregation  is 
accomplished  by  means  of  the  reduction  division.  An  instance  in 
which  this  is  particularly  clearly  indicated  is  that  of  the  sulphur-white 
Stock.  I  have  chosen  this  example  because  here  we  have  to  do  with 
two  characters  which  are  distinguished  with  the  utmost  sharpness, 
viz. :  plastid  colour  and  flower  form.  The  peculiar  behaviour  of  this 
strain  is  due  to  the  fact  that  not  only  are  the  two  factors  for  flower  form 
(singleness  and  doubleness)  differently  distributed  to  the  male  and 
female  sides  of  the  individual,  as  in  all  double-throwing  Stocks,  but  the 
factor  controlHng  plastid  colour  likewise  shows  linkage  with  the  sex 
nature  of  the  germ  cells.  As  a  result  every  individual,  even  though 
self- fertilised,  yields  a  mixed  offspring,  consisting  chiefly  of  single 
whites  and  double  creams,  but  including  a  small  percentage  of  double 
whites.  So  far  as  the  ovules  are  concerned,  the  mode  of  inheritance  can 
be  accounted  for  on  either  theory.  According  to  the  reduplication 
hypothesis  the  factors  X  Y  '^  producing  singleness  and  W  giving  white 
plastids  are  partially  coupled  so  as  to  give  the  gametic  ratio  on  the 
female  side  7WXY:  IWXy:  1  wxY :  7wxy.^*  On  the  chromosome 
scheme  the  factorial  group  WXY  must  be  assumed  to  be  disposed  in 
one  member  of  the  bivalent  chromosome  formed  at.  meiosis,  the  corre- 
sponding recessive  allelomorphs  wxy  in  the  other.  If  the  three  factors 
be  supposed  to  be  arranged  in  the  chromosome  in  alphabetical  order, 
and  if,  on  separation,  a  break  takes  place  between  the  loci  of  the  two 
factors  for  flower  form  (as  shown),  so  as  to  give  '  cross-overs  '  of  Y 














"  The  letters  X  and  Y  are  used  here  to  denote  particular  factors,  not,  as  in 
Morgan's  scheme,  the  entire  sex-chromosomes. 
"  Or  possibly  15  : 1  :  1  :  15.  '^  >>  '■' 


and  y  in  about  12  per  cent,  of  the  gametes,  the  occurrence  of  such 
'  cross-overs  '  would  fulfil  the  required  conditions.  But  the  case  of  the 
pollen  presents  a  distinct  difficulty  on  this  latter  view.  This  Stock  is 
distinguished  both  from  the  Drosophila  and  the  Abraxas  type  by  the 
fact  that  none  of  the  male  germs  carry  either  of  the  dominant  charac- 
ters. In  place  of  the  XX — XY  form  of  sex-linked  inheritance  in 
the  former  type  and  the  WZ — ZZ  in  the  latter,  we  should  need  to 
regard  this  form  as  constituting  a  new  class,  which  we  might  represent 
as  DE — EE,  thus  indicating  that  both  members  of  the  bivalent  chromo- 
some on  the  male  side  appear  to  be  inert  and  able  to  carry  only  the 
recessive  characters,  and  hence  are  represented  as  EE,  in  contrast  with 
the  DE  pair  of  the  female  side.  By  this  formula  we  can  indicate  the 
behaviour  of  the  several  double-throwing  strains.  It  is,  besides,  becom- 
ing clear,  I  think,  from  recent  results  that  there  is  no  '  crossing  over  '  of 
these  factors  on  the  male  side  in  the  Fj  cross-breds.  But  the  real 
difficulty  is  to  explain  why  these  factors  are  confined  to  the  female  side 
in  the  ever-sporting  individual.  This  may  result  from  abeirant 
behaviom-  or  loss  of  chromosomes  at  some  point  in  poUen  development. 
On  this  point  I  hope  that  evidence  will  shortly  be  available.  Failing- 
such  evidence  the  presumption  is  that  the  elimination  of  XY  (and  in  one 
strain  of  W)  must  have  taken  place  prior  to,  and  not  at,  the 
moment  of  the  maturation  division.  Morgan's  proposal  to  fit 
the  pollen  into  his  scheme  for  Drosophila  by  having  recoui'se  to  hypo- 
thetical lethal  factors  does  not  appeal  to  the  observer,  who  finds  the 
pollen  all  unifonnly  good  and  every  ovule  set.  Zygotic  lethals  are 
clearly  not  in  question  under  these  circumstances.  The  supposition  of 
gametic  lethals  confined  to  the  pollen  appears  far-fetched,  seeing 
that  of  the  missing  combinations  two,  viz.  :  single  white,  the  double 
dominant,  and  double  white  a  dom.inant-recessive,  occur  in  the 
ovules,  and  the  third,  the  single  cream,  the  other  dominant-recessive, 
exists  as  a  pure  strain,  so  that  the  homozygous  condition  is  evidently 
not  in  itself  a  cause  of  non-development.  Other  examples  suggesting 
premeiotic  segregation  can  be  quoted,  notably  cases  among  variegated 
plants  and  plants  showing  bud  sports,  where  somatic  segregation  appears 
to  be  of  regular  occun-ence.  Among  the  Musciniae  the  present  evidence 
appears  to  show  that  the  sex  potentiality  segregates  in  some  fonns  at 
the  division  of  the  spore  mother  cells,  so  that  already  the  spores  possess 
a  sex  character;  while  in  oflier  species  this  separation  takes  place  later, 
during  the  development  of  the  gametophyte,  the  spores  being  then  all 
alike  and  undifferentiated  in  this  resi^ect.  In  Fimaria  hygrometrica. 
an  example  of  the  latter  class,  an  attempt  has  l^een  made  by  E.  J. 
Collins"  to  ascertain  the  stage  at  which  sex  segregation  takes  place 
by  inducing  the  gi'owth  of  new  individuals  from  isolated  jxtrtions  of  the 
vegetative  tissues  of  the  gametophyte.  No  doubt  when  the  evidence 
is  derived  from  experiments  in  which  a  portion  of  the  plant  has  been 
severed  from  the  rest,  it  is  possible  to  urge  that  the  result  obtained 
is  not  necessarily  indicative  of  the  potenti?;lity  in  the  intact  organism. 
Phenotypic  appearance  is  the  product  of  a  reaction  system,  in  which 
the  internal  as  well  as  the  external  environment  plays  its  part.     We 

^'  Journal  of  Genetics,  vol.  viii.,  1919. 

K. — BOTANY.  185 

liave,  lor  example,  evideuce  thai  the  iiiauifeotatiou  ol  a  character  may 
be  dependent  upon  the  variation  of  internal  conditions  with  age;  in 
other  words,  a  time  relation  may  be  involved."*  Or,  again,  upon  the 
state  of  general  internal  equihbrium  resulting  from  the  relation  of  one 
morphological  member  or  region  to  another.  Thus  removal  of  the 
lamina  of  the  leaf,  so  as  to  leave  only  the  midrib,  may  cause  the 
mutilated  individual  to  develop  hairs  on  the  stems  and  petioles  in  the 
same  envuionment  in  which  the  intact  individual  remains  hairless. 
Injury  from  attack  by  insects  in  a  glabrous  form  may  in  like  manner 
lead  to  the  production  of  hairs  which,  by  their  resemblance  to  those 
of  an  allied  species,  show  that  the  pathological  condition  set  up  has 
caused  genetic  potentiality  to  become  actual.  But  even  if  we  exclude 
the  class  of  evidence  to  which  objection  on  these  grounds  might  be 
made,  there  still  remain  various  cases  of  normal  types,  where,  unless 
the  behaviour  of  the  chi'omosomes  should  point  to  a  different  explana- 
tion, it  seems  most  natural  to  assume  that  segregation  takes  place  before 
the  reduction  division. 

It  has  been  argued  from  time  to  time  that  any  scheme  representing 
the  mechanism  of  Heredity  which  leaves  out  of  account  the  cytoplasm 
must  prove  inadequate.  This  general  statement  has  been  expressed  in 
more  definite  form  by  Loeb/"  who  holds  that  the  egg  cytoplasm 
is  to  be  looked  upon  as  determining  the  broad  outlines,  in  fact  as 
standing  for  the  embryo  'in  the  rough,'  upon  which  are  impressed  in 
the  course  of  development  the  characteristics  controlled  by  the  factors 
segregated  in  the  chromosomes.  The  arguments  in  favour-  of  the  view 
that  the  cytoplasm,  apart  from  its  general  functions  in  connection  with 
growth  and  nutrition,  is  the  seat  of  a  particular  hereditary  process  are 
mainly  derived  from  obsei-vation  upon  embryonic  characters  in  certain 
animals,  chiefly  Echinodemis,  where  the  inheritance  appears  to  be 
purely  maternal.  It  has  been  shown,  however,  that  such  female 
prepotency  is  no  indication  that  inheritance  of  the  determining  factors 
takes  place  through  the  cytoplasm.  Other  causes  may  lead  to  this 
result.  It  has  been  observed,  for  example,  that  hybrid  sea-urchin  lai-vae, 
which  at  one  season  of  the  year  were  maternal  in  type,  at  another 
were  all  paternal  in  character,  showing  that  the  result  was  due  to  some 
effect  of  the  environment.  Again,  where  the  hybrid  plutei  showed  purely 
maternal  characters  it  was  discovered  by  Baltzer  -"  that  in  the  earliest 
mitoses  of  the  cross-fertilised  eggs  a  certain  number  of  chromosomes 
fail  to  reach  the  poles,  and  are  consequently  left  out  of  the  daughter 
nuclei.  The  chromosomes  thus  lost  probably  represent  those  contributed 
by  the  male  gamete,  for  in  both  parents  certain  individual  chromosomes 
can  be  identified  owing  to  differences  in  shape  and  size.  After  this 
process  of  elimination  those  characteristic  of  the  male  parent  could 
not  be  traced,  whereas  the  one  pair  distinctive  of  the  female  parent 
was  still  recognisable.     In  the  reciprocal  cross  where  the  first  mitosis 

"  As  in  the  case  of  characters  which  exhibit  a  regular  change  of  phase. 
f.g.,  the  colour  of  white  and  cream  Stocks  is  indistinguishable  in  the  bud,  and 
a  yellow-seeded  Pea  is  gi-een  at  an  earlier  stage. 

"  The  Organism  as  a  Whole.  1916. 

="  Archiv  fur  ZeUforschung.  v.,  1910. 


follows  a  uormal  course  the  embryos  are  intermediate  in  regard  to 
character  of  the  skeleton,  thus  affording  proof  of  the  influence  of  the 
male  parent.  Another  type  of  case  is  found  in  the  .silkworm.  Here 
a  certain  rate  character  determining  the  time  of  hatching  out  of  the 
eggs  has  been  shown  to  exhibit  normal  Mendelian  inheritance,  the 
appearance  that  it  is  transmissible  by  the  female  through  the  cytoplasm 
alone  being  delusive.  The  eggs  are  always  laid  in  the  spring.  Accord- 
ing as  they  hatch  out  immediately  so  that  a  second  brood  is  obtained 
in  the  year,  or  do  not  hatch  out  for  twelve  months,  the  female  parent 
laying  the  eggs  is  described  as  bivoltin  or  univoltin.  Now  the  length 
of  interval  before  hatching  is  obviously  an  egg  character,  and  therefore 
maternal  in  origin.  Consequently  when  a  cross  is  made  between  a 
univoltin  female  and  a  bivoltin  male  the  eggs  laid  are  not  cross-bred 
in  respect  of  this  character,  any  more  than  the  seed  formed  as  a  result 
of  a  cross  is  cross-bred  in  respect  of  its  seed  coat,  which  is  a  maternal 
structure.  The  silkworm  mother  being  univoltin,  the  eggs  will  not 
hatch  out  until  the  following  spring.  The  F^  mother  will  in  turn 
lay  eggs  which  again  take  twelve  months  to  hatch,  since  the  long- 
period  factor  is  the  dominant.  It  is  not  until  the  eggs  of  the  F: 
generation  are  laid  that  we  see  the  expression  of  the  character  introduced 
by  the  bivoltin  father.  For  some  of  the  egg  batches  hatch  at  once, 
others  not  for  twelve  months,  showing  that  of  the  F:  females  some 
were  uni-  and  some  bi-voltin,  and  hence  that  the  egg  character  in  any 
generation  depends  upon  both  the  maternal  and  the  paternal  antecedents 
of  the  female  producing  the  eggs.  Consequently,  in  the  case  of  an 
egg  character  the  effects  of  inheritance  must  be  looked  for  in  the  genera- 
tion succeeding  that  in  which  the  somatic  characteristics  of  the  zygote 
become  revealed.  We  find  in  fact  that  in  almost  all  instances  where 
the  evidence  is  suggestive  of  purely  cytoplasmic  inheritance,  fuller 
investigation  has  shown  that  the  explanation  is  to  be  found  in  one  of 
the  causes  here  indicated.  The  case  of  some  plants  where  it  has  been 
established  that  reciprocal  hybrids  are  dissimilar  still,  however,  remains 
to  be  cleared  up.  Among  such  may  be  cited  certain  Digitalis  hybrids. 
Differences  in  the  reciprocal  hybrids  of  D.  grandiflora  and  D.  lutea 
were  described  by  Gaertner,  and  in  the  earlier  literature  dealing  with 
Digitalis  species  hybrids  other  cases  are  to  be  found.  In  more  recent 
years  J.  H.  Wilson  ^^  has  I'epeated  the  crossing  of  D.  purpureat  and 
D.  lutea,  and  states  that  the  reciprocals  are  indistinguishable  during 
the  vegetative  period,  but  that  they  differ  in  size  and  colouring  of  the 
flowers,  the  resemblance  being  the  greater  in  each  case  to  the  seed 
parent.  A  detailed  comparison  of  the  differential  characters  of  the 
reciprocal  hybrids  of  D.  purpurea  and  D.  grandiflora  has  been  set  out 
by  Neilson  Jones, -^  who  similarly  finds  in  both  matings  a  greater 
resemblance  to  the  mother  species.  We  know  notTiing  as  yet  of  the 
cytology  of  these  cases,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  the  interpretation 
may  be  found  in  some  aberrant  behaviour  of  the  chromosomes.  An 
instance  in  a  plant  type  where  a  definite  connection  appears  traceable 
between  chromosome  behaviour   and    somatic    appearance    has    been 

2'  Bep.  Third  International  Congress  on  Genetics,  R.H.S.  1906. 
--  J.  of  Genetics,  vol.  ii.,  1912. 

K. — BOTANY.  187 

recently  emphasised  by  Gates,-''  who  attributes  the  peculiarity  of  the 
lata  mutation  in  CEnothera  (which  has  arisen  as  a  modification  at 
different  times  from  each  of  three  distinct  species)  to  an  irregularity 
in  meiosis  in  the  germ  mother  cells  whereby  one  daughter  cell  receives 
an  extra  duplicate  chromosome  while  the  sister  cell  lacks  this  chromo- 
some. The  cell  with  the  extra  chromosome  fertilised  by  a  normal  germ 
produces  a  lata  individual.  On  the  chromosome  view  every  normal 
fertilised  egg  contains  a  double  set  of  chromosomes,  each  carrying  a 
complete  set  of  the  factor  elements.  Hence,  if  some  of  the  one  set 
become  eliminated  we  can  still  imagine  that  a  noraial  though  under- 
sized individual  might  develop.  The  converse  relation  where  increased 
size  goes  with  multiplication  of  chromosomes  was  discovered  by 
Gregory,"^  in  a  Primula,  and  occurs  also  in  CEnothera  gigas,  a  mutant 
derived  from  CE.  Lamarckiana.  Gregory  found  in  his  cultures  giant 
individuals  which  behaved  as  though  four  instead  of  two  sets  of  factors 
were  present,  and  upon  examination  these  individuals  were  found  to 
contain  twice  the  normal  number  of  chromosomes.  It  is  interesting 
in  this  connection  to  recall  the  results  obtained  by  Nemec^*  as  the 
result  of  subjecting  the  root  tips  of  various  plants  to  the  narcotising 
action  of  chloral  hydrate.  Under  this  treatment  cells  undergoing 
division  at  the  time  were  able  to  form  the  daughter  nuclei,  but  the 
production  of  a  new  cell  wall  was  inhibited.  The  cells  thus  became 
binucleate.  If  on  recovery  these  cells  were  to  fuse  before  proceeding 
to  divide  afresh  a  genuine  tetraploid  condition  would  result.  So  few 
cases  of  natural  tetraploidy  have  so  far  been  observed  that  we  have  as 
yet  no  clue  to  the  cause  which  leads  to  this  condition. 

The  conclusions  to  which  we  are  led  by  the  considerations  which 
have  here  been  put  forwaid  are,  in  the  main,  that  we  have  no  warrant 
in  the  evidence  so  far  available  for  attributing  special  hereditary  pro- 
cesses to  the  cytoplasm  as  distinct  from  the  nucleus.  On  the  other 
hand,  there  is  a  very  large  body  of  facts  pointing  to  a  direct  connection 
between  phenotypic  appearance  and  chromosomal  behaviour.  In 
animals  the  evidence  that  the  chromosomes  constitute  the  distributional 
mechanism  may  be  looked  upon  as  almost  tantamount  to  proof;  in 
plants  the  observations  on  Drosera,  Primula,  CEnothera,  Sphcerocarpus 
are  in  harmony  with  this  view.  "When  we  come,  however,  to  the 
question  of  linkage  and  general  applicability  of  the  conception  of 
'  crossing  over  '  as  adopted  by  Morgan  and  his  school  we  are  on  less 
^  certain  ground.  In  Drosophila  itself,  the  case  which  the  scheme  was 
framed  to  fit,  the  entire  absence  of  '  crossing  over '  in  the  male  remains 
unaccounted  for,  while  the  evidence  from  certain  plant  types  appears 
to  be  definitely  at  variance  with  one  of  its  fundamental  premises.  If 
segregation  at  the  recognised  reduction  division  is  definitely  established 
for  animal  types,  then  we  must  conclude  that  the  sorting-out  process 
may  follow  a  different  course  in  the  plant. 

The  question  as  to  what  is  the  precise  nature  of  the  differences  for 

-^  NoAv  Phytologist,  vol.  xix.,  1920. 
'*  Proc.  Boy.  Soc.  vol.  Ix.xxvii.  b,  1914. 

-5  Jahrb.  f.   iriss.   Bot..   xxxix.,   1904,   'Das  Problem   der  Begruchtungsvor- 
gange,'  1910. 




which  the  Meudehan  factors  stand  is  constantly  before  tlie  mind  of  the 
breeder,  but  we  are  only  now  on  the  threshold  of  investigation  in  this 
direction,  and  it  is  doubtful  whether  we  can  as  yet  give  a  certain  answer 
in  any  single  instance.     Still  less  are  we  able  to  say  what  the  actual 
elements  or  units  which  undergo  segregation  may  be.     In  the  case  of 
such   allelomorphic   pairs   as  pm-ple  and  red  sap  colour  or  white  or 
cream  plastid  colour  it  may  be  that  the  difference  is  wholly  qualitative, 
consisting    merely  in   the   formation  or    non-formation  of  some    one 
chemical   substance.      But  the  majority  of  characteristics  are  not   of 
this  hard-and-fast  type.     Between  some  the  distinction  appears  to  be 
one  of  range — to  be  quantitative  rather  than,  or  as  well  as,  qualitative 
in  nature,  and  range  must  mean,  presumably,  either  cumulative  effect 
or  a  force  or  rate  difference.     It  may  well  be,  for  example,  that  with 
some  change  in   physiological  equilibrium  accompanying   growth  and 
development,  factorial  action  may  be  enhanced  or  accelerated,  or,  on 
the  other  hand,  retarded  or  even  inhibited  altogether,  and  a  regional 
grading  result  in  consequence.    Range  in  a  character  is  not  confined  to, 
though  a  common  characteristic  of,  individuals  of  cross-bred  origin.     It 
may  be  a  specific  feature,  both  constant  and  definite  in  nature.     For 
example,  a  change  as  development  proceeds  from  a  glabrous  or  nearly 
glabrous  to  a  hairy  condition  is  not  of  unusual  occurrence  in  plants. 
In  the  Stock  such  a  gradational  assumption  of  hahiness  is  apparent  no 
less  in  the  homozygous  form  containing  a  certain  weak  allelomorph 
controlling   surface  character,    when  present  with  the  factors   for  sap 
colour,  than  in  those  heterozygous  for  this  or    some    other    essential 
component.     We  see  a  similar  transition  in  several  members  of  the 
Scrofhulariacece — e.g.,  in  various  species  of  Digitalisi,  in  Antirrhinum 
majus,  Antirrhinum  Orontium,  Anarrhinum  pedaturn,  Pentstemon,  and 
Nemesia.     In  perennials  an  annual  recuiTence  of  this  change  of  phase 
tuay  be  seen,   as  in  various  species  of   ]"iola  and  in  Spircea  Ulnmria . 
It  is  somewhat  curious  that  the  transition  may  be  in  the  same  direction 
— from  smoothness  to  hairiness — in  forms  in  which  the  dominant-reces- 
sive relation  of  the  two  conditions  is  opposite  in  nature,  as  in  Matthiola 
on  the  one  hand  and  Digitalis  purpurea  nudicaulis  on  the  other.    Mani- 
festation of  the  dominant  characteristic  gradually  declines  in  the  Fox- 
glove, while  it  becomes  more  pronounced  in  the  Stock.     In  some,  per- 
haps all,  of  these  cases  the  allelomorphs  may  stand  for  certain  states 
of  physiological  equilibrium,  or  such  states  may  be  an  accompanying 
feature  of   factorial  action.     A  change  of  ])hase  may  mean  an  altered 
balance,  a  difference  of  rhythm  in   interdependent   physiological  pro- 
cesses.    In  the  case,  for  instance,   of  a  certain  sub-glabrous  strain  of 
Stock  in  which  the  presence  of  a    single    characteristically    branched 
hair  or    hair-tuft  over  the  water-gland  terminating    the  midrib  in   a 
leaf  otherwise  glabrous  is  an  hereditary  character,  it  is  hardly  conceiv- 
able that  there  is  a  localisation  in  this  region  of  a  special  hair-forming 
substance.     It  seems  more  probable  that  some  physiological  conditio ji 
intimately  connected  with  the  condition    of    water-content    at    some 
critical  period  is  a  causal  factor  in  hair  production,  and  that  this  con- 
dition is  set  up  over  the  whole  leaf  in  the  type,  but  in  the  particular 
strain  in  question  is  maintained  only  at  the  point  which  receives  the 

K. — BOTANY.  189 

largest  and  most  dii-ect  supply.  In  this  same  strain  a  leaf  may  now 
and  again  be  found  lacking  this  hydathode  trichome  in  an  otherwise 
continuous  hair-forming  series,  an  occurrence  which  may  well  result 
from  a  slight  fluctuation  in  physiological  equilibrium  such  as  is  inherent 
in  all  vital  processes — a  fluctuation  wlaich,  when  the  genetic  indicator 
is  set  so  near  to  the  zero  point,  may  well  send  it  off  the  scale  altogether. 
If,  as  is  not  improbable  in  this  and  similar  cases,  we  are  concerned  with 
a  complex  chain  of  physiological  processes,  investigation  of  the  nature 
of  the  differences  for  which  the  allelomorphs  stand  may  present  a  more 
difficult  problem  than  where  the  production  of  a  particular  chemical 
compound  appears  to  be  involved.  In  such  a  physiological  conception 
we  have  probably  the  explanation  of  the  non-appearance  of  the  recessive 
character  in  certain  dominant  cross-breds. 

Up  to  this  point  we  have  treated  of  the  organism  from  the  aspect 
of  its  being  a  wholly  self -controlled,  independent  system.     As  regards 
some  characteristics,  this  may  be  regarded  as  substantially  the  case. 
That  is  to   say,  the  soma  reflects  under  all   observed   conditions  the 
genetic   constitution   expressed    in    the    Mendelian    foi'mula.      Corre- 
spondence is  precise  between  genotypic    potentiality    and    phenotypic 
reality,  and  we  have  so  far  solved  our  problem  that  we  can  predict  cer- 
tainly and  accurately  the  appearance  of  offspring,  knowing  the  consti- 
tution of  the  parents.     In  such  cases  we  may  say  that  the  efficiency 
of  the  genetic  machine  works  out  at  100  per  cent.,   the  influence  of 
external  environment  at  (I.     Our  equation  somatic  appearance=factorial 
constitution   requii'es    no    correction    for   effect  of    conditions  of  tem- 
perature,   humidity,   illumination,    and   the   like.      But   most   somatic 
characters  show  some  degree   of  variability.     Phenotypic   appearance 
is  the  outcome  jirimarily  of  genotypic  constitution,   but  upon  this  are 
superposed  fluctuations,   slight  or  more   pronounced,     arising    as    the 
result  of  reaction  to  environmental  conditions.     In  the  extreme  case 
the  genetic  machinery  may,  so  to  speak,  be  put  out  of  action;  geno- 
typic potentiahty  no  longer  becomes  actual.     We  say  that  the  character 
is  not  inherited.     We  meet  with  such    an    example    in    Ranunculus 
aquatilifi.    According  to  Mer,-*^  the  terrestrial  form  of  this  plant  has  no 
hairs  on  the  ends  of  the  leaf  segments,  but  in  the  aquatic  individual  the 
segments  end  in  needle-shaped  hairs.     That  is  to  say,  hairs  of  a  definite 
form  are  produced  in  a  definite  region.     Again,  Massart  "^  finds  that 
in  Polygonum  amphib'mm    the    shoot    produces    characteristic    multi- 
cellular hairs  when  exposed  to  the  air,  but  if  submerged  it  ceases  to  form 
them  on  the  new  growth.     Every  individual,    however  bred,  behaves 
in  the  same  manner,  and  must  therefore  have  the  same  genetic  con- 
stitution.     In    an    atmospheric   environment    genotypic    expression    is 
achieved,  in  water  it  becomes  physiologically  impossible.     A  limitation 
to  genotypic  expression  may  in  like  manner  be  brought  about  by  the 
internal  environment,  for  the  relation  of  the  soma  to  the  germ  elements 
may  be  looked  upon  in  this  light.     Thus  in  the  case  of  a  long-pollened 
and  round-pollened  Sweet  Pea  Bateson  and  Punnett  -*  found  that  the 

="  Bull.  Soc.  Hot.  (le  France,  i.  27.  1880. 

"  B^lll.  Jard.  Bot.  BruxelUs,  i.  2,  1902. 

=s  Report  to  the  Erohition  Committee,  Roy.  Soc,  ii.,  190.5. 


Pi  pollen  grains  are  all  long,  yet  half  of  them  carry  the  factor  for 
roundness.  If  we  take  the  chromosome  view,  and  if  it  be  presumed 
that  the  factor  for  roundness  is  not  segregated  until  the  reduction 
division,  the  cytoplasm  of  the  pollen  mother  cells  may  be  supposed  to 
act  as  a  foreign  medium  owing  to  a  mixtm-e  of  qualities  having  been 
impressed  upon  it  through  the  presence  of  the  two  opposite  allelomorphs 
before  the  moment  of  segi'egation.  We  should  consequently  infer  that 
the  round  pollen  shape  is  only  produced  when  the  round-factor-bearing 
chromosome  is  surrounded  by  the  cytoplasm  of  an.  individual  which 
does  not  contain  the  long  factor.  If,  further,  we  regard  the  result  in 
this  case  as  indicative  of  the  normal  inter-relation  of  nucleus  and 
cytoplasm  in  the  hereditary  process,  we  shall  be  led  to  the  view  that 
whatever  the  earlier  condition  of  mutual  equilibrium  or  interchange 
between  these  two  essential  cell  constituents  may  be,  an  ultimate  stage 
is  reached  in  which  the  role  of  determining  agent  must  be  assigned  to 
the  nucleus.  To  pursue  this  theme  farther,  however,  in  the  present 
state  of  our  knowledge  would  serve  no  useful  purpose. 

Before  bringing  this  Address  to  a  conclusion  I  may  be  permitted  to 
add  one  word  of  explanation  and  appeal.  In  my  remarks  I  have 
deliberately  left  on  one  side  all  reference  to  the  immense  practical 
value  of  breeding  experiments  on  Mendelian  lines.  To  have  done  so 
adequately  would  have  absorbed  the  whole  time  at  my  disposal.  It  is 
unnecessary  to-day  to  point  out  the  enormous  social  and  economic  gain 
following  from  the  application  of  Mendelian  methods  of  investigation 
and  of  the  discoveries  which  have  resulted  therefrom  during  the  last 
twenty  years,  whether  we  have  in  mind  the  advance  in  our  knowledge 
of  the  inheritance  of  ordinary  somatic  characters  and  of  certain  patho- 
logical conditions  in  man,  of  immunity  from  disease  in  races  of  some 
of  our  most  important  food  plants,  or  of  egg-pi'oduction  in  our 
domestic  breeds  of  fowls. 

My  appeal  is  for  more  organised  co-operation  in  the  experimental 
study  of  Genetics.  It  is  a  not  uncommon  attitude  to  look  upon  the 
subject  of  Genetics  as  a  science  apart.  But  the  complex  nature  of  the 
problems  confronting  us  requires  that  the  attacking  force  should  be  a 
composite  one,  representing  all  arms.  Only  the  outworks  of  the 
fortress  can  fall  to  the  vanguard  of  breeders.  Their  part  done,  they 
wait  ready  to  hand  over  to  the  cytologists  with  whom  it  lies  to  con- 
solidate the  position  and  render  our  foothold  secure.  This  accom- 
plished, the  way  is  cleared  for  the  main  assault.  To  push  this  home 
we  urgently  need  reinforcements.  It  is  to  the  physiologists  and  to  the 
chemists  that  we  look  to  crown  the  victory.  By  their  co-operation 
alone  can  we  hope  to  win  inside  the  citadel  and  fal^hom  the  meaning  of 
those  activities  which  take  shape  daily  before  our  eyes  as  we  stand 
without   and  observe,  but  the   secret  of  which  is  withheld  from  our 

SECTION  L  :  CARDIFF,  1920. 


TO    THE 






The  requirements  of  the  Act  of  1918  and  the  endeavoui'  to  frame 
scales  of  salaries  for  teachers  on  a  national  basis  are,  at  present,  absorb- 
ing so  much  of  the  energy  of  those  engaged  in  educational  administra- 
tion that  I  have  thought  it  advisable  to  turn  our  attention  from  the 
immediate  needs  of  the  day  to  two  of  the  wider  aspects  of  our  educa- 
tional activities,  which  belong  to  the  spirit  rather  than  to  the  form  of 
our  educational  system. 

It  is  natural  that  in  this  meeting  of  the  British  Association  for  the 
Advancement  of  Science  I  should  take  first  the  Science  of  Education. 


The  value  to  education  of  science  and  the  scientific  method  has 
hitherto  been  for  the  most  part  indirect  and  incidental.  It  has  con- 
sisted very  largely  in  deductions  from  another  branch  of  study,  namely, 
psychology,  and  has  resulted  for  the  most  part  from  the  invasion  into 
education  of  those  who  wei'e  not  themselves  educationists.  A  moment 
has  now  been  reached  when  education  itself  should  be  made  the  subject 
of  a  distinct  department  of  science,  when  teachers  themselves  should 
become  scientists. 

There  is  in  this  respect  a  close  analogy  between  education  and 
medicine.  Training  the  mind  implies  a  knowledge  of  the  mind,  just 
as  healing  the  body  implies  a  knowledge  of  the  body.  Thus,  logically, 
education  is  based  upon  psychology,  as  medicine  is  based  on  anatomy 
and  physiology.  And  there  the  text-books  of  educational  method  are 
usually  content  to  leave  it.  But  medicine  is  much  more  than  applied 
physiology.  It  constitutes  an  independent  system  of  facts,  gathered 
and  analysed,  not  by  physiologists  in  the  laboratory,  but  by  physicians 
working  in  the  hospital  or  by  the  bedside.  In  the  same  way,  then, 
education  as  a  science  should  be  something  more  than  mere  applied 
psychology.  It  must  be  built  up  not  out  of  the  speculations  of 
theorists,  or  from  the  deductions  of  psychologists,  but  by  direct, 
definite,  ad  hoc  inquiries  concentrated  upon  the  problems  of  the  class- 



room  by  teachers  themselves.  When  by  their  own  researches  teachers 
have  demonstrated  that  their  art  is,  in  fact,  a  science,  then,  and  not 
till  then,  will  the  public  allow  them  the  moral,  social,  and  economic 
status  which  it  already  accords  to  other  professions.  The  engineer 
and  the  doctor  are  duly  recognised  as  scientific  experts.  The  educa- 
tionisli  should  see  to  it  that  his  science  also  becomes  recognised,  no 
longer  as  a  general  topic  upon  which  any  cultured  layman  may  dog- 
matise, but  as  a  technical  branch  of  science,  in  which  the  educationist 
alone,  in  virtue  of  his  special  knowledge,  his  special  training,  his  special 
experience,  is  the  acknowledged  expert. 

Educational  science  has  hitherto  followed  two  main  lines  of  investiga- 
tion: first,  the  evaluation  and  improvement  of  teachers'  methods; 
secondly,  the  diagnosis  and  treatment  of  children's  individual  capacities. 

I.   The  Psychology  of  the  Individual  Child. 

It  is  upon  the  latter  problem,  or  group  of  problems,  that  experi- 
mental work  has  in  the  past  been  chiefly  directed,  and  in  the  imme- 
diate future  is  likely  to  be  concentrated  with  the  most  fruitful  results. 
The  recent  advances  in  '  individual  psychology  ' — the  youngest  branch 
of  that  infant  science — ^have  greatly  emphasised  the  need,  and  assisted 
the  development,  of  individual  teaching.  The  keynote  of  successful 
instruction  is  to  adapt  that  instruction  to  the  individual  child.  But 
before  instruction  can  be  so  adapted,  the  needs  and  the  capacities  of 
the  individual  child  must  first  be  discovered. 

A.  Diagnosis. 

Such  discovery  (as  in  all  sciences)  may  proceed  by  two  methods, 
by  observation  and  by  experiment. 

(1)  The  method  is  in  education  the  older.  At  one  time, 
in  the  hands  of  Stanley  Hall  and  his  followers — the  pioneers  of  the 
Child-Study  movement — ^observation  yielded  fruitful  results.  And  it 
is  perhaps  to  be  regretted  that  of  late  simple  observation  and  descrip- 
tion have  been  neglected  for  the  more  ambitious  method  of  experi- 
mental tests.  There  is  much  that  a  vigilant  teacher  can  do  without 
using  any  special  apparatus  and  without  conducting  any  special  ex- 
pex'iment.  Conscientious  records  of  the  behaviour  and  responses  of 
individual  children,  accurately  described  without  any  admixture  of  in- 
ference or  hypothesis,  would  lay  broad  foundations  upon  which  subse- 
quent investigators  could  build.  The  study  of  children's  temperament 
and  character,  for  example — factors  which  liave  not  yet  been  accorded 
their  due  weight  in  education — must  for  the  present  proceed  upon 
these  simpler  lines. 

(2)  Witli  experimental  tests  the  progress  made  during  the  last 
decade  has  been  enormous.  The  intelligence  scale  devised  by  Binet  for 
the  diagnosis  of  mental  deficiency,  the  mental  tests  employed  by  the 
Ameiican  army,  the  vocational  tests  now  coming  into  use  for  the  selec- 
tion of  employees — these  have  done  much  to  familiarise,  not  school 
teachers  and  school  doctors  only,  but  also  the  general  public,  with  the 
aims  and  possibilities  of  psychological  measurement.  More  recently 
an  endeavour  has  been  made  to  assess  directly  the  results  of  school 

L. — EDUCATIOK.  193 

instruction,  and  to  record  in  quantitative  terms  the  course  of  progress 
from  year  to  year,  by  means  of  standardised  tests  for  educational  attain- 
ments. In  this  country  research  committees  of  the  British  Association 
and  of  the  Child-Study  Society  have  already  commenced  the  standardisa- 
tion of  normal  performances  in  such  subjects  as  reading  and  arithmetic. 
In  America  attempts  have  been  made  to  standardise  even  more  elusive 
subjects,  such  as  drawing,  handwork,  English  composition,  and  the 
subjects  of  the  curriculum  of  the  secondary  school. 

B.   Treatment. 

This  work  of  diagnosis  has  done  much  to  foster  individual  and 
differential  teaching — the  adaptation  of  education  to  individual  children, 
or  at  least  to  special  groups  and  types.  It  has  not  only  assisted  the 
machinery  of  segregation — of  selecting  the  mentally  deficient  child  at  one 
end  of  the  scale  and  the  scholarship  child  at  the  other  end ;  but  it  has 
also  provided  a  method  for  assessing  the  results  of  different  teaching 
methods  as  applied  to  these  segregated  groups.  Progress  has  been  most 
pronounced  in  the  case  of  the  sub-normal.  The  mentally  defective  arc 
now  taught  in  special  schools,  and  receive  an  instruction  of  a  specially 
adapted  type.  Some  advance  has  more  recently  been  made  in  differen- 
tiating the  various  grades  and  kinds  of  so-called  deficiency,  and  in  dis- 
criminating between  the  deficient  and  the  merely  backwai'd  and  dull. 
With  regard  to  the  morally  defective  and  delinquent  little  scientific  work 
hais  been  attempted  in  this  country,  with  the  sole  exception  of  the  new 
experiment  initiated  by  the  Birmingham  justices.  In  the  United  States 
some  twenty  centres  or  clinics  have  been  established  for  the  psycho- 
logical examination  of  exceptional  children;  and  in  England  school 
medical  officers  and  others  have  urged  the  need  for  '  intermediate ' 
classes  or  schools  not  only  to  accommodate  backward  and  borderline 
cases  and  cases  of  limited  or  special  defect  {e.g.,  '  number-defect  '  and 
so-called  '  word-bhndness  ')  but  also  to  act  as  clearing-houses. 

In  Germany  and  elsewhere  special  interest  has  been  aroused  in 
super-normal  children.  The  few  investigations  already  made  show 
clearly  that  additional  attention,  expenditure,  study,  and  provision  will 
yield  for  the  community  a  far  richer  return  in  the  case  of  the  super- 
normal than  in  the  sub-normal. 

At  Harvard  and  elsewhere  psychologists  have  for  some  time  been 
elaborating  psychological  tests  to  select  those  who  are  best  fitted  for 
different  types  of  vocation.  The  investigation  is  still  only  in  its  initial 
stages.  But  it  is  clear  that  if  vocational  guidance  were  based,  in  part 
at  least,  upon  obseiTations  and  records  made  at  school,  instead  of  being 
based  upon  the  limited  interests  and  knowledge  of  the  child  and  his 
parents,  then  not  only  employers,  but  also  employees,  their  work,  and 
the  community  as  a  whole,  would  profit.  A  large  proportion  of  the 
vast  wastage  involved  in  the  current  system  of  indiscriminate  engage- 
ment on  probation  would  be  saved. 

The  influence  of  sex,  social  status,  and  race  upon  individual  differ- 
ences in  educational   abilities  has   been    studied  upon   a  small  scale. 
The  differences  are  marked :    and  differences  in  sex  and  social  status, 
when  better  understood,  might  well  b^  taken  intQ  account  both    in 
1920  0 


diagnosing  mental  deficiency  and  in  awarding  scholarships.  As  a  rule, 
however,  those  due  to  sex  and  race  are  smaller  than  is  popularly  sup- 
posed. How  far  these  differences,  and  those  associated  with  social 
status,  are  inborn  and  ineradicable,  and  how  far  they  are  due  to 
differences  in  training  and  in  tradition,  can  hardly  be  determined  without 
a  vast  array  of  data. 

II.   Teaching  Methods. 

The  subjects  taught  and  the  methods  of  teaching  have  considerably 
changed  during  recent  years.  In  the  more  progressive  types  of  schools 
several  broad  tendencies  may  be  discerned.  All  owe  their  acceptance 
in  part  to  the  results  of  scientific  investigators. 

(1)  Far  less  emphasis  is  now  laid  upon  the  disciplinary  value  of 
subjects,  and  upon  subjects  whose  value  is  almost  solely  disciplinary. 
Following  in  the  steps  of  a  series  of  American  investigators,  Winch  and 
Sleight  in  this  country  have  shown  very  clearly  that  practice  in  one 
kind  of  activity  produces  improvements  in  other  kinds  of  activities,  only 
under  very  limited  and  special  conditions.  The  whole  conception  of 
transfer  of  training  is  thus  changed,  or  (some  maintain)  destroyed; 
and  the  earlier  notion  of  education  as  the  strengthening,  through  exer- 
cise, of  certain  general  faculties  has  consequently  been  revolutionised. 
There  is  a  tendency  to  select  subjects  and  methods  of  teaching  rather 
for  their  material  than  their  general  value. 

(2)  Far  less  emphasis  is  now  laid  upon  an  advance  according  to  strict 
logical  sequence  in  teaching  a  given  subject  of  the  curriculum  to  children 
of  successive  ages.  The  steps  and  methods  are  being  adapted  rather  to 
the  natural  capacities  and  interests  of  the  child  of  each  age.  This 
genetic  standpoint  has  received  great  help  and  encouragement  from 
experimental  psychology.  Binet's  own  scale  of  intelligence  was  in- 
tended largely  as  a  study  in  the  mental  development  of  the  normal  child. 
The  developmental  phases  of  particular  characteristics  (e.g.,  children's 
ideals)  and  special  characteristics  of  particular  developmental  phases 
(e.g.,  adolescence)  have  been  elaborately  studied  by  Stanley  Hall  and  his 
followers.  Psychology,  indeed,  has  done  much  to  emphasise  the  im- 
portance of  the  post-pubertal  period — the  school-leaving  age,  and  the 
years  that  follow.  Such  studies  have  an  obvious  bearing  upon  the 
curriculum  and  methods  for  our  new  continuation  schools.  But  it  is, 
perhaps,  in  the  revolutionary  changes  in  the  teaching  methods  of  the 
infants'  schools,  changes  that  are  already  profoundly  influencing  the 
methods  of  the  senior  department,  that  the  influence  of  scientific  study 
has  been  most  strongly  at  work. 

(3)  Increasing  emphasis  is  now  being  laid  upon  mental  and  motor 
activities.  Early  educational  practice,  like  early  psychology,  was  ex- 
cessively intellectualistic.  Eecent  child-study,  however,  has  em- 
phasised the  importance  of  the  motor  and  of  the  emotional  aspects  of 
the  child's  mental  life.  As  a  consequence,  the  theory  and  practice 
of  education  have  assumed  more  of  the  pragmatic  character  which  has 
characterised  contemporary  philosophy. 

The  progressive  introduction  of  manual  and  practical  subjects,  both 
in  and  for  themselves,  and  as  aspects  of  other  subjects,  forms  the  most 

L, — EDUCATION.  195 

notable  instance  of  this  tendency.  The  educational  process  is  assumed 
to  start,  not  from  the  child's  sensations  (as  nineteenth-century  theoiy 
was  so  apt  to  maintain),  but  rather  from  his  motor  reactions  to  certain 
perceptual  objects — objects  of  vital  importance  to  him  and  to  his  species 
under  primitive  conditions,  and  therefore  appealing  to  certain  instinctive 
impulses.  Further,  the  child's  activities  in  the  school  should  be,  not 
indeed  identical  with,  but  continuous  with,  the  activities  of  his  subse- 
quent profession  or  trade.  Upon  these  grounds  handicraft  should  now 
find  a  place  in  every  school  curriculum.  It  will  be  inserted  both  for 
its  own  sake,  and  for  the  sake  of  its  connections  with  other  subjects, 
whether  they  be  subjects  of  school  life,  of  after  life,  or  of  human  life 

(4)  As  a  result  of  recent  psychological  work,  more  attention  is  now 
being  paid  to  the  emotional,  moral,  and  esthetic  activities.  This  is  a 
second  instance  of  the  same  reaction  from  excessive  intellectualism. 
Education  in  this  country  has  ever  claimed  to  form  character  as  well  as 
to  impart  knowledge.  Formerly,  this  aim  characterised  the  Public 
Schools  rather  than  the  public  elementary  schools.  Eecently,  however, 
much  has  been  done  to  infuse  into  the  latter  something  of  the  spirit  of 
the  Public  Schools.  The  principle  of  self-government,  for  example,  has 
been  applied  with  success  not  only  in  certain  elementary  schools,  but 
also  in  several  colonies  for  juvenile  delinquents.  And,  in  the  latter 
case,  its  success  has  been  attributed  by  the  initiators  directly  to  the 
fact  that  it  is  the  corollary  of  sound  child-psychology. 

Bearing  closely  upon  the  subject  of  moral  and  emotional  training 
is  the  work  of  the  psycho-analysts.  Freud  has  shown  that  many  forms 
of  mental  inefficiency  in  later  life — both  major  (such  as  hysteria, 
neurosis,  certain  kinds  of  '  shell-shock,'  &c.)  and  minor  (such  as  lapses 
of  memory,  of  action,  slips  of  tongue  and  pen) — are  traceable  to  the 
repression  of  emotional  experiences  in  earlier  Hfe.  The  principles 
themselves  may,  perhaps,  still  be  regarded  as,  in  part,  a  matter  of 
controversy.  But  the  discoveries  upon  which  they  are  based  vividly 
illustrate  the  enormous  importance  of  the  natural  instincts,  interests, 
and  activities  inherited  by  the  child  as  part  of  his  biological  equip- 
ment; and,  together  with  the  work  done  by  Enghsh  psychologists  such 
as  Shand  and  McDougall  upon  the  emotional  basis  of  character,  have 
already  had  a  considerable  influence  upon  educational  theory  in  this 

(5)  Increasing  emphasis  is  now  being  laid  upon  freedom  for  indi- 
vidual effort  and  initiative.  Here,  again,  the  corollaries  drawn  from  the 
psycho-analytic  doctrines  as  to  the  dangers  of  repression  are  most  sug- 
gestive. Already  a  better  understanding  of  child-nature  has  led  to  the 
substitution  of  '  internal  '  for  '  external '  discipline ;  and  the  pre-deter- 
mmed  routine  demanded  of  entire  classes  is  giving  way  to  the  growing 
recognition  of  the  educational  value  of  spontaneous  efforts  initiated  by 
the  individual,  alone  or  in  social  co-operation  with  his  fellows. 

In  appealing  for  greater  freedom  still,  the  new  psychology  is  in  line 
with  the  more  advanced  educational  experiments,  such  as  the  work  done 
by  Madame  Montessori  and  the  founders  of  the  Little  Commonwealth; 

(6)  The  hygiene  and  technique  of  mental  work  is  itself  being  based 



upon  scientific  investigation.  Of  the  numerous  problems  in  the  con- 
ditions and  character  of  mental  work  generally,  two  deserve  especial 
mention — fatigue,  and  the  economy  and  technique  of  learning. 

But  of  all  the  results  of  educational  psychology,  perhaps  the  most 
valuable  is  the  slow  but  progressive  inculcation  of  the  whole  teaching 
profession  with  a  scientific  spirit  in  their  work,  and  a  scientific  attitude 
towards  their  pupils  and  their  problems.  Matter  taught  and  teaching 
methods  are  no  longer  exclusively  determined  by  mere  tradition  or  mere 
opinion.  They  are  being  based  more  and  more  upon  impartial  observa- 
tion, careful  records,  and  statistical  analysis — often  assisted  by  laboi'a- 
tory  technique — of  the  actual  behaviour  of  individual  children. 


I  turn  now  to  the  second  aspect. 

So  much  of  our  educational  system  is  voluntary  that  it  is  often 
called  a  dual  system.  But  in  speaking  of  a  dual  system  only  the 
primary  stage  is,  as  a  rule,  in  our  minds.  Yet  to  foreign  students  some 
parts  of  our  higher  education,  e.g.,  the  Public  Schools,  appear  as  that 
which  is  most  definitely  English  in  character.  The  Public  Schools, 
however,  form  no  part  of  the  system  of  public  (i.e.  of  State  and  muni- 
cipal) education  and  are  not  directly  associated  with  it. 

The  reasons  are  fairly  obvious.  Many  of  the  Public  Schools  are 
centuries  old ;  our  public  system  began  but  fifty  years  ago.  The  Act  of 
1870  gave  us  only  public  elementary  schools.  More  than  thirty  years 
elapsed  before  we  had  the  beginnings  of  a  system  of  secondary  schools. 
Even  to-day,  with  the  comprehensive  Act  of  1918,  whose  primary 
object  is  to  establish  a  national  system  of  education,  the  Public  Schools, 
owing  largely  to  the  fact  that  the  Act  is  administered  by  318  Local 
Education  Authorities,  retain  a  '  non-local '  character. 

The  Public  Schools  of  England  have  no  parallel.  They  have  their 
defects  and  their  critics ;  but  they  have  had  a  paramount  influence  on 
the  intellectual  and  social  life  of  the  counti'y.  They  are  admired  less 
for  the  intellectual  severity  of  the  class-room  than  for  their  traditions, 
their  form  of  self-government,  and  as  training  places  of  a  generous 
spirit.  In  the  past  the  Public  Schools  in  the  education  of  the  aristocracy 
achieved  a  national  purpose.  They  were  the  nurseries  of  English 
thought  and  action.  Now  that  the  predominant  power  in  the  State 
has  passed  to  the  nation  as  a  whole,  it  would  only  be  in  keeping  with 
their  long-cherished  traditions  if  the  Public  Schools  were  to  seek  a 
share  in  the  education  of  democracy.  Moreover,  the  problems  of  Local 
Education  Authorities  are  of  such  absorbing  interest  that  the  profes- 
sional snirit  of  the  Public  Schoolmaster  must  be  longing  to  assist  in 
their  solution. 

The  two  older  Universities  have  had  a  history,  and  have  borne  a 
part  in  the  national  life,  analogous  to,  but  on  a  much  larger  scale  than, 
the  Public  Scliools.  They  also  are  '  non-local ' :  they  serve  the  Empire. 
The  newer  LTniversities  are  much  more  local  in  character.  Yet  as  a 
whole  it  can  hardly  be  said  that  they  exercise  an  important  influence 
on  the  work  of  the  Local  Education  Authorities.  I  am  not  overlooking 
the  fact  tjiat  the  Universities,  like  the  Public  Schools,  play  their  owq 

L. — EDUCATION.  197 

part  in  providing  the  most  advanced  education ;  nor  that  they  place 
their  best  at  the  disposal  of  the  Local  Education  Authorities'  scholars 
and  contribute  a  part  of  the  teaching  staff.  I  am,  however,  to-day 
suggesting  a  closer  association  with  Local  Education  Authoi'ities,  and  of 
bringing  to  bear  more  immediately  on  local  and  public  education  the 
wealth  of  their  long  experience  and  the  riches  of  their  accumulated 

There  is  a  third  group  of  institutions  which  have  had  a  large 
share  in  English  education.  I  refer  to  the  endowed  Grammar  Schools. 
Partly  of  choice,  partly  through  stress  of  circumstances,  many  of 
these  schools  have  joined  forces  with  the  Local  Education  Authorities. 
With  the  recent  rapid  growth  in  the  cost  of  maintenance  and  with  in- 
adequacy of  other  sources  of  income  they  have  received  '  aid  '  from 
the  Authority.  Some  have  become  municipal  schools :  others  have 
undertaken  to  bear  their  share  m  local  work,  but  have  retained  their 
individuality  of  character  and  independence  of  Government,  to  both  of 
which  they  are  passionately  attached.  All  have  contributed  much  to 
the  general  stoi'ehouse  of  ideas,  and  the  local  system  has  been  enriched 
by  the  co-operation  of  forces  of  different  origin,  methods,  and  historical 

All  three  groups  of  institutions  were  founded  by  the  few  whose  spirit 
in  so  far  as  it  sought  the  spread  of  education  has  now  passed  to  the 
multitude.  They  are  ali  national  institutions,  but,  with  the  exceptions 
to  which  I  have  referred,  they  form  no  part  of  the  national  system 
administered  by  Local  Education  Authorities  and  supervised  by  the 
Board  of  Education.  I  do  not,  of  course,  suggest  control.  That  is 
obviously  impossible  in  the  case  of  two  of  the  groups.  Nor  am  I 
to-day  thinking  of  making  constructive  proposals  as  to  the  forms  of 
associations.  Such  proposals  will,  I  hope,  be  put  forward  later  in  the 
week.  For  the  moment  it  will  be  sufficient  to  add  that  the  association 
desired  is  direct  and  close  rather  than  mdirect  and  remote,  and  in 
teaching  rather  than  in  administration. 

_  There  is  one  further  group  which  I  cannot  pass  in  silence:  the 
private  schools.  Each  Local  Education  Authority  must,  under  Section  1 
of  the  Act  of  1918,  submit  a  scheme  for  the  progi-essive  and  compre- 
hensive organisation  of  education  within  its  area.  Presumably,  each 
Local  Education  Authority  will  include  the  local  '  places  '  in  efficient 
private  schools  as  part  of  the  accommodation  already  provided  in  the 
area.  All  such  efficient  private  schools,  whether  run  for  private  profit 
or  not,  reduce  the  pi'ovision  to  be  made  by  the  Authority.  To  the 
extent  to  which  they  relieve  the  burden  on  the  Authority  they  are 
therefore  contributing  to  the  public  service.  In  return  the  Authority, 
while  it  cannot  financially  assist  schools  conducted  for  private  profit' 
can  confer  advantages  through  close  association  with  its  organisation! 
All  private  schools  doing  local  work,  at  all  events  all  which  claim  to 
be  efficient,  would  therefore  serve  their  own  interests  and  render  public 
service  by  entering  into  communication  with  the  Authority  and  getting 
the  lines  of  local  co-operation  satisfactorily  adjusted. 


It  would  not  be  possible  to  exhaust  the  possibilities  of  co-operation  of 
voluntary  endeavour  with  the  public  system,  even  if  my  whole  paper 
had  been  devoted  to  this  subject.  I  am  anxious,  however,  to  carry 
my  suggestions  one  step  further.  It  is  of  the  essence  of  voluntary 
effort  that  it  is  constantly  evolving  new  forms.  In  most  large  towns 
within  the  last  ten  years  Care  Committees  have  been  established,  some 
merely  to  assist  the  Authorities  in  carrying  out  the  more  social  powers 
and  duties  conferred  on  them  by  the  Act;  others  with  the  higher 
ambition  of  'building  up  the  homes.'  Such  Care  Committees  have 
rendered  a  great  service  to  their  areas  not  only  in  work  actually  done 
under  the  direction  of  the  Authority,  but  in  the  fact  that  they  have 
frequently  introduced  new  and  opposite  points  of  view  from  those  of 
the  administration.  The  Act  of  1918  offers  wider  opportunities,  and 
many  social  workers  are  beginning  to  realise  it.  During  the  last 
twelve  months,  in  connection  with  the  establishment  of  Day  Continua- 
tion Schools,  I  have  met  in  consultation,  or  addressed  meetings,  of 
social  workers,  trades-union  representatives,  club  leaders,  employers, 
clergy  of  various  denominations,  and  parents ;  together  and  separately. 
I  have  met  with  opposition  and  criticism  and  divergent  points  of  view, 
but  what  has  gratified  me  most  has  been  the  general  and  eager  desire 
for  an  increase  in  educational  facilities  and  an  improvement  in  social 
conditions.  No  subject  for  discussion  has  been  so  well  received  as  that 
of  training  our  young  workers  to  use  their  leisure  wisely.  There  has 
been  the  fullest  recognition  that  all  must  join  up  in  the  common  task ; 
that  the  greatest  opportunity  of  our  time  for  joint  endeavour  in  a  wider 
educational  effort  has  come ;  to  miss  it  would  be  something  in  the 
nature  of  a  betrayal  of  our  several  functions.  If  our  continuation 
schools  are  to  become  national,  not  only  in  the  sense  of  being  universal 
and  comprehensive,  but  in  the  generous  nature  of  the  spirit  which 
inspires  them,  all  that  is  best  in  our  trade,  social,  and  sports  organisa- 
tions must  be  brought  to  bear  on  their  external  and  internal  activities. 
On  this  ground  alone  I  feel  sure  that  there  was  general  satisfaction 
that  the  guidance  of  the  Juvenile  Organisation  Committees,  and  al! 
that  they  stand  for,  was  transferred  from  the  Home  Office,  which  has 
the  great  credit  of  having  consolidated  them,  to  the  Board  of  Education, 
which  is  the  official  foster-mother  of  our  educational  system.  In  the 
London  area  the  Juvenile  Organisation  Committees  have  gradually  be- 
come representative  in  the  widest  sense  of  all  social  organisations, 
and  it  is  anticipated  that  before  long  lines  of  co-operation  with  the 
Authority  will  be  established.  The  task  in  all  areas  is  so  large  that 
there  is  ample  room  for  all ;  it  is  so  complex  that  there  is  need  for  all 
and  it  is  of  such  importance  to  the  future  that  it  w^ould  be  a  national 
misfortune  not  to  welcome  the  service  of  all. 

It  is  difficult  for  this  generation  to  estimate  with  true  insight  the 
after-effects  of  the  war.  But  it  would  seem  as  if  there  had  rarely  been 
a  time  when  the  minds  of  men  were  so  much  loosened  from  great 
principles.  Such  a  condition  is  no  doubt  partly  a  reaction  from  a 
period  of  tense  anxiety  in  which  suppression  of  the  individual  and 
sacrifice  for  the  community  were  the  demands  of  a  struggle  for  existence. 
But  the  general  mental  attitude  may  also  be  a  reaction,  accentuated  by  the 

L. — EDUCATION.  199 

war,  against  the  interpretation  of  the  great  principles  which  has  hitherto 
directed  us,  to  continue  to  desei've  universal  adherence.  The  outlook  is 
yet  clouded.  Will  the  present  individuaHstic  point  of  view  continue,  or 
are  we  but  being  carried  through  a  transition  phase  until  the  coming 
of  a  new  rallying  cry  which  will  restate  the  brotherhood  of  man  in 
some  new  and  captivating  form?  However  that  may  be,  our  course 
seems  clear :  it  is  to  develop  the  intelligence  and  the  spirit  of  social 
service  in  our  whole  population  in  complete  confidence  that  the  solidity 
of  the  English  character  fortified  with  such  weapons  will  maintain  and 
expand  that  civilisation  which  has  brought  us  so  far,  and  which  we 
owe  it  to  posterity  to  hand  on  not  only  unimpaired,  but  broadened  and 
deepened  by  new  streams  of  thought  and  action.  It  is  in  this  sense  that 
the  spread  of  educational  advantages  is  the  hope  of  all,  and  that  I 
have  made  this  appeal  for  all  educational  and  social  forces  to  concen- 
trate in  one  national  effort.     In  the  words  of  one  of  our  greatest  poets : 

Give  all  thou  canst — high  Heaven  rejects  the  lore 
Of  nicely   calculated   less  or  more. 

SECTION  M  :   CARDIFF,  1920. 







Intensive  CuUivatioii. 

There  is,  so  far  as  I  can  discover,  no  reason — save  one — why  I 
sliould  have  been  called  upon  to  assume  the  presidency  of  the  Agri- 
cultural Section  of  the  British  Association,  or  why  I  should  have  been 
temerarious  enough  to  accept  so  high  an  honour  and  such  a  heavy  load 
of  responsibility.  For  upon  the  theme  of  Agriculture  as  commonly 
understood  I  could  speak,  were  I  to  speak  at  all,  but  as  a  scribe  and 
not  as  one  in  authority.  The  on©  reason,  however,  which  must  have 
directed  the  makers  of  presidents  in  their  present  choice  is,  I  believe, 
so  cogent  that  despite  my  otherwise  unworthiness  I  dared  not  refuse 
the  invitation.  It  is  that,  in  appointing  me,  agriculturists  desired  to 
indicate  the  brotherhood  which  they  feel  with  intensive  cultivators.  As 
properly  proud  sisters  of  an  improved  tale  they  have  themselves  issued 
an  invitation  to  the  Horticultural  Cinderella  to  attend  their  party,  and 
in  conformity  with  present  custom,  which  requires  each  lady  to  bring 
her  partner,  I  am  here  as  her  friend. 

Nor  could  any  invitation  give  me  greater  pleasure :  for  my  devotion 
to  Horticulture  is  profound  and  my  affection  that  of  a  lover.  My  only 
fear  is  lest  I  should  weary  my  hosts  with  her  praises,  for  in  conformity 
with  this  interpretation  I  propose  to  devote  my  Address  entirely  to 
Horticulture — to  speak  of  its  performance  during  the  war  and  of  its 
immediate  prospects. 

Although  that  which  intensive  cultivators  accomplished  during  the 
war  is  small  in  comparison  with  the  great  work  performed  by  British 
agriculturists,  yet  nevertheless  it  is  in  itself  by  no  means  incon- 
siderable, and  is,  moreover,  significant  and  deserves  a  brief  record. 
That  work  may  have  turned  and  probably  did  turn  the  scale  between 
scarcity  and  sufficiency ;  for,  as  I  am  informed,  a  difference  of  10  per 
cent,  in  food  supplies  is  enough  to  convert  plenty  into  dearth.  Seen 
from  this  standpoint  the  war-work  accomplished  by  tlie  professional 
horticulturist — the  nurseryman,  the  florist,  the  glass-house  cultivator, 
the  fruit-grower  and  market  gardener,  and  by  the  professional  and 
amateur  gardener  and  allotment  holder  assumes  a  real  importance, 
albeit  that  the  sum-total  of  the  acres  they  cultivated  is  but  a  fraction 
of  the  land  which  agriculturists  put  under  the  plough. 

M. — ^AGRICULTURE.  201 

As  a  set-off  against  the  relative  smallness  of  the  acreage  brought 
during  the  war  under  intensive  cultivation  for  food  purposes,  it  is  to  be 
remembered  that  the  yields  per  acre  obtained  by  intensive  cultivators 
arc  remarkably  high.  For  example,  skilled  onion-growers  compute 
their  average  yield  at  something  less  than  5  tons  to  the  acre.  A 
chrysanthemum -grower  who  turned  his  resources  from  the  production 
of  those  flowers  to  that  of  onions  obtained  over  an  area  of  several  acres 
a  yield  of  17  tons  per  acre.  The  average  yield  of  potatos 
under  farm  conditions  in  England  and  Wales  is  a  little  over  6  tons  to 
the  acre,  whereas  the  army  gardeners  in  France  produced,  from  Scotch 
seed  of  Arran  Chief  which  was  sent  to  them,  crops  of  14  tons  to 
the  acre.  Needless  to  say,  such  a  rate  of  yield  as  this  is  not  remarkable 
when  compared  with  that  obtained  by  potato-growers  in  tiie 
Lothians  or  in  Lincolnshire,  but  it  is  nevertlieless  noteworthy  as  an 
indication  of  what  I  think  may  be  accepted  as  a  fact,  that  the  average 
yields  from  intensive  cultivation  are  about  double  those  achieved  by 
extensive  methods. 

The  reduction  of  the  acreage  under  soft  fruits — strawberries,  rasp- 
berries, currants,  and  gooseberries — w*hich  took  place  during  the 
war  gives  some  measure  of  the  sacrifices — partly  voluntary,  partly 
involuntary — made  by  fruit-gix3wers  to  the  cause  of  war-food  produc- 
tion. The  total  area  under  soft  fruits  was  65,560  acres  in  1913, 
by  1918  it  had  become  42,415,  a  decrease  of  13,145  acres,  or  about 
24  per  cent.  As  would  be  expected,  the  reduction  was  greatest  in  the 
case  of  strawberries,  the  acreage  of  which  fell  from  21,692  in  1913  to 
13,143  in  1918,  a  decrease  of  8,549  acres,  or  about  40  per  cent.  It  is 
unfortunate  that  bad  causes  often  have  best  propagandas,  for  were  the 
public  made  aware  of  such  facts  as  these  they  would  realise  that  the 
present  high  prices  of  soft  fruits  are  of  the  nature  of  deferred  premiums 
on  war-risk  insurances  with  respect  to  which  the  public  claims  were 
paid  in  advance  and  in  full. 

I  should  add  that  the  large  reduction  of  the  strawberry  acreage  is  a 
measure  no  less  of  the  short-sightedness  of  officials  than  of  the  public 
spirit  of  fruit-growers;  for  in  the  earlier  years  of  the  war  many 
counties  issued  compulsory  orders  requiring  the  grubbing  up  and 
restriction  of  planting  of  fruit,  and  I  well  remember  that  one  of  my 
first  tasks  as  Controller  of  Horticulture  was  to  intervene  with  the  object 
of  convincing  the  enthusiasts  of  corn  production  that,  in  war,  some 
peace-time  luxuries  become  necessaries  and  that,  to  a  sea-girt  island 
beset  by  submarines,  home-grown  fruit  most  certainly  falls  into  this 

Those  who  were  in  positions  of  responsibiHty  at  that  time  will  not 
readily  forget  the  shifts  to  which  they  were  put  to  secure  and  preserve 
supplies  of  any  sorts  of  fruit  which  could  be  turned  into  jam — the 
collection  of  blackberries,  the  installation  of  pulping  factories  which 
Mr.  Martin  and  I  initiated,  and  the  rushing  of  supplies  of  scarcely  set 
jam  to  great  towns,  the  populace  of  which,  full  of  a  steadfast  fortitude 
in  the  face  of  military  misfortune,  was  ominously  losing  its  sweetness 
of  disposition  owing  to  the  absence  of  jam  and  the  dubiousness  of  the 
supply  and  quality  of  margarine. 


But  though  the  pubUc  lost  in  one  direction  it  gained  in  another, 
and  the  reduction  of  the  soft-fruit  acreage  meant — reckoned  in  terms  of 
potatos — an  augmentation  of  supphes  to  the  extent  of  over  100,000 
tons.  Equally  notable  was  the  contribution  to  food  production  made 
by  the  florists  and  nurserymen  in  response  to  our  appeals.  An  indication 
of  their  effort  is  supplied  by  figuras  which,  as  president  of  the  British 
Florists'  Federation,  Mr.  George  Munro — whose  invaluable  work  for 
food  production  deserves  public  recognition — caused  to  be  collected. 
They  relate  to  the  amount  of  food  production  undertaken  by  100  leading 
florists  and  nurserymen.  These  men  put  1,075  acres,  out  of  a  total  of 
1,775  acres  used  previously  for  flower-growing,  to  the  purpose  of  food 
production,  and  they  put  142  acres  of  glass  out  of  a  total  of  218  acres 
to  like  use.  I  compute  that  their  contribution  amounted  to  considerably 
more  than  12,000  tons  of  potatos  and  5,000  tons  of  tomatos. 

The  market  gi'owers  of  Evesham  and  other  districts  famous  for  inten- 
sive cultivation  also  did  their  share  by  substituting  for  luxury  crops, 
such  as  celery,  those  of  greater  food  value,  and  even  responded  to  our 
appeals  to  increase  the  acreage  under  that  most  chancy  of  crops — ^the 
onion,  by  laying  down  an  additional  4,000  acres  and  thereby  doubling 
a  crop  which  more  than  any  other  supplies  accessory  food  substances 
to  the  generality  of  the  people. 

In  this  connection  the  yields  of  potatos  secured  by  Gennany  and 
this  country  during  the  war  period  are  worthy  of  scrutiny. 

The  pre-war  averages  were:  Germany  42,450,000  tons,  United 
Kingdom  6,950,000  tons;  and  the  figures  for  1914  were:  Germany 
41,850,000  tons,  United  Kingdom  7,47B,000  tons. 

Germany's  supreme  effort  was  made  in  1915  with  a  yield  of 
49,570,000  tons,  or  about  17  per  cent,  above  average.  In  that  year  our 
improvement  was  only  half  as  good  as  that  of  Germany :  our  crop  of 
7,540,000  tons  bettering  our  average  by  only  8  per  cent.  In  1916 
weather  played  havoc  with  the  crops  in  both  countries,  but  Germany 
suffered  most.  The  yield  fell  to  20,650,000  tons,  a  decreass  of  more 
than  50  per  cent.,  whilst  our  yield  was  down  to  6,469,000  tons,  a 
falling  off  of  only  20  per  cent.  In  the  following  year  Germany  could 
pixxiuce  no  more  than  39,600,000  tons,  or  a  90  per  cent,  crop,  whereas 
the  United  Kingdom  raised  8,604,000  tons,  or  about  24  par  cent,  better 
than  the  average.  Finally,  whereas  with  respect  to  the  1918  crop  in 
Germany  no  figures  are  available,  those  for  the  United  Kingdom  indi- 
cate that  the  1917  crop  actually  exceeded  that  of  1918. 

There  is  much  food  for  thought  in  these  figures,  but  my  immediate 
purpose  in  citing  them  is  to  claim  that  of  the  million  and  three-quarter 
tons  increase  in  1917  and  1918  a  goodly  proportion  must  be  put  to  the 
credit  of  the  intensive  cultivator. 

I  regret  that  no  statistics  are  available  to  illustrate  the  war-time  food 
production  by  professional  and  amateur  gardeners.  That  it  was  great 
I  know,  but  how  great  I  am  unable  to  say.  This,  however,  I  can 
state,  that  from  the  day  before  the  outbreak  of  hostilities,  when,  with 
the  late  Secretary  of  the  Eoyal  Horticultural  Society,  I  started  the  in- 
tensive food-production  campaign  by  urging  publicly  the  autumn  sowing 
of  vegetables — a  practice  both  then  and  now  insufficiently  followed — the 


amateur  and  professional  gardeners  addressed  themselves  to  the  work 
of  producing  food  with  remarkable  energy  and  success.  No  less  remark- 
able and  successful  was  the  work  of  the  old  and  new  allotment  holders, 
so  much  so  indeed  that  at  the  time  of  the  Armistice  there  were  nearly 
a  million  and  a-half  allotment  holders  cultivating  upwards  of  125,000 
acres  of  land :  an  allotment  for  every  five  households  in  England  and 
Wales.  It  is  a  pathetic  commentary  on  the  Peace  that  Vienna  should 
find  itself  obliged  to  do  now  what  was  done  here  during  the  war — 
namely,  convert  its  parks  and  open  spaces  into  allotments  in  order  to 
supplement  a  meagre  food  supply. 

This  brief  review  of  war-time  intensive  cultivation  would  be  in- 
complete were  it  to  contain  no  reference  to  intensive  cultivation  by  the 
armies  at  home  and  abroad.  From  small  beginnings,  fostered  by  the 
distribution  by  the  Eoyal  Horticultural  Society  of  supplies  of  vegetable 
seeds  and  plants  to  the  troops  in  France,  army  cultivation  assumed 
under  the  direction  of  Lord  Harcourt's  Army  Agricultural  Committee 
extraordinarily  large  dimensions :  a  bare  summary  must  suffice  here, 
but  a  full  account  may  be  found  in  the  report  presented  by  the  Com- 
mittee to  the  Houses  of  Parliament  and  published  as  a  Parliamentary 

In  1918  the  armies  at  home  cultivated  5,869  acres  of  vegetables.  In 
the  summer  of  that  year  the  camp  and  other  gardens  of  our  armies  in 
France  were  producing  100  tons  of  vegetables  a  day.  These  gardens 
yielded,  in  1918,  14,000  tons  of  vegetables,  worth,  according  to  my 
estimate,  a  quarter  of  a  million  pounds  sterling,  but  worth  infinitely 
more  if  measured  in  terms  of  benefit  to  the  health  of  the  troops. 

As  the  result  of  General  Maude's  initiative,  the  forces  in  Meso- 
potamia became  great  gardeners,  and  in  1918  produced  800  tons  of 
vegetables,  apart  altogether  from  the  large  cultivations  carried  out  by 
His  Majesty's  Forces  in  that  wonderfully  fertile  land.  In  the  same 
year  the  forces  at  Salonika  had  about  7,000  acres  under  agricultural  and 
horticultural  crops,  and  raised  produce  which  effected  a  saving  of  over 
50,000  shipping  tons. 

Even  from  this  brief  record  it  will,  I  believe,  be  conceded  that 
intensive  cultivation  played  a  useful  and  significant  part  in  the  war: 
what,  it  may  be  asked,  is  the  part  which  it  is  destined'  to  play  in  the 
luture?  So  far  as  I  am  able  to  learn,  there  exist  in  this  country  two 
schools  of  thought  or  opinion  on  the  subject  of  the  prospects 
of  intensive  cultivation,  the  optimistic  and  the  pessimisjtdc  school. 
The  former  sees  visions  of  large  communities  of  small  cultivators 
colonising  the  countryside  of  England,  increasing  and  multiplying  both 
production  and  themselves,  a  numerous,  prosperous  and  happy^  people 
and  a  sure  shield  in  time  of  war  against  the  menace  of  submarines  and 
starvation.  Those  on  the  other  hand  who  take  the  pessimistic  view, 
point  to  the  many  examples  of  smallholders  who  '  plough  with  pain 
their  native  lea  and  reap  the  labour  of  their  hands  '  with  remarkably 
small  profit  to  themselves  or  to  the  community — smallholders  like 
those  in  parts  of  Warwickshire,  who  can  just  manage  by  extremely 
hard  labour  to  maintain  themselves,  or  like  those  in  certain  districts  of 
Norfolk,  who  have  let  their  holdings  tumble  down  into  com  and  who 


produce  no  more  and  indeed  less  to  the  acre  than  do  the  large  farmers 
who  are  their  neighbours. 

Befoi-e  making  any  attempt  to  estimate  the  worth  of  these  rival 
opinions  it  may  be  observed  that  the  war  has  brought  a  large  reinforce- 
ment of  sti'ength  to  the  rank  of  the  optimists.  A  contrast  of  personal 
experiences  illustrates  this  fact.  When  in  the  early  days  of  the  war 
I  felt  it  my  duty  to  consult  certain  important  county  officials  with  the 
object  of  securing  their  support  for  schemes  of  intensive  food  production, 
i  carried  away  from  the  conference  one  conclusion  only :  that  the 
counties  of  England  were  of  two  kinds,  those  which  were  already  doing 
much  and  were  unable  therefore  to  do  more,  and  those  which  were 
doing  little  because  there  was  no  more  to  be  done.  In  spite  of  this  close 
application  of  the  doctrine  of  Candide — that  all  is  for  the  best  in  the 
best  of  all  possible  worlds — I  was  able  to  set  up  some  sorb  of  county 
horticultural  organisation,  scrappy,  amateurish,  but  enthusiastic,  and 
the  work  done  by  that  organisation  was  on  the  average  good ;  so  much 
so  indeed  that  when  after  the  Armistice  I  sought  to  build  up  a  per- 
manent county  horticultural  organisation  I  was  met  by  a  changed 
temper.  The  schemes  which  the  staff  of  the  Horticultural  Division  had 
elaborated  as  the  result  of  experience  during  the  war  were  received 
and  adopted  with  a  cordiality  which  I  like  to  think  was  evoked  no  less 
by  the  excellence  of  the  schemes  themselves  than  by  the  promise  of 
liberal  financial  assistance  in  their  execution.  Thus  it  came  about  that 
when  the  time  arrived  for  me  to  hand  over  the  controUership  of  Horti- 
culture to  my  successor,  almost  every  county  had  established  a  strong 
County  Horticultural  Committee,  and  the  chief  counties  from  the  point 
of  view  of  intensive  cultivation  had  provided  themselves  with  a  staff 
competent  to  demonstrate  not  only  to  cottagers  and  allotment  holders, 
but  also  to  smallholders  and  commercial  growers,  the  best  methods  of 
intensive  cultivation.  In  the  most  important  counties  horticultural 
superintendents  with  knowledge  of  commercial  fruit-growing  were  being 
appointed,  and  demonstration  fruit  and  market-garden  plots,  designed 
on  lines  laid  down  by  Captain  Wellington  and  his  expert  assistants, 
were  in  course  of  establishment.  The  detailed  plans  for  these  links 
in  a  national  chain  of  demonstration  and  trial  plots  have  been  published, 
and  anyone  who  will  study  them  will,  I  believe,  recognise  that  they 
point  the  way  to  the  successful  development  of  a  national  system  of 
intensive  cultivation. 

By  means  of  these  county  stations  the  local  cultivator  may  learn 
how  to  plant  and  maintain  his  fruit  plantation  and  how  to  crop  his 
vegetable  quarters,  what  stock  to  run  and  what  varieties  to  grow. 

Farm  stations — with  the  Eesearch  stations  established  previously 
by  the  Ministry ;  Long  Ashton  and  East  Mailing  for  fruit  investigations ; 
the  Lea  Valley  Growers'  Association  and  Rothamstead  for  investigation 
of  soil  problems  and  pathology;  the  Imperial  College  of  Science  for 
research  in  plant  physiology,  together  with  a  couple  of  stations,  con- 
templated before  the  war,  for  local  investigation  of  vegetable  cultiva- 
tion; an  alliance  with  the  Eoyal  Horticultural  Society's  Eesearch 
Station  at  Wisley,  and  with  the  John  Innes  Horticultural  Institute  for 
research  in   genetics ;   the  Ormskirk  Potato  Trial  Station ;  a  Poultry 


Institute;  and,  most  important  of  all  from  the  point  of  view  of  educa- 
tion, the  establishment  at  Cambridge  of  a  School  of  Horticulture — con- 
stitute a  horticultural  organisation  which,  if  properly  co-ordinated  and — 
dare  I  say  it? — directed,  should  prove  of  supreme  value  to  all  classes 
of  intensive  cultivators.  To  achieve  that  result,  however,  something 
more  than  a  permissive  attitude  on  the  part  of  the  Ministry  is  required, 
and  in  completing  the  design  of  it  I  had  hoped  also  to  remain  a  part 
of  that  organisation  long  enough  to  assist  in  securing  its  functioning  as 
a  living,  plastic,  resourceful,  directive  force — a  horticultural  cerebrum. 
Thus  developed,  it  is  my  conviction  that  this  instrument  is  capable  of 
bringing  Horticulture  to  a  pitch  of  perfection  undreamed  of  at  the  present 
time  either  in  this  country  or  elsewhere. 

In  my  view  Horticulture  has  suffered  in  the  past  because  the  foster- 
ing of  it  was  only  incidental  to  the  work  of  the  Ministry.  In  spite  of 
the  fact  that  it  had  not  a  little  to  bei  grateful  for — as  for  example  the 
research  stations  to  which  I  have  referred — Horticulture  had  been 
regarded  rather  as  an  agricultural  side-show  than  as  a  thing  in  itself. 
My  intention,  in  which  I  was  encouraged  by  Lord  Ernie,  Lord  Lee, 
and  Sir  Daniel  Hall,  was  to  peg  out  on  behalf  of  Horticulture  a  large 
and  valid  claim  and  to  work  that  claim.  The  conception  of  Horticulture 
which  I  entertained  was  that  comprised  in  the  '  petite  culture  '  of  the 
French.  It  included  crops  and  stock,  fruit  and  vegetables,  flower  and 
bulb  and  seed  crops,  potatos,  pigs  and  poultiy  and  bees.  I  held 
the  view,  and  still  hold  it,  that  the  small  man's  interests  cannot  be 
fostered  by  the  big  man's  care;  that  Horticulture  is  a  thing  in  itself 
and  requires  constant  consideration  by  horticulturists  and  not  occasional 
help  from  agriculturally  minded  people,  however  distinguished  and 

I  had  to  include  the  pig  and  poultry,  for  the  smallholder  and 
commercial  grower  will  have  to  keep  the  one  and  may  with  profit 
keep  both,  and  he  will  have  to  modify  his  system  of  cultivation  accord- 
ingly. The  adoption  of  this  conception  of  the  scope  of  intensive  culti- 
vation opens  up  an  array  of  new  problems  which  require  investigation, 
and  it  was  my  intention  to  endeavour  to  secure  the  experimental  solu- 
tion of  these  manv  problems  at  the  Eesearch  Stations  and  elsewhere. 
Beside  these  problems — of  green  manuring,  cropping,  horticultural 
rotations — horticultural  surveys  would  be  made,  '  primeur '  lands 
demarked  for  colonisation,  and  existing  orchard  lands  ascertained  and 
classified,  as  indeed  we  had  begun  to  do  in  the  West  of  England. 
But.  above  all,  with  this  measure  of  independence  for  Horticulture  we, 
having  the  good  will  and  support,  of  the  fraternity  of  horticulturists, 
aimed  at  putting  to  the  test  the  certain  belief  which  I  hold  that  education 
— sympathetic  and  systematic — is  an  instrument  the  power  of  which, 
for  our  purpose,  scarcely  vet  tried,  is  in  fact  of  almost  infinite  potency. 
I  believe  with  Mirabeau  that,  '  after  bread,  education  is  the  first  need 
of  the  people,'  and  I  know  that  the  people  themselves  are  ready  to 
receive  it. 

Contrast  this  horticultural  prospect  with  the  fa,ot  that  a  group  of 
ertiallholders  in  an  outlying  district  informed  one  of  my  ingpcctiRXs,  thjit 


his  was  the  first  visit  that  they  had  received  for  many  years,  or  witK 
the  fact  that  remediable  diseases  are  still  rife  in  hundreds  of  gardens, 
or  that  few  small  growers  understand  the  principles  which  should  guide 
them  in  deciding  whether  or  not  to  spray  their  potatos,  or  that  West 
Country  orchardists  exist  who  let  dessert  fruit  tumble  to  the  ground 
and  sell  it  in  ignorance  of  its  true  value,  or  that  unthrifty  fruit-trees 
may  be  top-grafted  but  are  not,  or  that  it  is  often  ignored  that  arsenate 
of  lead  as  a  spray  fluid  for  fruit  pays  over  and  over  again  for  its  use, 
or  even  that  growers  in  plenty  still  do  not  know  that  Scotch  or  Irish 
or  once-grown  Lincolnshire  seed  potatos  are  generally  more  profitable 
than  is  home-grown  or  local  seed.  The  truth  is  that  great  skill  and 
sure  knowledge  exist  among  small  cultivators  side  by  side  with  much 
ignorance  and  moderate  practical  ability.  Hei'ein  lies  the  opportunity 
of  the  kind  of  education  which  I  have  in  mind.  But  for  any  such 
intensive  system  of  education  to  prevail  the  isolation  both  of  cultivators 
and  of  Government  Departments  must  be  aboHshed.  Out  of  that  isola- 
tion hostility  arises,  in  which  medium  no  seed  of  education  will 
germinate.  It  is  troublesome,  but  not  difficult,  to  abolish  hostility. 
It  vanishes  when  direct  relations  are  established  and  maintained  between 
a  Department  and  those  whose  affairs  it  administers.  The  paternal 
method  will  not  do  it.  The  official  life,  lived  '  remote,  unfriendly, 
alone,'  with  only  underlings  as  missionaries  to  the  heathen  public, 
will  not  do  it. 

There  is  only  one  way  to  prepare  the  ground  for  the  intensive 
cultivation  of  education,  and  that  is  to  secure  the  full  co-operation  of 
officials  and  cultivators.  If  this  be  not  done  the  official  must  continue 
to  bear  with  resignation  the  unconcealed  hostility  of  those  he  wishes 
to  assist.  That  a  state  of  confidence  and  co-operation  may  be  esta- 
blished is  proved  by  the  record  of  the  Horticultm'al  Advisory  Committee 
which  was  set  up  by  Lord  Ernie  during  my  controllership.  The  Com- 
mittee consisted  of  representatives  of  all  the  many  branches  of  Horti- 
culture— fruit-growers,  nurserymen,  market  gardeners,  growers  under 
glass,  salesmen,  researchers,  and  so  forth.  That  Committee  became, 
as  it  were,  the  Deputy-Controller  of  Horticulture.  To  it  all  large  ques- 
tions of  policy  were  referred,  and  to  its  disinterested  service  Horticulture 
owes  a  great  debt.  That  its  existence  has  been  rendered  permanent 
by  Lord  Lee  is  of  good  augury  for  the  future  of  intensive  cultivation. 
As  an  instance  of  the  judicial  temper  in  which  this  Committee  attended 
to  its  business  I  may  mention  that  when  an  Order — the  Silver  Leaf 
Order — was  under  discussion  the  only  objection  to  its  terms  on  the 
part  of  the  fruit-growers  on  the  Committee  was  that  the  restrictive 
measures  which  it  contemplated  were  not  drastic  enough :  a  noteworthy 
example  of  assent  to  a  self-denying  ordinance. 

It  may  be  asked  What  are  the  subjects  in  which  growers  require 
■education?  To  answer  that  question  fully  would  require  an  Address  in 
itself.  Among  those  subjects,  however,  mention  may  be  made  of  a 
few :  the  extermination  or  top-grafting  of  unthrifty  fruit,  the  proper 
spacing  and  pruning  of  fruit-trees,  the  use  of  suitable  stocks,  sys- 
tematic orchard- spraying,  the  use  of  thrifty  varieties  of  bush  fruit  and 
the  proper  manuring  thereof,   the  choice  of  varieties  suitable  to  given 


soils  and  districts  and  for  early  cropping,  the  better  grading  and  packing 
of  fruit. 

Of  all  methods  of  instruction  in  this  last  subject  the  best  is  that 
provided  by  Fruit  Exhibitions.  Those  interested  in  the  promotion  of 
British  fruit-growing  will  well  remember  the  object-lesson  in  good  and 
bad  packing  provided  by  the  first  Eastern  Counties  Fruit  Show,  held 
at  Cambridge  in  1919.  That  exhibition,  organised  by  the  East  Anghan 
fruit-growers  with  the  assistance  of  the  Horticultural  Division  of  the 
Ministry  of  Agriculture,  demonstrated  three  things :  first,  that  fruit  of 
the  finest  quality  is  being  grown  in  East  Anglia;  second,  that  this 
district  may  perhaps  become  the  largest  fruit-growing  region  in  Eng- 
land; and,  third,  that  among  many  growers  profound  ignorance  exists 
with  respect  to  the  preparation  of  fruit  for  market. 

The  opinions  which  I  have  endeavoured  to  express  on  the  organisa- 
tion of  intensive  cultivation  may  be  summarised  thus:  — 

1.  The  object  of  the  organisation  is  to  improve  local  and  general 
cultivation,  the  former  by  demonstration,  the  latter  by  research. 

2.  The  method  of  organisation  must  provide  for  co-operation  between 
the  horticultural  officers  of  the  State  and  the  persons  engaged  in  the 
industry.      This   co-operation  must  be  real   and  complete.      Dummy 
Committees  are  silly  devices  adopted  merely  by  second-rate  men  and 
merely  clever  administrators.   The  co-operation  must  embrace  the  policy 
as  well    as   the  practice  of  administration.     Nevertheless  the    horti- 
cultural officers  of  the  State  must  be  leaders.     They  can,  however,  lead 
only  by  the  power  of  knowledge.     Wherefore    an  administrator'  who 
lacks  practical  knowledge  and  scientific  training  is  not  qualified  to  act 
as  the  executive  head  of  a  horticultural   administration.      The  head 
must    of.    course    possess    administrative    capacity,    but    this  form  of 
ability   is  by  no  means  uncommon  among   Britons,   although  it  is  a 
custom  to  represent  it  as  something  akin  to  inspiration  and  the  attribute 
of  the  otherwise  incompetent.     The  directing  head  must  possess  a  wide 
practical_  knowledge  of  Horticulture ;  that  alone  can  fire  the  train  of 
his  imagination  to  useful  and  great  issues.     His  right-hand  man,  how- 
ever, must  be  one  versed  in  departmental  and  interdepartmental  intrica- 
cies—the best  type  of  administrator — of  sober  and  cool  judgment  and 
keen  intelligence,  unused  perhaps  to  enthusiasm,  but  not  intolerant  of 
nor  immune  from  it.     Similarly  in  each  sub-department  for  cultivation, 
disease-prevention,  small  stock,  &c.,  the  head  must  be  a  trained  prac- 
tical man  with  an  administrator  as  his  chief  assistant.     The  outdoor 
officers,  the  intelligence  officers  of  the  organisation,  must  also  be  men 
of   sound   and  wide  practical  knowledge  and  must  know   that  their 
reports  will  be  read  by  someone  who  understands  the  subjects  whereof 
they  speak. 

It  was  on  these  lines  that  the  Horticultural  Division  was  organised 
under  Lord  Ernie,  Lord  Lee,  and  Sir  Daniel  Hall.  The  work  accom- 
plished justified  the  innovation. 

This  is  the  contribution  which  I  feel  it  my  duty  to  make  on  the 
vexed  question  of  the  relation  between  expert  and  administrator  in 
Departments  of  State  which  deal  with  technical  and  vital  problems. 

I  believe  that  no  administrator,  save  tho  rare  genius,  can  direct  the' 


expert,  whereas  the  expert  with  trained  scientific  mind  and  possessed 
of  a  fair  measure  of  administrative  abihty  can  direct  any  but  a  genius 
for  administration.  If  the  work  of  a  Government  office  is  to  be  and 
remain  purely  administrative  no  creative  capacity  is  required,  and  it 
may  be  left  in  the  sure  and  safe  and  able  hands  of  the  trained  adminis- 
trator; but  if  the  work  is  to  be  creative  it  must  be  under  the  direction 
of  minds  turned  as  only  research  can  turn  them — in  the  direction  of 
creativeness.  To  the  technically  initiated  initiation  is  easy  and  attrac- 
tive, to  the  uninitiated  it  is  difficult  and  repugnant. 

The  useful  work  that  such  a  staff  as  I  have  indicated  would  find 
to  do  is  well-nigh  endless.  It  would  become  a  bureau  of  information 
in  national  horticulture,  and  the  knowledge  which  it  acquired  would  be 
of  no  less  use  to  investigators  than  to  the  industry.  Diseases  ravage 
our  orchards  and  gardens,  some  are  known  to  be  remediable  and  yet 
persist,  others  require  immediate  and  vigorous  team-wise  investiga- 
tion and  yet  continue  to  be  investigated  by  solitary  workers  or  single 
research  institutions. 

Certain  new  varieties  of  some  soft  fruits  are  known  to  be  better 
than  the  older  varieties,  and  yet  the  latter  continue  to  be  widely  culti- 
vated. The  transport  and  distribution  of  perishable  fruit  is  often  in- 
adequate— '  making  a  famine  where  abundance  lies. '  The  informa- 
tion gathered  in  during  the  constant  survey  of  the  progress  of  Horticul- 
ture would  serve  not  only  to  direct  educational  effort  into  useful  channels, 
but  to  stimulate  and  assist  research.  For  the  headquarters  staff  of 
trained  men  learns  in  the  course  of  its  administrative  work  many  things, 
which,  albeit  unknown  to  the  researcher,  are  of  first  importance  to  him 
who  is  bent  on  advancing  horticultural  knowledge. 

For  example,  it  is  known  that  the  trade  of  raisers  of  seed  potatos 
for  export  to  Jersey  or  Spain  is  in  some  places  menaced  by  the  presence 
of  a  plot  of  land  a  mile  or  two  away  in  which  wart  disease  has  appeared. 
It  may  be  that  the  outbreak  occun-ed  on  only  a  single  plant,  yet  never- 
theless the  seed-potato  grower  may  be  inhibited  from  exporting  the 
seed  grown  by  him  on  clean  land.  The  prohibition  is  just,  but  the  man 
who  refuses  to  issue  a  licence  to  export,  if  he  be  a  trained  horticulturist 
in  touch  with  research,  will  know  that  there  is  research  work  to  hand 
and  that  immediately,  and  will  bring  the  problem  to  the  urgent  notice 
of  the  researchers.  Thus  the  scientifically  trained  administrator  be- 
comes, although  not  himself  witty  in  research,  the  cause  of  wit  in 
others.  To  ask  the  researcher,  who  must  inevitably  be  to  some  extent 
like  Prospero  '  wrapt  in  secret  studies  and  to  the  Stat-e  grown  stranger, ' 
to  discover  problems  which  arise  out  of  administrative  embarrassments 
is  unreasonable ;  on  the  other  hand,  the  scientifically  trained  administra- 
tor acts  naturally  as  liaison  officer  between  the  laboratory  and  the  land, 
passing  on  the  problems  which  arise  out  of  administrative  necessities 
or  expedients. 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  recall  the  fact  that  the  im- 
portance of  the  existence  of  varieties  of  potatos  immune  from  wart 
disease  was  observed  years  ago  by  an  officer  of  the  Ministry,  Mr.  Gough, 
who  is  also  a  man  possessed  of  a  scientific  training,  and  T  believe 
also  that  I  am  right  in  sgying  that  ^ithgr  this,  officer  ,or  another  suggested 



long  ago  that  the  clue  to  the  spread  of  wart  disease  in  England  was 
to  be  sought  in  the  potato  fields  of  Scotland.  Mr.  Taylor  will,  I  hope, 
give  us  the  latest  and  most  interesting  chapter  in  the  story  of  wart 
disease,  and  I  will  not  therefore  spoil  his  story  by  anticipation  of  its 

The  tacit  assumption  which  has  so  far  underlain  my  Address  is  that 
an  extension  of  intensive  cultivation  in  this  country  is  desirable.  I 
have  indicated  that  areas  are  to  be  discovered  where  soil  and  climate 
are  favourable  to  this  form  of  husbandry,  and  that  by  the  establishment 
of  a  proper  form  of  research — administrative — and  educational  organisa- 
tion the  already  high  standard  reached  by  intensive  cultivators  may  be 
surpassed.  It  remains  to  inquire  whether  any  large  increase  in  the 
area  under  intensive  cultivation  is  in  fact  either  desirable  or  probable. 

The  dispassionate  inquirer  will  find  his  task  by  no  means  easy. 
He  should,  as  a  preliminary,  endeavour  to  discern  in  the  present  welter 
of  cosmic  disturbance  what  are  likely  to  be  the  economic  conditions  of 
the  politician's  promised  land — the  new  world  which  was  to  be  created 
from  the  travail  of  war.  In  the  first  place,  and  no  matter  how  academic 
he  may  be.  he  cannot  fail  to  recognise  the  fact  that  costs  of  production, 
including  labour,  are  at  least  twice  and  probably  2i  times  those  of 
pre-war  days,  and  he  must  assume  that  the  increase  is  permanent  and 
not  unlikely  to  augment.  "What  this  means  to  the  different  forms  of 
cultivation  may  be  iudged  from  the  following  estimates  of  capital  costs 
of  cultivation  of  different  kinds :  — 

Labour  and  Capital  for  Farming  and  Intensive  Cultivation. 


Labour  per  100 

Capital  per  Acre 








Mixed  Farming 

Fruit  and  Vegetable  growing 

Intensive  Cultivation  in  the  open 

(French  Gardening) 
Cultivation  under  glass 







In  the  second  place  the  inquirer  is  bound  to  assume  that  the  inten- 
sive cultivator  of  the  future,  like  his  predecessor  in  the  past,  will  have 
to  be  prepared  to  fa-ce  the  competition  of  the  world.  He  may,  I  believe, 
look  for  no  artificial  restriction  of  imports,  and  therefore  he  must  be 
prepared  to  find  that  higher  costs  of  production  will  not  necessarily 
be  accompanied  by  increased  receipts  for  intensively  cultivated  com- 

But,  on  the  other  hand,  he  may  find  some  comfort  in  the  fact  that 
both  immediately  before  and,  still  more,  subsequently  to  the  war. 
the  standard  of  living  both  in  this  country  and  throughout  the  world 
was,  and  is  still,  rising.  Hence  he  may  perhaps  expect  a  less  severe 
competition  from  foreign  growers  and  also  a  better  market  at  home. 

He  may  also  derive  comfoi^  from  the  reflection  that  the  increased 
cost  of  production  which  he  must  bear  must  also,  perhaps  in  no  less 
1920  p 


measure,  be  borne  by  his  foreign  competitors.  Even  before  the  war 
the  cost  of  production  of  one  of  the  chief  horticultural  crops — apples — 
was  no  higher  in  this  country  than  in  that  of  our  main  competitors. 
There  are  also  certain  other  apparently  minor  but  really  important 
reasons  for  optimism  with  regard  to  the  prospects  of  intensive  cultiva- 
tion. Among  these  is  tiie  increasing  use  of  road  in  lieu  of  rail 
transport  for  the  marketing  of  horticultural  produce.  The  advantages 
of  motor  over  rail  transport  for  the  carriage  of  perishable  produce  for 
relatively  short  distances — say  up  to  75  miles  from  market — lie  in  its 
greater  punctuality,  economy  of  handling,  and  elasticity.  Only  a-  poet 
native  of  a  land  of  orchards  could  have  written  the  lines :  '  When  T 
consider  everything  that  grows  holds  in  perfection  but  a  single  moment.' 
Fruit  crops  ripen  rapidly  and  more  or  less  simultaneously  throughout  a 
given  district.  They  must  be  put  on  the  market  forthwith  or  are 
useless.  A  train  service,  no  matter  how  well  organised,  does  not  seem 
able  to  cope  with  gluts,  and  hence  it  arises  that  a  season  of  abundance 
in  the  country  rarely  means  a  like  plenty  to  the  consumer.  I  am  aware 
that  the  problem  of  gluts  is  by  no  means  simple  and  that  the  railways 
are  sometimes  blamed  unjustly  for  failing  to  cope  with  them,  but 
nevertheless  I  believe  that,  as  Kent  has  discovered,  the  motor-lorry 
will  be  more  and  more  called  in  to  redress  the  balance  between  the 
home  growers  and  the  foreign  producers  in  favour  of  the  former;  for 
by  its  use  the  goods  can  be  delivered  with  certainty  in  time  to  catch 
the  market  and  thus  give  the  home  producer  the  advantage  due  to 
propinquity  which  should  be  his.  Increasing  knowledge  of  food  values, 
together  with  the  general  rise  in  the  standard  of  living,  also  present 
features  of  good  augury  to  the  intensive  cultivator.  Jam  and  tomatos 
and  primeurs  may  be  taken  as  texts. 

In  19l4  the  consumption  of  jam  in  the  United  Kingdom  amounted 
to  about  a  spoonful  a  day  per  person.  The  more  exact  figures  are 
2  oz.  per  week,  or  126,000  tons  per  annum. 

It  is  difficult  to  estimate  the  area  under  jam  fruit — plums,  straw- 
berry, raspberry,  currants,  &c. — required  to  produce  this  tonnage,  but 
it  may  be  put  at  between  10,000  and  20,000  acres. 

By  1918,  thanks  to  the  wisdom  of  the  Anny  authorities  in  insisting 
on  a  large  ration  of  jam  for  the  troops,  and  thanks  also  to  the  scarcity 
and  quality  of  margarine,  the  consumption  of  jam  had  more  than 
doubled.  From  126,000  tons  of  1914  it  reached  340,000  tons  in  1918. 
To  supply  this  ration  would  require  the  produce  of  from  25,000  to 
60,000  acres  of  orchard,  which  in  turn  would  directly  employ  the  labour 
of  say  from  5,000  to  10,000  men.  Yet  even  the  tonnage  consumed 
in  1918  only  allows  a  meagre  ration  of  little  more  than  a  couple  of 
spoonfuls  a  day.  It  may  therefore  be  anticipated  that  if,  as  is  probable, 
albeit  only  because  of  the  immanence  of  margarine,  the  new-found  public 
taste  for  jam  endures,  fruit-growers  in  this  country  will  find  a  con- 
siderable and  profitable  extension  in  supplying  this  demand. 

The  remarkable  increase  in  'consumption  which  the  tomato  has 
achieved  would  seem  to  support  this  conclusion.  Fifty  years  ago,  as 
Mr.  Eobbins  has  mentioned  in  his  paper  on  '  Intensive  Cultivation  ' 
(Journal  of  Board  of  Agriculture,  xxv.    No.    12,    March    1919),    this 



fruit  was  all  but  unused  as  a  food.  To-day  one  district  alone,  the  Lea 
Valley,  produces  30,000  tons  per  annum.  The  total  production  in 
this  country  amounts  to  upwards  of  45,000  tons.  Yet  the  demand  for 
tomatos  has  increased  so  rapidly — the  appetite  growing  by  what  it 
feeds  upon — that  the  imports  in  1913  from  the  Channel  Islands, 
Holland,  France,  Portugal,  Spain,  Canary  Islands,  and  Italy  amounted 
to  nearly  double  the  home  crop,  viz.  80,000  tons,  making  the  total 
annual  consumption  not  less  than  IJ  tons  or  about  2  pounds  per  week 
per  head  of  population.  Is  it  too  fanciful  to  discei'n  in  this  rapidly 
growing  increase  in  the  consumption  of  such  accessory  foodstuffs  as  jam 
and  tomatos,  not  merely  an  indication  of  a  general  rise  in  the  standard 
of  living  and  a  desire  on  the  part  of  the  community  as  a  whole  to  share 
in  the  luxuries  of  the  rich,  but  also  a  sign  that  in  a  practical,  instinctive, 
unconscious  way  the  public  has  discovered  simultaneously  with  the 
physiologists  that  a  monotonous  diet  means  malnutrition,  and  that  even 
in  a-  dietetic  sense  man  cannot  live  by  bread  alone?  As  lending  support 
to  this  fancy  and  as  indicating  that  the  value  of  vitamines  was  dis- 
covered by  people  before  vitamines  were  discovered  by  physiologists, 
I  may  mention  the  curious  fact  that  the  general  public  has  always  shown 
a  wise  greediness  for  an  accessory  food  which,  though  relatively  poor 
in  calories  is  rich  in  vitamines — namely  the  onion.  Even  in  pre-war 
times  the  annual  value  of  imported  onions  amounted  to  well  over  one 
million  pounds  sterling;  and,  when  the  poverty  of  the  winter  diet  of 
the  people  of  England  and  Wales  is  considered,  it  must  be  admitted 
that  this  expenditure  represented  a  sound  investment  on  the  part  of 
the  British  public.  It  is  a  curious  fact  also  that  the  genius  of  Nelson 
led  him  to  a  like  conclusion.  He  took  care,  during  the  long  years  when 
his  blockading  fleet  kept  the  seas,  to  provide  his  sailors  with  plenty  of 
exercise  and  onions. 

If,  as  I  think,  the  increasing  consumption  of  the  accessory  foods 
which  intensive  cultivation  provides  represents  not  merely  a  craving 
for  luxuries,  but  an  instinctive  demand  for  the  so-called  accessory  food 
bodies  which  are  essential  to  health,  then  it  may  be  expected  that,  as 
has  been  illustrated  in  the  case  of  jam  and  tomatos,  consumption  will 
continue  to  increase.  If  this  be  so,  the  demand  both  for  fresh  fruit 
and  also  for  '  primeurs  ' — early  vegetables — should  grow  and  should 
be  supplied  at  least  in  part  by  the  intensive  cultivators  of  this  country. 

If  the  home  producer  can  place  his  wares  on  the  market  at  a  price 
that  can  compete  with  imported  produce — and  it  is  not  improbable  that 
he  will  be  able  to  do  so — ^he  need  not,  even  with  increased  production, 
apprehend  more  loss  from  lack  of  demand  than  he  has  had  to  face  in 
the  past.  Seasonal  and  other  occasional  gluts  he  must,  of  course, 

Even  when  judged  by  pre-war  values,  his  market,  as  indicated  by 
imports,  is  a  capacious  one.  Thus  in  1913  the  imports  into  the  United 
Kingdom  of  soil  produces  from  smallholdings  were  of  the  value  of 
about  50  million  pounds  sterling.  To-day  it  is  safe  to  compute  them 
at  over  100  millions.  To  that  sum — of  50  millions — imported  vegetables 
contributed  5^  million  pounds  sterling,  apples  2^  millions,  other  fruits 
nearly  3  millions,  eggs  and  poultry  over  10  millions,  rabbits  and  rabbit- 

p  8 


skins  a  million  and  a  half,  and  bacon  and  pork  over  22  millions. 
No  one  whose  enthusiasm  did  not  altogether  outrun  both  his  discretion 
and  knowledge  would  suggest  that  the  home  producer  could  supply  the 
whole  or  even  the  greater  part  of  these  commodities.  But,  on  the  other 
hand,  few  of  those  who  have  knowledge  of  the  skill  and  resources  of 
our  intensive  cultivators,  and  of  the  suitability  of  favoured  parts  of  this 
country  for  intensive  cultivation,  will  doubt  but  that  a  modest  proportion, 
say,  for  example,  one  fifth,  might  be  made  at  home.  This  on  a  post- 
war basis  would  amount  in  value  to  over  20  million  pounds,  would 
require  the  use  of  several  hundred  thousand  acres  of  land  and  provide 
employment  for  something  like  100,000  men.  The  fact  that  Kent  has 
found  it  profitable  to  bring  one-fifth  of  its  total  arable  land  under  fruit 
and  other  forms  of  intensive  cultivation  is  significant  and  a  further 
indication  that  intensive  cultivation  offers  real  prospects  to  the  skilful 
and  industrious  husbandman.  The  present  reduced  acreage  under  fruit, 
due  partly  to  war  conditions,  but  mainly  to  the  grubbing  of  old  orchards, 
enhances  the  prospects  of  success. 

The  estimated  acreage  under  fruit  in  England  and  Wales  is  :  — 


Apples 170,000 

Pears 10,000 

Plums 17,000 

Cherries 10,000 

Strawberries 13,000 

Raspberries           .          .         .          .         ...         .  6,000 

Currants  and  Gooseberries    .....  22,000 


exclusive  of  mixed  orchards  and  plantations. 

These  figures  are,  however,  well-nigh  useless  as  indicating  the  areas 
devoted  to  the  intensive  cultivation  of  fruit  for  direct  consumption.  Of 
the  170,000  acres  of  apples,  cider  fruit  probably  occupies  not  less  than 
100,000,  and  of  this  area  much  ground  is  cumbered  with  old  and 
neglected  trees.  Of  the  10,000  acres  in  pears  some  8,000  are  devoted 
to  perry  production,  and  hence  lie  outside  our  immediate  preoccupation. 
Having  regard,  however,  to  the  reduction  of  acreage  under  fruit,  to  the 
increasing  consumption  of  fruit  and  jam,  and  to  the  success  which  has 
attended  intelligent  planting  in  the  past,  it  may  be  concluded  that  a 
good  many  thousand  acres  of  fruit  might  be  planted  in  this  country  with 
good  prospects  of  success. 

Lastly,  it  remains  to  consider  what  results  are  likely  to  occur  if 
intensive  cultivation  comes  to  be  more  generally  practised  in  this  country. 
T  am  indebted  to  one  of  our  leading  growers  for  an  example  of  the 
results  which  have  attended  the  conversion  of  an  ordinary  farm  into 
an  intensively  cultivated  holding. 

The  farm — of  150  acres  and  nearly  all  arable — was  taken  over  in 
1881.  At  that  date  it  found  regular  employment  for  three  men  and 
a  boy — with  the  usual  extra  help  at  harvest.  The  rate  of  wages  paid 
to  the  farm  hand  was  15s.  a  week. 

In  1883,  two  years  after  the  farm  had  been  taken  over  and  converted 



to  the  uses  of  a  horticultural  holding,  from  20  to  25  men  and  80  to  100 
women,  according  to  season,  were  at  v/ork  on  it,  and  the  minimum 
wage  for  men  was  20s.  per  week.  The  holding  was  increased  gradually 
to  310  acres,  and  at  the  present  time  gives  employment  on  an  average 
to  90  men  and  50  women  during  the  winter  months  and  110  men  and 
200  women  during  the  summer  months.  In  1913  the  wages  bill  was 
7,981L,  and  in  1918  lO.OOOi.  per  annum,  that  is,  over  3U.  per  acre. 

Another  concrete  example  of  the  effect  of  intensity  of  cultivation 
on  density  of  population  is  provided  by  the  comparison  of  two  not  far 
distant  districts — Rutland  and  the  Isle  of  Ely.  The  rich  soil  and  in- 
dustrious temperament  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Isle  have  justly  brought 
it  prosperity  and  fame.  The  Isle  of  Ely  comprises  236,961  acres,  of 
which  number  170,395  are  arable;  Eutland  97,087  acres  with  35,000 
arable.  The  land  of  Rutland  is  occupied  by  475  persons,  that  of  the 
Isle  by  2,002 ;  the  average  acreage  per  occupier  in  Rutland  is  206,  in 
the  Isle  118.  The  total  number  of  agricultural  workers  in  Rutland  is 
2,146,  and  in  the  Isle  13,382.  The  density  of  agricultural  population 
in  teiTTis  of  total  acreage  is  in  Rutland  2.5  per  100  acres,  and  in  the 
Isle  5.6,  or  20  more  cultivators  to  the  square  mile  in  the  Isle  of  Ely 
than  in  Rutland;  from  which  the  curious  may  estimate  the  possibility 
of  home  colonisation  by  introducing  as  a  supplement  to  extensive 
agriculture  such  an  amount  of  intensive  cultivation  as  may  be  practised 
in  districts  similar  in  climate  and  soil  to  the  Isle. 

The  immediate  object  of  the  comparison  is  to  show,  however,  that 
the  difference  between  the  closeness  of  colonisation  of  the  two  lands 
is  accurately  presented  by  the  difference  between  the  acreages  amenable 
to  intensive  cultivation  which  by  reason  of  soil  must,  however,  always 
remain  relatively  larger  in  the  Isle  than  in  Rutland.  Thus  in  Rut- 
land the  area  under  fruit  is  204  acres,  and  in  the  Isle  7,126.  If 
these  areas  and  the  workers  thereon  be  deducted  from  the  total 
arable  in  the  two  districts,  the  respective  agricultural  populations 
in  terms  of  100  acres  of  arable  become  almost  identical,  viz.  6.7 
for  Rutland  and  6.9  for  the  Isle.  The  difference  of  agricultural 
populations  is  measured  by  the  area  under  intensive  cultivation. 
The  agricultural  workers  engaged  on  the  7,126  acres  of  fruit  in  the 
Isle  of  Ely  are  almost  as  numerous  as  those  engaged  in  doing  all  the 
agricultural  work  of  Rutland — say,  about  2,000  as  compared  with  2,416. 

It  may  of  course  be  true  that  a  chance  word,  a  common  soldier, 
a  girl  at  the  door  of  an  inn,  have  changed,  or  almost  changed, 
the  fate  of  nations,  but  it  is  probable  that  the  genius  of  peoples 
and  the  pressure  of  economic  and  social  forces  are  more  potent.  Is 
there  then,  it  may  be  asked,  any  indication  that  the  people  of  this 
country  will  seek  in  intensive  cultivation  a  means  of  colonising  their 
own  land  rather  than  continue  to  export  their  surplus  man-power? 
The  problem  is  too  complex  and  too  subtle  for  me  to  solve,  but  I  will 
conclude  by  citing  a  curious  fact  which  may  have  real  significance  in 
indicating  that  if  a  nation  so  wills  it  may  retain  its  surplus  population 
on  the  land  by  adjusting  the  intensity  of  its  cultivation  to  the  density  of 
its  population.     If  a  diagram  be  made  combining  the  intensity  of  pro- 



ductlon  of  a  given  crop,  e.g.,  the  potato,  as  grown  in  the  chief  indus- 
trial countries  of  the  world,  it  will  be  found  that  the  cui-ve  of  production 
coincides  closely  with  that  of  density  of  population. 

Density  of  Population  and  Intensify  of  Production. 


Density  of 
Square  Mile. 



of  Yield. 

Yield  in 
Tons  per 
acre  less  seed. 

United  States 
















England  and  Wales 







From  these  facts  we  may  take  comfort,  for  they  indicate  that  as  a 
population  increases  so  does  the  intensity  of  its  cultivation :  the  tide 
which  flows  into  the  towns  may  be  made  to  ebb  again  into  the  country. 
The  rate  of  return,  however,  must  depend  on  many  factors  :  the  proclivi- 
ties of  peoples,  the  relative  attractiveness  of  urban  and  rural  life  and  of 
life  at  home  and  abroad,  but  ultimately  the  settlement  or  non-settlement 
of  the  countryside  must  be  determined  by  the  degree  of  success  of  the 
average  intensive  cultivator.  The  abler  man  can  command  success ; 
whether  the  man  of  average  ability  and  industry  can  achieve  it,  will, 
I  believe,  depend  ultimately  on  education.  He  can  look  for  no  assistance 
in  the  form  of  restricted  imports.  He  must  be  prepared  to  face  open 
competition.  Wherefore  he  should  receive  all  the  help  which  the  State 
can  render;  and  the  measure  of  success  whicli  he,  and  hence  the  State, 
achieves  will  be  determined  ultimately  by  the  quality  and  kind  of 
education  which  he  is  able  to  obtain. 


Seismological  Investigations. — Twenty-fifth  Report  of  the  Committee, 
consisting  of  Professor  H.  H.  Turneb  (Chairman),  Mr.  J.  J. 
Shaw  (Secretary),  Mr.  C.  Vernon  Boys,  Dr.  J.  E.  Crombie, 
Sir  Horace  Darwin,  Dr.  0.  Davison,  Sir  F.  W.  Dyson,  SirE.  T. 
Glazebrqok,  Professors  C.  G.  Knott  and  H.  Lamb,  Sir  J. 
Larmor,  Professors  A.  E.  H.  Love,  H.  M.  Macdonald,  J.  Perry, 
ayid  H.  C.  Plummer,  Mr.  W.  E.  Plummer,  Professor  E.  A. 
Sampson,  Sir  A.  Schuster,  Sir  Napier  Shaw,  Dr.  G.  T.  Walker, 
and  Mr.  G.  \V.  Walker. 


The  transference  of  the  Milne  books  and  apparatus  from  Shide  to  the  University 
Observatory  at  Oxford  was  completed  in  iSeptember  last.  Mrs.  Milne  sailed 
for  Japan,  after  some  shipping  delays,  on  September  27,  and  news  of  her  safe 
arrival  on  November  13  has  been  received.  The  greater  part  of  the  books, 
records,  cards,  and  the  two  globes  for  preliminary  calculations  are  conveniently 
housed  in  a  room  in  the  Students'  Observatory,  apart  from  the  main  building  : 
the  remainder  of  the  material  is  for  the  present  stored  in  an  outbuilding.  But 
by  a  timely  benefaction  of  400/.  from  Dr.  Crombie,  a  small  house  has  been 
acquired  near  the  Observatory,  of  which  it  is  hoped  to  get  occupation  in 
September,  and  this  will  easily  hold  all  that  is  required,  and  serve  at  the  same 
time  as  a  dwelling  for  the  seismological  assistant.  These  arrangements  have 
been  made  in  accordance  with  the  spirit  of  Professor  Schuster's  resolution 
(quoted  in  the  last  report),  offering  to  establish  a  Central  Bureau  at  Oxford, 
which  could  not  be  exactly  can-ied  into  effect  at  the  moment  owing  to  circum- 
stances there  mentioned.  Further,  in  pursuance  of  this  plan,  the  Cambridge 
Committee  entrusted  with  the  appeal  for  a  Geophysical  Institute  which  should 
include  Seismology,  finding  their  appeal  unsuccessful,  passed  the  following 
resolution  on  March  10,  1920  : — 

It  was  agreed  that  Professor  Turner  should  be  informed  that  no  objection 
could  be  taken  by  the  Committee  to  a  seismological  station  and  establish- 
ment at  Oxford. 

This  resolution,  with  a  letter  from  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee  and  a 
summary  of  other  information,  was  next  reported  to  the  University  of  Oxford 
through  the  Board  of  Visitors  in  May  last,  and  approved.  Finally,  these  facts 
were  reported  to  this  Committee  (B.A.  Seismology)  at  its  meeting  on  July  2, 
and  the  plan  of  locating  the  work  at  Oxford  approved.  It  remains  to  obtain 
the  funds  necessary  for  the  salary  of  a  full-time  director  and  for  replacing  the 
grants  temporarily  made  by  the  British  Association  and  the  Royal  Society.  A 
Royal  Commission  is  at  present  reviewing  the  finances  of  the  Universities  of 
Oxford  and  Cambridge,  and  a  note  has  been  addressed  to  this  Commission  on 
the  subject  of  Seismology,  in  the  first  instance  by  the  Board  of  Faculty  of 
Natural  Science,  supplemented  by  a  more  particular  note  from  Professor 


The  Milne-Shaw  seismograph  erected  in  the  basement  of  the  Clarendon 
Laboratory  has  worked  well  through  the  year.  Professor  Lindemann  has  given 
formal  sanction  to  the  arrangement,  and  included  the  ba-sement  in  his  general 

216  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OP   SCIENCE,    ETC. — 1920. 

installation  of  electric  light  in  the  laboratory.  This  has  much  facilitated  the 
operations  of  changing  fiiins,  comparing  clocks,  &c.,  but  the  gas-jet  is  retained 
for  the  photography.  The  room  has  further  been  cleaned  and  whitewashed,  ana 
an  outer  door  has  been  added  shutting  it  off  from  draughts.  It  is  now  a  very 
convenient  laboratory,  and  is  large  enough  for  the  erection  of  at  least  one 
more  machine,  when  one  is  available. 

The  Milne-Shaw  machine  formerly  erected  at  Eskdalemuir  for  direct  com- 
parison with  Galitzin  records  has  been  now  transferred  (on  loan)  to  the  Royal 
Observatory,  Edinburgh,  and  readings  have  been  received  from  July  4,  1919. 
The  situation  seems  peculiarly  liable  to  microseismic  disturbance,  obviously 
connected  with  wind. 

The  instrument  mounted  in  the  '  dug-out '  near  West  Bromwich  has  given 
•some  interesting  results  as  regards  these  microseisms  on  which  Mr.  Shaw  writes 
a  special  note  at  the  end  of  this  report. 

Various  other  instruments  are  being  constructed  as  rapidly  as  present  difficul- 
ties permit. 

Milne-Shaw  machines  have  recently  been  dispatched  to  Cape  Town,  Montreal, 
Honolulu,  and  Aberdeen.  Others  are  being  made  for  India,  China,  Egypt,  New 
Zealand,  Canada,  and  Ireland. 

Bulletins  and  Tables. 

'  The  Large  Earthquakes  of  1916 '  have  been  collated  and  published  as  a 
single  pamphlet  of  116  pages,  but  there  are  great  difficulties  in  obtaining  satis- 
factory determinations  of  epicentres  for  the  later  war  years,  which  have  delayed 
f  ui-ther  publication. 

The  corrections  to  adopted  tables  have  not  yet  been  completed. 

Earthquake  Periodicity. 

The  study  of  long  periods  in  the  '  Chinese  Earthquakes '  directed  attention 
to  a  period  near  260  years.  This  was  in  the  first  instance  identified  as  240  years 
('  Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.,'  Ixxix.,  p.  531)  as  mentioned  in  the  last  report,  and  Mr.  De 
Lury  pointed  out  that  this  value  also  suited  tree-records  (Pub.  Amer.  Ast. 
Soc.  1919).  But  an  investigation  on  the  secular  accelei-ation  ol  the  Moon  by  Dr. 
Fotheringham  recalled  attention  to  a  value  nearer  260  years,  which  was  also 
found  to  suit  the  tree-records  ('  Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.,'  Ixxx.,  p.  578)  over  the  same 
period.  Ultimately  a  much  longer  series  of  tree-records  was  obtained  (Mr.  A.  E, 
Douglass's  compilation  from  1180  B.C.)  and  a  full  analysis  of  these,  now  in  the 
press  ('Mon.  Not.  R.A.S.,'  1920  Supp.  No.),  suggests  a  double  periodicity,  with 
components  of  approximate  lengths  284  and  303  years.  Long  as  it  is,  the  series 
of  tree-records  is  not  long  enough  to  separate  these  components  themselves  :  the 
evidence  for  separation  is  provided  by  the  harmonics,  especially  the  third 
harmonic,  which  shows  components  of  101  years  and  94'4  years  clearly  separated, 
the  former  and  longer  being  the  stronger,  whereas  in  the  main  terms  the  shorter 
period  is  the  stronger.  The  second  harmonic  of  the  longer  period,  i.e.,  half  303, 
or,  say,  152  years,  is)  quite  possibly  the  156-year  period  referred  to  in  the  last 

These  results  have  been  obtained  so  recently  that  their  full  relation  to  the 
earthquake  records  have  not  yet  been  worked  out.  But  a  welcome  confirmation 
may  be  mentioned.  In  the  'Bull.  Seism.  Soc.  of  America,'  vol  ii..  No.  1,  Miss 
Bellamy  found  a  later  list  of  '  Chinese  Earthquakes  '  compiled  by  N.  F.  Drake. 
It  is  not  entirely  independent  of  the  catalogue  already  studied  (compiled  by 
Shinobu  Hirota  in  1908  and  mentioned  by  Drake  as  having  been  received  too 
late  for  inclusion  or  comparison),  but  it  differs  from  it  in  one  important  respect, 
being  copious  in  the  later  centuries  where  Hirota 's  catalogue  is  scanty.  Further, 
it  is  confined  to  '  destructive  or  nearly  destructive'  earthquakes,  so  that  the 
records  are  probably  more  pi'ecisely  comparable  inter  se,  although  they  still 
Bhow  a  large  increase   about  a.d.    1300,    which  must  be  attributed   to  greater 



completeness  of  the  later  records,  or  rather  imperfection   in  the   earlier  years. 
The  following  table  gives  the  analysis  in  periods  of  284  years  : — 

Table  I. 
Numbers  of  C'htnese  Destructive  Earthquakes   [Drake). 


2081  B.C. 


94  B.C. 

93  B.C. 

A.D.  190 













































































The  totals  in  the  last  column  but  one  are  governed  chiefly  by  the  later 
cycles.  To  minimise  this  effect  the  eight  columns  were  all  reduced  to  the 
same  total  66,  using  one  place  of  decimals  until  the  sums  were  formed.  The 
results  are  given  under  the  heading  '  Revised,'  and  it  will  be  seen  that  they 
give  substantially  the  same  curve,  with  pronounced  minimum  extending  from 
the  48th  year  to  the  118th,  and  a  pronounced  maximum  at  the  end.  The  48th 
year  of  the  present  cycle  will  be  1942,  so  that  we  are  approaching  the  time  of 
minimum  quakes  and  have  passed  the  maximimi.  But  it  is  not  yet  clear  whether 
these  figures  for  China  apply  unmodified  to  the  whole  earth.  It  may  be  possible 
to  observe  this  decline  in  the  near  future,  but  up  to  the  present  the  records  are 
affected  by  so  many  uncertainties,  owing  partly  to  the  novelty  of  the  science, 
partly  to  the  war,  and  to  other  causes,  that  it  is  very  difficult  to  compare  one 
year  with  another.  Thus  the  Eskdalemuir  records  show  the  foDowing  total 
numbers  of  earthquakes  : — 

















which  at  first  sight  might  be  interpreted  as  a  notable  falling-off  in  earthquake 
activity,  but  is  probably  chiefly  due  to  a  change  of  method  in  1915.  The  point 
will,  however,  be  further  examined.  Analysing  the  last  two  columns  of  Table  1. 
harmonically  we  get  from  the  simple   totals 

20  cos  [6  -  301°)  -f  11  cos  (2fl  -  348°)  +  1  cos  (39  -  304°)  -f  5  cos  (4«  -  98°) 

from  the  revised 

14  cos  (9  -  304°)  +  8  cos  (29  -  340°)  +  3  cos  (39  -  211°)  -f  8  cos  (49  -  138°). 

The  third  harmonic  is  small — smaller  than  the  fourth,  for  instance.  But  on 
analysing  the  results  in  101  years  a  larger  term  is  obtained.  The  totals  are 
(for  twelve  groups  to  the  cycle,  which  gives  nearly  the  same  mean  as  above) 

48    41     45    41     31     53    38     37     33    66    43    54 
which  gives  a  term  5  cos  (9  -  331°). 

This  is  in  accordance  with  the  results  found  from  trees — that  the  lOlyear  term 
should  exceed  the  94  year. 


Microseisms.     By  J.  J.  Shaw. 

Microseisms  appear  to  have  been  a  much  neglected  study.  A  few  observers 
have  counted  them,  measured  their  frequency  and  amplitude,  and  noted  their 
seasonal  character,  but  beyond  this  little  seems  to  have  been  done.  This  is  all 
the  more  remarkable  in  view  of  the  fact  that  microseisms,  unlike  earthquakes, 
are  always  more  or  less  available  for  investigation. 

In  1911  the  International  Seismological  Congress  in  Manchester  allotted  500^. 
for  their  investigation,  and  as  a  result  the  Central  Bureau  at  Strasbourg  tabulated 
a  number  of  observations,  and,  but  for  the  European  War,  would  probably 
have  reported  at  Petrograd  in  1914.  If  any  conclusions  were  arrived  at  they 
do  not  appear  to  have  been  published. 

In  the  1917  report  of  this  Committee  attention  was  drawn  to  the  readiness 
with  which  a  microseismic  wave  could  be  identified  at  two  adjacent  stations  (in 
that  case,  in  separate  buildings  60  feet  apart). 

The  two  machines,  arranged  with  precisely  similar  constants,  produced 
identical  records  of  the  microseisms;  but  an  interesting  feature  was  observed, 
that,  when  keeping  the  nominal  magnifications  of  the  two  machines  the  same,  and 
at  the  same  time  varying  the  relative  sensitivity  to  tilt  of  one  machine  to  as  much 
as  four  times  the  other,  the  amplitude  shown  on  the  film  remained  the  same  on  each 
machine.  This  seems  to  indicate  that  a  microseismic  wave  is  purely  horizontal 
and  compressional  rather  than  of  an  undulating  gravitational  character. 

In  the  same  report  it  was  suggested  that,  by  gradually  increasing  the  distance 
between  the  recording  stations  (but  only  so  long  as  it  was  possible  to  identify  the 
individual  waves),  it  might  be  possible  to  trace  the  origin  and  cause  of  these 

With  this  object  in  view  two  suitable  stations  were  secured.  The  one  was 
the  writer's  household  cellar  at  West  Bromwich,  the  other  a  'dug-out'  in  a 
pit  bank  at  Millpool  Colliery  situated  two  miles  away,  and  kindly  placed 
at  our  disposal  by  T.  Davis,  Esq.,  of  the  Patent  Shaft  and  Axletree  Co.,  of 

The  dug-out  was  a  tunnel  60  feet  into  the  mound  and  15  feet  below  the 
surface.     It  lay  17°  west  of  north  of  the  '  home  '  station. 

The  first  observations  were  made  in  March  and  April  1919,  when  for  a  few 
weeks  two  Milne-Shaw  machines  were  available. 

It  was  at  once  seen  that  at  stations  two  miles  apart  the  records  of  the 
microseismic  waves  were  almost  identical. 

The  clock  in  use  at  the  du,g-out  was  not  of  a  sufficiently  high  standard  to 
obtain  the  precise  difference  in  time  of  arrival  at  the  respective  stations. 

Several  seismograms  were  obtained  during  this  time  and  were  seen  to  be 
similar  in  every  detail. 

In  March  and  April  of  the  present  year  a  first-class  timing  clock  was  substi- 
tuted, and  two  more  machines  installed  with  the  intention  of  timing  the 
microseismic  wave  over  this  two-mile  base  line. 

The  usual  means  of  synchronising  were  not  available,  therefore  the  clocks 
were  adjusted  as  follows  : — 

A  watch  with  an  excellent  hourly  rate  was  chosen  and  carried  per  motor-cycle 
between  the  stations.  Two  observations,  with  30-minute  intervals,  were  made 
on  the  home  clock,  two  on  the  dug-out  clock,  and  two  more  on  the  home  clock. 
It  was  estimated  that  on  favourable  occasions  the  two  clocks  were  set  alike 
within  one-tenth  of  a  second.  The  clocks  were  checked  once  per  day,  and  the 
waves  timed  by  measuring  on  the  film  from  a  minute  eclipse  to  the  nearest  apex 
at  the  extreme  of  an  excursion. 

This  first  method  was  continued  from  January  31  to  February  15.  As  differ- 
ences of  1^  to  2  seconds  were  shown — being  probably  erroneous — an  effort  was 
made  during  March  to  secure  a  closer  comparison. 

Firstly,  the  clocks  were  checked  twice  per  day.  Secondly,  as,  on  a  closer 
scrutiny,  small  fluctuations  in  the  peripheral  speed  of  the  recording  drums 
could  be  detected,  it  was  seen  to  be  inadvisable  to  measure  any  intermediate 
point  during  a  minute,  but  to  rely  only  upon  the  moment  when  the  eclipsing 
shutter  opened  or  closed. 



The  duration  of  tlie  eclipse  was  4"7  seconds  in  each  case,  so  that  opening  or 
closing  were  equally  serviceable  as  datum  points.  Therefore  a  new  method  of 
comparing  the  films  was  devised  as  follows  : — 

The  eclipsing  shutter  was  provided  with  a  narrow  slit  through  which  a  small 
percentage  of  light  could  pass  when  the  shutter  was  closed.  This  feeble  beam 
produced  a  ghost-like  trace  during  the  interval  of  each  eclipse. 

In  making  comparisons  instances  were  chosen  where  the  amplitude  was  not 
only  large  but  also  where  the  shutter  had  opened  or  closed  near  the  middle 
or  zero  position  of  the  wave. 

The  change  of  intensity  of  the  trace  was  sharp  and  easily  measured,  whilst 
the  extremity  of  the  excursion  could  be  seen  in  the  ghost. 

The  period  of  the  wave  and  its  phase  at  the  datum  point  having  been  deter- 
mined, it  wae  then  possible  to  resolve  the  harmonic  motion,  and  so  obtain  the 
difference  in  time  to  one-tenth  of  a  second. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  by  either  method  the  average  difference  was 
0"8  second,  but  the  second  method  gave  much  more  consistent  readings. 

A  further  object  was  to  note  to  what  extent  the  direction  of  propagation, 
the  amplitude,  or  the  period  were  affected  by  meteorological  conditions,  particu- 
larly the  direction  and  force  of  the  wind. 

We  were  indebted  to  A.  J.  Kelly,  Esq.,  Director  of  the  Birmingham  and 
Midland  Institute  Observatory  (four  miles  distant),  for  his  help  in  this  matter. 

The  force  of  the  wind  and  the  amplitude  did  appear  to  be  co-related,  inasmuch 
that  the  microseisms  were  small  during  calm  spells  and  vice  versa,  but  there  was 
a  notable  exception  on  March  10.  During  March  9  and  10  the  air  movement 
had  been  small,  178  and  272  miles  in  each  24  hours  respectiveily,  yet  on  the 
evening  of  the  10th  nearly  the  largest  waves  of  the  series  were  recorded. 

Within  a  period  of  24  hours,  March  12  to  13,  the  velocity  of  the  wind 
ranged  from  37  to  12  and  back  to  37  miles  -per  hour  in  three  nearly  equal  periods, 
but  there  was  no  corresponding  fluctuation  in  the  amplitude  of  the  microseisms. 
Similar  fluctuations  on  other  dates  were  equally  ineffective  to  produce  sudden 
change  in  the  ground  movement. 

There  was  little  variation  in  period.  It  was  usually  6  to  7  seconds.  On 
a  few  occasions  it  fell  to  45  seconds,  but  never  exceeded  8  seconds.  It  will 
l)e  observed  that  the  period  appears  to  increase  with  the  amplitude. 

The  outstanding,  and  we  venture  to  think  important,  discovery  was  that 
the  microseismic  waves  always  arrived  from  the  same  direction.  On  every  film 
they  were  seen  to  arrive  at  the  '  dug-out '  or  northerly  station  first. 

During  the  period  of  observation  the  wind  blew  from  all  points,  except 
north  to  east,  but  no  quarter  seemed  to  affect  the  regularity  with  which  the 
waves  arrived  from  the  north. 

Column  two  in  the  following  table  gives  the  time  in  seconds  by  which  the 
waves  arrived  at  the  dug-out  first : — 

By  First  Method. 




Daily  HorJ. 
Motion   of 






the  Wind, 



.Tan.     31 






Feb.       2 


SW— s 
















„       10 












„        13 


ssw— w 




„       15 













By  Second  Method. 




Daily  Horl. 

Motion  of 

the  Wind, 







March    4 






























„       10 




7  0 


„       11 






„       12 






„       13 






„       18 






„       19 






„       20 






„      24 






„       26 






»      28 











It  will  be  observed  that  the  time  in  column  two  is  generally  about  one  second, 
which  is  the  approximate  time  required  for  a  surface  wave  to  travel  two  miles, 
thus  indicating  that  the  direction  of  propagation  was  more  or  less  constant  and 
approximately  from  north  to  south. 

On  the  other  hand  there  are  differences  ranging  between  0"7  sec.  and  I'l  sec. 
Remembering  the  method  of  synchronising  the  clocks  it  is  possible  many  of  the 
irregularities  are  due  to  personal  and  instrumental  error.  To  what  extent  they 
indicate  that  the  azimuth  wanders  round  the  northern  semicircle  it  is  difficult 
to  determine,  but  from  the  fact  that  the  southern  half  was  never  indicated,  it 
would  seem  feasible  to  presume  that  the  waves  came  generally  from  the  north. 

More  precise  information  is  very  desirable,  and  can  only  be  obtained  from 
not  less  than  three  stations  with  preferably  a  longer  base  of  operation,  and 
with  better  timing  facilities. 

It  is  hoped,  at  some  future  date,  when  three  machines  are  simultaneously 
available  and  suitable  quarters  and  observers  found,  to  make  the  experiment 
on  a  ten-mile  triangle. 

An  attempt  was  made  to  identify  the  microseisms  recorded  at  Oxford  with 
those  of  West  Bromwich  (80  miles  apart),  but  unfortunately  the  booms  are 
oriented  90°  from  each  other.  From  some  measures  made  by  Professor  Turner 
there  was  a  suggestion  of  agreement,  but  nothing  really  tangible  has  at  present 
been  detected. 

A  fruitful  investigation  for  observatories  would  be  to  determine  whether  this 
unidirectional  character  of  microseisms  is  general,  and  whether  the  azimuth 
depends  upon  the  contour  or  physical  features  of  a  country. 

From  the  foregoing  it  is  clear  that  microseisms  are  real  travelling  waves  of 
the  same  character  as  those  propagated  by  earthquake  shocks,  and  if  a 
seismograph  fails  to  perceive  them  then  it  is  not  recording  all  that  is  passing. 

Two  stations  where  Milne-Shaw  instruments  are  installed,  viz.,  Bidston  and 
Edinburgh,  seem  to  be  very  liable  to  microseisms.  Both  stations  are  near  the 
sea,  and  both  stand  upon  the  crest  of  a  hill. 

Shide  was  within  six  miles  of  the  open  sea,  but  did  not  stand  upon  a  hill. 
This  station  did  not  find  the  microseisms  more  prevalent  than  an  average  station. 

Oxford  and  West  Bromwich  are  well  removed  from  the  sea.  They  record 
microseisms  as  freely  as  Shide.  It  has  yet  to  be  determined  whether  the  sea- 
board is  more  liable  to  these  movements  :  the  evidence  points  to  that  conclusion. 


The  P  phase  of  a  seismogram  sometimes,  but  not  often,  begins  with  a  sharp 
kick — denoted  i  P ;  but  sensitive  machines  show  that  much  more  frequently  this 
sharp  kick  is  preceded  by  two  or  three  waves  of  smaller  amplitude  and  higher 
frequency.  When  the  frequency  is  distinctly  quicker  than  that  of  the  prevail- 
ing microseisms,  and  the  amplitude  of  the  latter  is  not  too  great,  it  is  easy  to 
detect  the  true  P  as  a.  superimposed  wave,  but  if  the  period  of  these  small 
precursors  approximate  to  that  of  the  microseisms,  then  it  is  difficult  to  deter- 
mine the  true  inception  of  the  earthquake  record. 

Machines  which  do  not  record  the  microseisms  will  not  record  these  minute 
waves.  With  such  machines  probably  more  uniformity,  by  reading  the  bigger 
kick,  will  result,  but  misguided  uniformity  will  not  be  conducive  to  obtaining 
the  true  rate  of  propagation  of  the  P  phase. 

It  is  to  sensitive  machines  and  careful  scrutiny  of  the  record  that  we 
must  look  for  data  for  the  perfecting  of  seismological  tables. 

222  REPORTS   ON  THE   STATE  OP  SCIENCE. — 1920. 

Absorption  Spectra  of  Organic  Compounds. — Report  of  Committee 
(Sir  J.  J.  DoBBiE,  Chairman;  Professor  E.  E.  C.  Baly,  Secretary; 
and  Dr.  A.  W.  Stewart).     Drawn  up  by  the  Secretary. 

Various  theories  have  been  advanced  from  time  to  time  to  explain  the  absorption 
bands  exhibited  by  organic  compounds,  and  it  would  seem  advisable  at  this  time 
to  deal  with  these  and  to  state  the  position  that  has  been  reached  in  this  branch 
of  scientific  investigation.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  pioneer  in  this  field  of 
work  was  the  late  Sir  Walter  Noel  Hartley.  He  was  the  first  to  undertake  a 
detailed  investigation  on  scientific  lines  of  the  absorption  exerted  by  organic 
compounds  in  the  visible  and  ultra-violet  regions  of  the  spectrum.  He  was  the 
first  to  recognise  the  fact  that  isolated  measurements  of  the  absorption  spectrum 
of  a  substance  in  solution  are  valueless,  and  he  devised  the  method  whereby  com- 
plete records  of  the  absorption  could  be  obtained.  Hartley's  method  consisted 
in  measuring  the  oscillation  frequencies  of  the  light  for  which  complete  absorption 
is  shown  by  definite  thicknesses  of  a  solution  of  known  strength  of  the  sub- 
stance. The  observations  were  repeated  with  the  same  thicknesses  of  more  and 
more  dilute  solutions  until  no  measurable  absorption  was  observed.  By  plotting 
the  oscillation  frequencies  against  the  thicknesses  expressed  as  equivalent  thick- 
nessee  of  some  selected  concentration  an  absorption  curve  was  obtained,  called  by 
Hartley  a  molecular  curve  of  absorption. 

At  the  present  time  this  method  of  observation  has  been  displaced  by  the 
quantitative  measurement  of  the  light  absorbed.  The  absorptive  power  exhibited 
by  a  given  substance  for  light  of  a  given  frequency  is  expressed  in  terms  of  the 
molecular  extinction  coefficient,  log  lo/I^dc,  where  lo/I  is  the  ratio  of  the 
intensities  of  the  incident  and  emergent  light  as  observed  with  a  layer  d  cms 
thick  of  a  solution  containing  c  gram  molecules  of  the  absorbing  substance 
dissolved  in  a  litre  of  some  diactinic  solvent. 

Reference  may,  be  made  to  the  use  of  a  solution  of  the  substance  under 
examination.  In  general  it  may  be  said  that  the  absorptive  power  exerted 
by  compounds  is  large,  with  the  result  that  it  is  necessary  to  use  very  thin  layers 
for  purposes  of  observation.  This  is  impossible  of  realisation  with  solid  sub- 
stances, and  indeed  with  many  liquids  the  thickness  required  is  so  small  that 
without  very  accurate  and  expensive  apparatiis  the  necessary  thin  layers  cannot 
be  obtained.  By  common  consent,  therefore,  solutions  of  known  strength  in 
diactinic  solvents  are  employed.  It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that  the 
mfluence  of  a  solvent  on  the  absorptive  power  of  a  compound  is  often  very 
marked,  and  due  allowance  must  be  made  for  this  effect.  The  question  of  the 
influence  of  a  solvent  will  be  discussed  later. 

The  region  of  the  spectrum  dealt  with  by  Hartley  extended  from  the  red 
end  to  the  limit  of  the  ultra-violet  as  set  by  a  quartz  spectrograph  working  in 
air,  that  is  to  say,  between  the  limits  of  wave-length  6000  and  2100  Angstroms. 
He  showed  in  the  first  place  that  substances  can  in  general  be  divided  into  two 
classes,  namely,  those  which  exhibit  selective  absorption,  i.e.,  absorption  bands 
between  the  above  spectral  limits,  and  those  which  exhibit  only  general  absorp- 
tion. It  is  not  necessary  here  to  detail  the  whole  of  Hartley's  work,  but  one 
important  fact  was  established,  namely,  that,  providing  no  disturbing  factor 
intervenes,  the  absorption  curves  shown  by  compounds  of  similar  constitution  are 
themselves  similar.  This  fact  was  made  use  of  in  determining  the  constitution 
of  a  few  substances  with  reference  to  which  the  chemical  arguments  at  the  time 
were  at  fault.  It  was  shown  for  instance  that  phloroglucinol  is  a  true  trihydroxy- 
benzene  and  not  ketonic  since  its  absorption  curve  is  very  similar  to  that  of  its 


trimethyl    ether.*      Similarly     the    constitution     of     isatin    C^IlX  /CO, 

'  See  references,  p.  243, 



carbostyril^  QH^v 

.CH  =  CH 

and  o-oxycarbanil'  C,H4' 





CO,  was  determined 

by  comparison  of  their  absorption  curves  with  those  of  their  nitrogen  and  oxygen 
methyl  derivatives. 

It  may  readily  be  understood  that  high  hopes  were  engendered  that  this 
method  might  prove  to  be  of  immense  value  to  the  chemist  as  independent  evi- 
dence in  the  determination  of  the  constitution  of  compounds,  but  it  may  be 
said  at  once  that  these  high  hopes  have  not  been  realised.  A  very  brief  account 
may  be  given  of  the  various  attempts  that  have  been  made  to  co-ordinate  consti- 
tution and  absorption  of  light,  because  all  of  these  attempts  have  some  importance 
in  relation  to  more  recent  developments.  Following  on  Hartley's  successful 
work  an  attempt  was  made  to  determine  the  constitution  of  ethyl  acetoacetate 
and  its  metallic  derivatives  by  comparison  with  its  two  ethyl  derivatives,  ethyl 
/3-ethoxycrotonate  and  ethyl  ethylacetoacetate.*  It  was  found,  however,  that 
the  parent  ester  and  its  metallic  derivatives  differ  in  absorptive  power  very 
materially  from  the  two  isomeric  ethyl  derivatives.  The  two  latter  do  not  show 
selective  absorption,  whilst  the  metallic  derivatives  show  well-marked  absorption 
bands.  The  deduction  was  made  from  this  that  the  origin  of  the  absorption 
bands  is  to  be  found  not  in  any  specific  structure  but  in  a  tautomeric  equilibrium 
between  the  two  forms,  that  is  to  say,  the  selective  absorption  of  light  is  due  to 

O  OM 

II  I 

the  change  of  linking  involved  in  the  process — C — CHM— ;^— G  =  CH — ,  where 

M  stands  for  hydrogen  or  a  metal. 

This  theory  was  extended  to  aromatic  compounds  where  the  selective  absorp- 
tion was  considered  to  be  due  to  the  oscillation  of  linking  supposed  to  be  present 
in  the  benzene  ring.  The  absence  of  selective  absorption  observed  with  some 
benzenoid  compounds  was  considered  to  be  due  to  the  restraint  on  the  oscillation 
exercised  by  certain  strongly  electro-negative  substituent  groups  such  as  N0„, 

&c.=  ■         u  • 

Without  question  one  of  the  most  important  theories  connoting  absorption  and 
structure  is  that  known  as  the  quinonoid  theory  which  connected  visible  colour 
with  a  structure  analogous  to  that  of  either  para-  or  or</io-benzoquinone.  This 
theory  has  found  great  favour  on  account  of  the  undoubted  fact  that  when  a 
quinonoid  structure  is  possible  the  substance  in  the  majority  of  cases  is  visibly 
coloiired,  whilst  in  the  case  of  an  isomeric  substance  in  which  a  quinonoid  struc- 
ture is  not  possible  the  colour  is  in  general  less  intense  or  indeed  very  slight. 
It  was  a  simple  matter  to  apply  the  oscillation  theory  in  explaining  the  visible 
•  colour  of  the  quinonoid  compounds.  The  oscillation  was  suggested  as  that 
between  the  two  forms 

O  0 






Similarly  the  visible  colour  of  the  a-diketones  was  explained  by  the  oscillation 

O  O  0-0 


*  —  C  =  C  - ,  which  after  all  is  only  a  slight  varia- 
This  particular  type  of  oscillating  linking  was 

between  the  two  forms  —  C  — C  — 
tion  of  the  quinonoid  conception, 
named  isorropesis.' 

It    was  soon   pointed   out,  however,   that  this   theory   was  open  to  serious 
objection  because  certain  compounds  in   which  no  oscillation   seemed    possible 





exhibit  strong  selective  absorption.     For  example  camphor  '    CgHj 

a  marked  band,  as  also  doss  the  disubstituted  compound  * 


C8Hh<'        \Br 

in  which  no  tautomeric  equilibrium  seems  possible.     Again,  azo-iso-butyronitrile 
shows  marked  selective  absorption. 

CH3\.  yCHj 

\c-N  =  N-C<' 
^  I  ^CH, 



The  most  interesting  example  of  a  compound  which  exhibits  an  absorption  band  is 
chloropicrin,  CCl^NO,,  which  does  not  contain  any  hydrogen  atoms  at  all.  It 
may  be  noted  that  Hantzsch  has  taken  up  the  position  that  there  is  a  definite 
correlation  between  constitution  and  absorption,  and  he  has  published  very  many 
papers  in  support  of  his  theory.  The  starting-point  of  the  theory  is  the 
derivatives  of  ethyl  acetoacetate  which  have  already  been  referred  to.  He 
showed  that  ethyl  dimethylacetoacetate,  which  is  an  absolutely  definite  ketonic 
compound,  exhibits  only  slight  general  absorption.  The  enolic  derivative  ethyl 
yS-ethoxycrotonate  at  equal  molecular  concentration  exhibits  more  strongly  marked 
general  absorption.  Hantzsch  assumes «  that  the  absorption  curves  are  truly 
characteristic  of  the  ketonic  and  enolic  forms  respectively.  He  then  assumes 
that  the  absorption  band  shown  by  the  metallic  derivatives  of  ethyl  acetoacetate 
is  due  to  the  constitution  where  M  stands  for  a  monovalent  metal.     The  novelty 




H2C  O 

I  I 

yC  M 


of  the  conception  lies  in  the  mutual  influence  of  the  secondary  valencies  or 
residual  affinities  of  the  metal  and  oxygen  atoms,  this  influence  being  denoted 
by  the  dotted  line  in  the  formula.  It  will  be  seen  that  this  explanation  of 
selective  absorption  does  not  involve  any  liable  atoms  but  _  attributes  the 
phenomenon  to  secondary  valencies.  Starting  from  this  original  assumption 
Hantzsch  has  built  up  a  complete  theory  of  a  direct  correlation  between  absorp- 
tion and  constitution  which  states  that  if  a  substance  exhibits  different  absorption 
curves  under  different  conditions  of  solvent,  &c..  this  is  due  to  a  definite 
change  in  constitution.  It  is  not  worth  while  to  describe  in  detail  the  conclusions 
which  Hantzsch  arrives  at  as  regards  the  specific  compounds  examined  by  him,!" 
such,  for  instance,  as  the  variety  of  absorption  bands  shown  by  compounds  of 
an  acid  type  when  dissolved  in  different  basic  solvents,  each  different  absorption 
band  being  attributed  to  a  different  structure  of  the  compound.  It  is  perhaps 
worthy  of  mention  that  Hantzsch  finds  it  necessary  to  confess  that  in  some  cases 
the  variations  in  absorption  shown  by  certain  compounds  are  more  numerous 
than  can  be  accounted  for  by  changes  in  constitution. 

It  may  be  stated  at  once   that  there  are  several  very  grave  objections   to 


Hantzsch's  theory,  and  indeed  these  are  so  fundamental  that  it  becomes  impos- 
sible to  accept  the  theory  as  it  stands.  In  the  first  place,  as  was  pointed  out 
above,  the  cardinal  assumption  on  which  the  whole  theory  rests  is  that  the  absorp- 
tion band  shown  by  the  metallic  derivatives  of  ethyl  acetoacetate  is  due  to  the 
secondary  valencies  of  the  metallic  atom  and  the  carbonyl  oxygen  of  the 
carboxyl  group.  There  are  many  cases  of  compounds  in  which  secondary 
valencies  must  be  postulated  in  order  to  explain  their  very  existence,  and  these 
compounds  do  not  generally  show  absorption  bands  in  the  visible  and  ultra- 
violet. Some  peculiar  merit  must  therefore  be  attributed  to  the  six-membered 
'ring'  of  Hantzsch's  formula,  and  it  is  difficult  to  accept  this  since  the  selective 
absorption  of  such  compounds  as'  the  alkaline  nitrates  and  chloropicrin  obviously 
cannot  have  any  relation  to  a  six-membered  ring. 

More  important  still  are  two  facts  which  appear  to  have  escaped  the  notice 
of  Hantzsch.  First,  ethyl  dimethylacetoacetate  in  the  presence  of  alkali  shows 
an  absorption  band  very  similar  to  that  shown  by  ethyl  acetoacetate  in  the 
presence  of  alkali.  Second,  ethyl  ;8-ethoxycrotonate  shows  an  inciprient  absorp- 
tion band  in  the  presence  of  acid.  It  is  obvious  that  these  two  observations  are 
in  direct  opposition  to  the  Hantzsch  formula  as  the  correct  explanation  of  the 
selective  absorption  shown  by  the  metallic  derivatives  of  ethyl  acetoacetate. 

Still  more  cogent  arguments  against  the  theory  of  correlation  between 
structure  and  absorption  in  the  visible  and  ultra-violet  are  to  be  found  in  such 
cases  as  pyridine  and  piperidine.  Pyridine  in  the  homogeneous  state  and  in 
solution  in  various  solvents  exhibits  an  absorption  band  with  centre  at 
1/X  =  3910.  but  in  the  vapom-  state  it  shows  an  entirely  different  band  with 
centre  at  1/A  =  3587."  Piperidine  vapour  shows  a  well-marked  absorption  band, 
but  in  solution  and  in  the  homogeneous  state  it  is  completely  diactinic.  Analogous 
dissimilarities  between  the  molecular  absorptive  powers  of  liquid  and  vapour  have 
been  observed  with  other  compounds,  and  clearly  on  the  structure-absorption 
theory  the  structure  of  the  molecules  in  the  liquid  and  vapour  phases  must  be 
different.  This  would  seem  to  be  impossible  at  any  rate  in  the  case  of 
symmetrical  molecules  such  as  pyridine  and  piperidine. 

The  evidence  against  the  direct  structure-absorption  correlation  theory  as 
developed  by  Hantzsch  is  overwhelmingly  great,  and  this  is  equally  true  of  the 
quinonoid  explanation  of  visible  colour.  The  evidence  of  numerous  colourless 
compounds  which  cannot  be  quinonoid  in  structure  is  sufficient  to  condemn  this 
theory,  even  were  there  no  other  evidence  against  it.  One  of  the  most  often 
quoted  instances  in  which  the  quinonoid  theory  is  invoked  is  the  well-known 
case  of  aminoazobenzene.  This  compound  gives  with  hydrochloric  acid  (one 
equivalent)  a  salt  which  is  more  highly  coloured  than  it  is  itself.  This  is 
universally  accepted  as  being  due  to  the  salt  having  the  structure 

C1H,N=<:  >-N-NH- 

because  the  colour  and  absorption   spectrum    is  entirely    different  from   that  of 
benzeneazophenyltrimethylammonium  iodide. 

\N- </          \-N=H- 
(T  ^ ^  

which  of  course  corresponds  to  the  normal  form  of  the  hydrochloride. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  trimethylamnionium  compound  also  gives  a  salt  which 
is  more  highly  coloured  than  it  is  iipelf,  and  obviously  this  cannot  be  due  to  a 
quinonoid  structure,     It  is  clearly  pjijugtifiahle  to  gxplain  th?  one  case  of  colour 
1920  Q 

226  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1920. 

change  by  the  quinonoid  configuration  when  the  other  case  of  exactly  analogous 
colour  change  cannot  be  so  explained. 

Another  well-known  application  of  the  quinonoid  hypothesis  is  to  the  alkali 
metal  salts  of  the  nitrophenols  which  are  highly  coloured.  It  is  stated,  for 
example,   that  the  sodium  salt  of  p-n[tTo^heno\  has  the  constitution 



If  that  is  so,  what  is  the  constitution  of  the  nitropheiiol  when  in  solution  in 
concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  for  it  is  equally  coloured  under  these  conditions?  A 
similar  coloured  solution  is  obtained  when  p-nitroanisole  is  dissolved  in  sulphuric 
acid.  Many  other  instances  could  be  quoted,  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  the 
evidence  against  a  direct  sfructure-absorption  correlation  is  overwhelmingly 

There  are  two  general  objectives  to  any  of  the  theories  that  have  been  referred 
to.  In  the  first  place,  no  theory  can  be  sound  which  is  limited  to  a  very  minute 
section  of  the  spectrum  such  as  the  visible  and  ultra-violet,  and  in  the  second 
place,  no  theory  can  hold  good  unless  it  rests  on  a  quantitative  physical^  basis. 
There  is  also  another  aspect  of  the  phenomenon  of  absorption,  namely,  its  un- 
doubted connection  with  the  phenomena  of  fluorescence  and  phosphorescence. 
Just  as  the  selective  absorption  of  light  must  be  due  to  specific  properties  of 
molecules,  so  also  must  the  emission  of  light  by  molecules  be  due  to  similar 
properties.  It  is  evident  that  any  theory  must  take  cognisance  of  both 
phenomena.  It  is  true  that  many  theories  were  advanced  to  explain  the 
fluorescence  of  organic  compounds,  but  none  of  these  can  be  said  to  hold  the 
field.  Devised  to  explain  visible  fluorescence  they  fail  entirely  to  offer  any 
explanation  of  the  ultra-violet  fluorescence  shown  by  many  compounds. 

In  general  it  may  be  said  that  the  most  recent  work  on  the  absorption  by 
organic  compounds  has  increasingly  shown  that  there  is  some  relation  between 
the  absorption  bands  shown  by  a  substance  and  its  reactivity.  Perhaps  the  first 
observations  which  supported  this  view  were  those  of  certain  amino-aldehydes 
and  -ketones  of  the  aromatic  series  and  their  salts  with  hydrogen  chloride. '^  It 
was  found  that  alcoholic  solutions  of  these  compounds  exhibit  well-marked 
absorption  bands.  On  the  addition  of  small  quantities  (O'l  to  0"5  eq.)  of  hydro- 
chloric acid  to  these  solutions  a  new  absorption  band,  situated  nearer  to  the  red, 
is  developed  in  each  case.  On  the  addition  of  more  acid  this  band  disappears 
and  gives  place  to  the  absorption  characteristic  of  the  hydrochloride  of  the 
original  base.  This  shows  that  the  base  as  it  exists  in  alcohol  solution  does  not 
react  with  the  acid  to  give  the  salt,  but  that  it  is  first  converted  into  an  inter- 
merliate  or  reactive  phase  which  then  reacts  with  more  acid  to  give  the  salt. 

These  observations  were  extended  to  manv  substances,  notably  certain 
phenolic  compounds  including  the  nitrophenols.^'  The  compounds  in  alcoholic 
solution  exhibit  well-marked  absorption  bands  which  are  not  appreciably  changed 
when  sulphuric  acid  is  added.  When  dissolved  in  concentrated  sulphuric  arid 
they  develop  visible  colour  due  to  absorption  bands  in  the  visible  region.  The 
compounds  in  sulphuric  acid  solution,  on  being  allowed  tn  remain,  slowly 
undergo  sulphonation  to  srive  colourless  sulphonic  acids,  Clearly,  therefore, 
these  phenols  in  the  condition  in  which  they  exist  in  alcoholic  solution  do  not 
react  with  sulphuric  acid.  When  dissolved  in  strong  sulphuric  acid  they  are 
changed  into  a  reactive  phase  which  slowly  reacts  with  the  sulphuric  acid  to  give 
the  snlphonic  acid.  They  are  therefore  exactly  analogous  to  the  amino-aldehydes 
and  -ketones  already  mentioned. 

It  mieht  easily  be  said  that  the  coloured  reactive  modifications  have  under- 
gone a  change  in  structure,  but  further  evidence  shows  that  no  change  of 
structure  has  taken  place.  The  majority  of  these  compounds  in  alcoholic  solu- 
tion exhibit  fluorescence  when  exposed  to  light  of  frequency  equal  to  that  of 
their  absorption  bands.  The  frequency  of  this  fluorescent  emission  has  been 
accurately  measured,  and  it  has  been  found  in  every  case  of  the  abovp-mp'itionp'1 
substances  that  the   frequency  of  the  fluorescence  of  the  compound  in  alcoholic 


solution  is  equal  to  that  of  the  absorption  band  shown  by  that  compound  when 
in  the  reactive  phase.  The  same  frequency  therefore  is  characteristic  of  a  given 
substance  in  two  solvents,  in  one  of  which  it  is  exhibited  as  emission  and  in  the 
other  as  absorption.  It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  the  constitution  of  each 
compound  is  the  same  in  the  two  cases. 

Very  important  conclusions  may  be  drawn  from  these  observations,  namely, 
that  a  given  compound  can  exist  in  at  any  rate  two  phases  which  differ  in 
their  reactivity  and  which  are  characterised  by  different  absorption  bands. 
Also  the  absorption  bands  shown  by  the  reactive  phases  are  nearer  to  the  red 
end  of  the  spectrum.  It  is  therefore  an  obvious  deduction  that  a  definite 
absorption  band  is  associated  with  a  definite  type  of  reactivity. 

The  next  question  to  consider  is  whether  an  explanation  of  these  facts  can 
be  found.  In  the  theories  of  absorption  spectra  given  above  no;  reference  is 
made  to  the  ultimate  destination  of  the  light  which  is  being  absorbed.  It  is 
perfectly  obvious  that,  unless  the  absorbing  compound  undergoes  a  photochemical 
change,  the  total  amount  of  energy  absorbed  must  again  be  radiated.  It  is 
equally  evident  that  just  as  the  light  energy  is  absorbed  at  frequencies  which 
are  characteristic  of  the  absorbing  substance,  so  also  must  this  energy  be 
radiated  at  frequencies  characteristic  of  the  substance.  Careful  experiments 
have  proved  that,  provided  the  absorbing  substance  or  its  solution  is  free  from 
dust,  there  is  no  evidence  of  radiation  at  the  frequencies  which  lie  within  tho, 
absorption  band.  Clearly,  therefore,  the  phenomenon  of  absorption  is  not  one  of 
optical  resonance,  that  is  to  say,  the  light  energy  absorbed  by  a  substance  is 
radiated  at  frequencies  which  are  not  the  same  as  those  at  which  it  has  been 
absorbed.  Except  in  those  cases  where  fluorescence  or  phosphorescence  is 
observed,  the  whole  of  the  absorbed  energy  is  radiated  at  frequencies  which  lie 
in  the  infra-red  region  of  the  spectrum,  and  we  have  therefore — • 

Energy  absorbed  (visible  or  ultra-violet)  =  energy  radiated    (infra-red). 

This  necessarily  establishes  a  relationship  between  the  various  frequencies 
exhibited  by  a  substance  in  the  infra-red,  visible,  and  ultra-violet  regions,  and, 
indeed,  invites  investigation  of  this  relationship. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  Planck  formulated  the  theory  that  absorption 
and  radiation  of  energy  are  not  continuous  processes,  but  are  discontinuous  in 
the  sense  that  the  energy  is  absorbed  or  emitted  in  a  series  of  fixed  amounts. 
To  these  fixed  amounts  he  gave  the  name  of  energy  quanta,  and  he  showed  that 
the  size  of  the  quantum  is  given  by  the  product  of  the  frequency  into  a  universal 
constant,  the  most  recent  value  of  which  is  6-56  x  lO"^'.  According  to  this 
theory,  therefore,  if  a  substance  is  absorbing  light  with  a  frequency  of,  say, 
9  X  10",  the  process  is  not  continuous,  but  each  molecule  absorbs  a  .series  of 
quanta,  each  of  which  is  9  x  10'^  X  6-56  x  lO'^^,  or  5-904  X  lO'^  ergs. 
Without  discussion  of  the  fundamental  basis  of  this  quantus  theory  it  may  be 
applied  to  the  problem  of  the  absorption  and  radiation  of  energy  by  a  molecule 
when,  as  already  explained,  the  total  quantity  of  energy  absorbed  is  radiated 
at  another  and  smaller  frequency.  Let  a  molecule  absorb  one  quantum  of  light 
energy  at  its  absorbing  frequency.  This  energy  is  then  radiated  at  another 
and  smaller  frequency,  but  it  must  be  radiated  as  a  whole  number  of  quanta  at 
that  frequency.  It  follows,  therefore,  that  when  a  molecule  is  absorbing  at 
one  frequency  and  radiating  at  another  and  smaller  frequency,  one  quantum  of 
energy  at  the  larger  frequency  must  be  equal  to  a  whole  number  of  quanta  at 
the  smaller  frequency.  Finally,  since  the  quantum  is  the  product  of  the  fre- 
auency  into  the  universal  constant,  the  conclusion  is  reached  that  the  absorbing 
frequency  must  be  an  exact  multiple  of  the  radiating  frequency.  In  other  words, 
the  frequencies  of  each  absorption  band  shown  by  a  substance  in  the  visible 
and  ultra-violet  must,  on  the  basis  of  Planck's  theory,  be  an  exact  multipJe  of  a 
frequency  characteristic  of  that  substance  in  the  infra-red.  It  was  not  difficult 
to  test  the  validity  of  this  deduction  since  the  existence  of  characteristic 
frequencies  in  the  infra-red  possessed  by  a  substance  can  be  proved  by  the 
method  of  absorption  spectra  observations  in  that  region,  and  indeed  a  o-reat 
nu-^bor  of  substances  had  already  been  in  vestisated  in   this  manner. 

It  may  be  stated  at  once  tJiat  the  relation  has  been  found  to  be  true  in  *he 


228  REPORTS    ON    THE    STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1920. 

case  of  every  substance  examined.^*  Further  than  this,  it  is  well  known  that 
certain  substances  exhibit  more  than  one  absorption  band  in  the  visible  or  ultra- 
violet, and  it  has  been  found  that  the  frequencies  of  each  of  these  absorption 
bands  are  exact  multiples  of  one  and  the  same  frequency  characteristic  of  that 
substance  in  the  infra-red.  It  follows,  therefore,  that  when  a  substance  shows 
more  than  two  absorption  bands  in  the  visible  or  ultra-violet  there  must  exist  a 
constant  difference  between  the  frequencies  of  consecutive  bands,  and  this 
difference  must  equal  the  fundamental  infra-red  frequency.  This  has  also  been 
proved  to  be  true. 

The  application  of  the  Planck  theory  has  led  to  the  discovery  of  relationships 
between  the  frequencies  of  the  absorption  bands  shown  by  a  substance,  relation- 
ships which  are  of  considerable  importance  because  they  form  a  quantitative 
basis  of  molecular  frequencies.  It  is  not  possible  here  to  give  the  mathematical 
development  of  Planck's  theory,  and  the  theory  is  only  mentioned  because  it  led 
to  the  discovery  of  the  relation  between  the  frequencies. 

It  is  advisable  at  this  point  to  discuss  in  some  detail  what  is  meant  by  the 
frequency  of  an  absorption  band  and  also  the  influence  of  a  solvent  upon  that 
frequency.  It  is  common  knowledge  that  in  many  instances  under  high  resolving 
power  an  absorption  band  is  found  to  possess  a  structure.  The  most  common 
phenomenon  is  when  an  absorption  band  consists  of  a  series  of  sub-groups.  In 
this  case  one  sub-group  always  exhibits  a  maximum  absorptive  power,  and  those 
on  either  side  exhibit  decreasing  absorptive  power  the  farther  they  are  situated 
from  the  principal  sub-group.  Then,  again,  it  is  generally  found  by  the 
examination  of  the  vapour  of  the  substance  that  each  of  the  sub-groups  is 
resolved  into  fine  absorption  lines,  and  that  the  arrangement  of  these  lines  as 
regards  their  intensity  is  analogous  to  that  of  the  sub-groups  themselves.  There 
is  always  in  each  sub-group  one  line  of  maximum  intensity,  and  the  other  lines 
are  arranged  in  series  of  decreasing  intensity  with  regard  to  this  central  line. 

Now  when  a  substance  is  cooled  to  low  temperatures  it  is  found  that  its 
absorption  bands  become  narrower,  this  being  due  to  the  suppression  of  the 
outermost  sub-groups.  With  further  fall  of  temperature  more  and  more  sub- 
groups disappear,  and  finally  there  is  left  only  the  principal  line  of  the  principal 
sub-group.  This  absorption  line  persists  even  at  the  lowest  temperatures  yet 
reached.  It  is  perfectly  evident  therefore  that  this  single  frequency  is  truly 
characteristic  of  the  molecules,  and  that  the  other  frequencies  which  make  up 
the  breadth  of  the  band  are  due  to  some  cause  connected  with  the  temperature 
of  the  molecules.  There  is,  of  course,  no  necessity  to  cool  a  substance  to  low 
temperatures  in  order  to  recognise  the  true  molecular  frequency,  because  this 
frequency  is  always  that  one  for  which  the  absorptive  power  is  the  gi'eatest  in 
the  absorption  band.  In  the  quantitative  relationships  given  above  it  is  this 
true  molecular  frequency  which  is  referred  to. 

It  is  perhaps  not  out  of  place  to  refer  to  the  confusion  that  has  arisen  from 
time  to  time  from  carelessness  in  nomenclature  in  dealing  with  absorption 
spectra  observations.  The  term  '  band  '  is  applied  to  the  whole  region  covered  bv 
one  set  of  as.<;ociated  groups  or  sub-groups.  In  the  literature  the  word  band 
has  been  used  when  a  sub-group  of  a  band  is  meant,  and  thus  considerable 
confusion  has  been  caused. 

The  next  point  to  be  dealt  with  is  the  variation  in  absorption  caused  by  a 
solvent,  a  fact  that  is  of  material  importance  in  connection  with  the  Quantitative 
relations  between  the  molecular  frequencies  exhibited  by  a  compound.  Hartley 
was  the  first  to  observe  the  difference  in  frequency  of  a  particular  absorption  band 
according  to  whether  a  substance  is  examined  in  the  vapour  etate  or  in  solution 
in  a  solvent,  and  he  noted  that  there  is  always  a  small  shift  towards  the  red  in 
passing  from  vapour  to  solution.  There  are,  in  fact,  two  different  effects  of  a 
solvent  npon  the  absorption  spectrum  of  a  substance  as  observed  in  the  vapour 
state.  One  of  these  has  already  been  mentioned,  namely,  the  appearance  of  an 
entirelv  different  absorption  band  when  the  substance  is  dissolved.  In  this 
case  the  vapour  exhibits  a  molecular  frequency  which  is  one  multiple  of  the 
infra-red  frequency,  whilst  the  solution  exhibits  a  molecular  frequency  which 
is  another  multiple  of  that  infra-red  freouency.  In  the  case  of  some  comnounds 
''t   Vas  been  shown  that  by  tbo  use   of  different  solvents  a  number  of   diffprent 

fpultipka  of  the  Infrgrred  fundamental  are  called  into  play. 


The  second  effect  of  a  solvent  is  when  the  same  molecular  frequency  is 
common  to  vapour  and  solution,  but  tlie  measurements  of  this  frequency  with 
vapour  and  solution  do  not  give  exactly  the  same  values.  It  is  this  particular 
etiect  which  requires  discussion,  because  unless  the  phenomenon  is  understood 
the  relationships  between  the  infra-red  fundamental  frequency  and  the  visible 
and  ultra-violet  frequencies  will  apparently  not  hold  good.  Without  going 
fully  into  the  quantitative  measurements  it  may  be  stated  that  the  change  in 
the  value  of  the  molecular  frequency  in  passing  from  vapour  to  solution  depends 
on  th«  nature  of  the  solvent  and  on  the  concentration  in  that  solvent.'^  As 
regards  the  effect  of  concentration,  the  difference  between  values  of  the  molecular 
frequency  as  observed  with  vapour  and  solution,  is  greatest  with  concentrated 
solutions.  As  the  solution  is  diluted  the  value  more  and  more  nearly  approaches 
the  value  for  tlie  vapour  until  at  very  great  dilution  the  value  for  the  solution 
equals  that  for  the  vapour.  This  change  iii  the  molecular  frequency  in  passing 
from  vapour  to  solution  is  not  due  to  the  fact  that  the  quantitative  relation 
between  visible  or  ultra-violet  bands  and  the  infra-red  fundamental  does  not 
hold,  but  to  the  fact  that  the  infra-red  fundamental  itself  varies  slightly 
in  position  with  the  nature  of  the  solvent  and  the  concentration  in  that  solvent. 
Another  important  fact  to  be  recorded  is  that  a  compound  in  the  liquid  state 
does  not  show  exactly  the  same  molecular  frequency  as  it  does  in  the  state  of 
vapour.  This,  again,  is  due  to  a  small  difference  in  the  infra-red  fundamental 
frequency  in  the  two  statee.  It  is  obvious,  therefore,  that  in  making  measure- 
ments ot  molecular  frequencies  the  true  values  are  those  obtained  with  the 
vapour.  If,  as  frequently  happens,  measurements  cannot  be  made  with  the 
vapour,  then  very  dilute  solutions  must  be  used.  Abov«  all,  in  comparing 
together  the  various  molecular  frequencies  shown  by  a  given  substance  it  is 
necessary  that  all  the  measurements  be  made  with  the  substance  under  the  same 

In  connection  with  the  effect  of  solvents  on  the  absorption  exerted  by  a  sub- 
stance, a  brief  reference  may  be  made  to  the  variation  in  the  absorptive  power 
with  concentration.  Measurements  have  as  yet  only  been,  made  for  frequencies 
in  the  ultra-violet  region.  At  first  sight  it  might  be  expected  that  Beer's 
law  would  hold  good,  namely,  that  the  molecular  absorptive  power  would  be 
independent  of  the  concentration.  It  is,  however,  rarely  the  case  that  Beer's 
law  holds  good,  and  in  the  great  majority  of  cases  the  absorptive  power  in- 
creases with  dilution  up  to  a  constant  maximum.  It  has  been  found  that  if 
K  is  the  maximum  absorptive  power  shown  by  a  substance  at  very  great  dilution 
in  a  given  solvent,  and  k  is  the  absorptive  power  at  a  definite  concentration 
k/K  =  l  — e-av^  where  V  is  the  volume  in,  litres  containing  one  gram  molecule 
of  the  absorbing  substance  and  a  is  a  constant.  A  more  convenient  form  of  the 
above  is  log  (K/K-k)=aV. 

The  quantitative  relationships  between  the  various  frequencies  shown  by  a 
molecule  may  now  be  further  considered.  It  has  already  been  stated  that  the 
principal  frequencies  of  all  the  absorption  bands  shown  by  a  compound  in  the 
visible  and  ultra-violet  are  always  exact  multiples  of  the  principal  frequency 
of  an  important  absorption  band  shown  by  that  substance  in  the  infra-red. 
This  is  true  of  all  the  absorption  bands  which  are  shown  by  a  substance  in 
different  solvents,  and  which  Hantzsch  attempted  to  explain  by  assigning  a 
different  formula  for  each  band.  Other  quantitative  relationships  have  also 
been  discovered,  and  these  may  briefly  be  described,  because  it  has  been 
found  possible  from  a  knowledge  of  them  to  formulate  a  quantitative  theory 
which  would  seem  capable  of  explaining  all  the  observations  that  have  been 
made  on  absorption  spectra. 

In  the  first  place  it  may  be  noted  that  the  examination  of  the  absorption 
exerted  by  a  compound  in  the  infra-red  reveals  the  existence  of  many  more 
bands  than  the  important  one  which  has  been  called  the  infra-red  fundamental, 
and  which  determines  the  frequencies  of  the  visible  and  ultra-violet  hands.. 
Further,  in  every  case  yet  examined  the  infra-red  fundamental  lines  were  in  the 
short  wave  infra-red  region,  i.e.,  between  the  wave-lengths  limits  of  8/n  and  3/x. 
If  the  principal  frequencies  of  all  the  infra-red  bands  are  examined  additional 
interesting  relationships  are  found.  Thus  the  fundamental  infra-red  frequency 
either    is    the  least    common    multiple    of    certain    of    the  long  wave  infra-red 

230  REPORTS  ON  THE   STATE  OF  SCIENCE. — 1920. 

frequencies  or  is  a  multiple  of  that  least  oommon  multiple,  and  indeed  this  rela- 
tionsliip  gives  the  key  to  the  whole  of  the  system  of  fi-equencies  exhibited  by  a 
molecule.  Again,  the  whole  of  the  principal  frequencies  in  the  infra-red  are 
derived  from  certain  constants,  and  these  constants  are  characteristic  of  the 
elementary  atoms  of  which  the  absorbing  molecules  are  composed.  These  con- 
stants or  elementary  atomic  frequencies  lie  in  the  very  long  wave  infra-red 
region,  and  the  corresponding  wave-lengths  are  of  the  order  of  1000//. 

The  whole  of  the  principal  frequencies  shown  by  a  molecule  are  determined 
as  follows  :  The  fundamental  infra-red  frequency  either  is  the  least  common 
multiple  of  all  the  elementary  atomic  frequencies  which  are  active  in  the  mole- 
cule or  is  an  exact  multiple  of  that  least  common  multiple.  The  principal 
frequencies  of  all  the  visible  or  ultra-violet  absorption  bands  shown  by  that 
molecule  under  various  conditions  are  exact  multiples  of  that  fundamental  infra- 
red frequency,  and  therefore  are  characteristic  of  that  molecule.  In  addition 
to  all  these  frequencies  which  are  true  molecular  frequencies,  there  also  exist 
frequencies  which  are  the  least  common  multiples  of  some  (not  all)  of  the 
elementary  atomic  frequencies,  and  these  are  due  to  specific  groups  of  atoms  in 
the  molecule,  and  are  called  intra-molecular  frequencies. 

The  question  might  be  asked  as  to  how  these  relationships  have  been  proved 
within  a  very  high  degree  of  accuracy  in  view  of  the  fact  that  measurements 
of  absorption  in  the  infra-red  have  not  reached  a  high  level  of  accuracy.  It 
has  been  found  that  if  a  molecule  exhibit  a  principal  frequency  F  in  the  infra- 
red, visible,  or  ultra-violet,  there  will  be  associated  with  that  frequency  sub- 
sidiary frequencies  F  +  A,  where  A  stands  for  either  the  intra-molecular  fre- 
quencies or  the  elementary  atomic  frequencies.  Indeed,  it  is  to  this  cause  that 
the  breadth  of  the  absorption  bands  is  due.  As  the  result  of  this  it  is  possible 
to  arrive  at  highly  accurate  determinations  of  the  intra-molecular  and  ele- 
mentary atomic  frequencies  by  analysis  of  the  absorption  bands,  especially 
those  ill  the  ultra-violet  where  the  accuracy  of  measurement  is  very  high. 

The  most  usual  arrangement  of  the  subsidiary  frequencies  within  an  absorp- 
tion band  is  as  follows  :  The  band  consists  of  a  series  of  sub-groups  symmetrically 
arranged  with  respect  to  the  principal  sub-group  with  the  greatest  absorptive 
power.  These  sub-groups  each  possess  a  principal  line  for  which  the  absorptive 
power  is  a  maximum,  and  ail  these  principal  lines  form  a  series  of  constant 
frequency  difference.  This  frequency  difference  is  an  intra-molecular  frequency 
and  is  characteristic  of  a  specitic  group  of  atoms   within  the  molecule. 

Then,  again,  each  sub-group  is  exactly  similar  in  structure  and  consists  of 
two  or  more  series  of  lines,  each  with  constant  frequency  difference  and 
symmetrically  arranged  with  respect  to  the  principal  line.  These  constant 
frequency  differences  are  the  elementary  atomic  frequencies  characteristic  of 
the  atoms  composing  the  specific  group  within  the  molecule,  and  the  least  common 
multiple  of  these  is  the  intra-molecular  frequency  characteristic  of  that  group 
of  atoms. 

Two  instances  may  be  given  which  exemplify  very  fully  these  relationships. 
The  complete  absorption  system  of  sulphur  dioxide  has  been  found  to  be  based 
on  three  elementary  atomic  frequencies. ^^  Of  these,  two,  8-19  x  10"  and 
1"296  X  10'^,  are  characteristic  of  the  sulphur  atom  because  they  also  form 
the  basis  of  the  infra-red  frequencies  of  hydrogen  sulphide,  and  the  third, 
2'4531  X  10'^,  is  characteristic  of  the  oxygen  atom.  From  direct  measurement 
the  two  possible  intra-molecular  frequencies  of  the  water  molecule  have  been 
found  lo  be  7-5  X  10' i  and  r7301  X  10'-.  Obviously  if  2-4531  X  10^  is 
characteristic  of  the  oxygen  atom  it  should  form  one  of  the  fundamental  constants 
of  the  water  molecule.  From  these  three  values  alone  it  has  been  found 
possible ''  to  calculate  the  whole  of  the  structure  of  the  infra-red  bands  of 
water,  and  the  values  obtained  agree  absolutely  with  those  observed." 

Again,  in  one  of  the  ultra-violet  bands  of  naphthalene  there  exists  a  constant 
frequency  difference  of  1-4136  x  10"  between  the  sub-groups,  which  is  therefore 
an  intra-molecular  frequency,  and  thus  must  be  characteristic  of  a  definite 
group  of  atoms  within  the  naphthalene  molecule.  The  two  most  obvious  groups 
of  atoms  are  the  phenyl  group  and  the  olefine  group,  and  therefore  the  frequency 
1"4136  X  10"  should  be  the  true  molecular  frequency  of  either  benzene  or  one 
of  the  olefines,  the  olefines  being  very  similar  in  their  characteristic  frequencies. 


This  was  found  to  be  true  for  the  defines  since  ethylene  shows  a  series  of  bands 
in  the  short  wave  infra-red,  the  principal  frequencies  of  which  are  exact  multiples 
uf   1-415(3    X   10'^ 

In  fomiulating  a  theory  of  absorption  spectra  the  following  relationships 
which  have  been  established  must  be  considered.'" 

1.  Every  elementary  atom  possesses  one  or  more  frequencies  which  are 
characteristic  of  the  element. 

2.  When  atoms  of  different  elements  enter  into  combination  the  resulting 
molecule  is  endowed  with  a  new  frequency  which  is  the  least  common  multiple 
of  the  frequencies  of  the  atoms  it  contains.  This  is  called  the  true  molecular 

3.  The  central  frequencies  of  all  absorption  bands,  that  is,  those  frequencies 
for  which  the  absorptive  power  is  greatest,  are  molecular  frequencies 
characteristic  of  the  molecules,  since  these  alone  persist  when  the  substaiice 
is  cooled  to  low  temperatures. 

4.  The  molecular  frequencies  in  the  visible  and  ultra-violet  regions  are  exact 
multiples  of  a  molecular  frequency  in  the  short  wave  infra-red,  which  is  called 
the   infra-red  fundamental  frequency. 

5.  The  infra-red  fundamental  frequency  either  is  the  true  molecular  frequency 
or  is  an  exact  multiple  of  the  true  molecular  frequency. 

6.  The  breadth  of  an  absorption  band  as  observed  at  ordinary  temperatm-es 
is  due  to  the  combination  of  the  molecular  central  frequency  with  subsidiary 

The  first  question  which  arises  is  the  meaning  of  the  characteristic  atomic 
frequencies  which  are  the  fundamental  constants  from  which  the  whole  system 
of  Irequencies  shown  by  a  molecule  is  derived.  Presumably  they  are  connected 
with  the  shift  of  an  electron  from  one  stationary  orbit  to  another,  a  change 
which  must  require  a  definite  amount  of  energy  depending  upon  the  electro- 
magnetic force  field  of  the  atom.  Indeed,  it  would  seem  that,  if  a  possibility 
be  allowed  of  the  shift  of  an  electron  from  one  stationary  orbit  to  another,  it 
becomes  necessary  at  once  to  accept  the  conclusion  that  a  definite  and  fixed 
amount  of  energy  is  involved  in  the  change.  It  is  proposed,  therefore,  to  start 
from  this  assumption,  that  in  any  elementary  atom  it  is  possible  to  shift  an 
electron  from  one  stationary  orbit  to  another,  that  a  definite  amount  of  energy 
is  required  to  effect  the  change,  and  that  this  fixed  quantity  of  energy  is 
connected  with  the  frequency  by  the  relation — 

Fixed  Quantity  of  Energy     _, 

T^i 3-— r =^  =  frequency. 


This  is  readily  to  be  understood  if  the  constant  involves  a  function  of  the  time 
taken  in  the  actual  operation,  which  is  the  same  for  every  atom  and  is  a  universal 

This  elementary  quantum  of  energy  involved  in  the  electron  shift  is  without 
doubt  the  basis  of  the  whole  energy  quantum  hypothesis  as  applied  to  absorption 
and  radiation,  for  it  can  be  shown  that  the  whole  can  be  built  up  from  the 
original  assumption  of  the  elementary  quantum  as  a  specific  property  of  the 
atom.  For  the  .sake  of  convenience  only  it  will  be  necessary  to  make  use  of  a 
value  for  the  constant,  and  the  most  recent  value  for  this,  based  on  Planck's 
theory,  is  6-56  x  10"^'.  Using  this  value,  the  elementary  quanta  already 
calculated,  namely,  those  of  hydrogen,  oxygen,  and  sulphur,  lie  between 
5-25  X  lO'io  and  1-65  x  10"'*  erg,  corresponding  with  frequencies  between 
8-19  X  101"  and  2-54  x  10". 

The  difference  between  this  conception  and  Planck's  theory  may  be 
emphasised.  Whereas  according  to  the  latter  the  frequency  is  accepted  as  a 
characteristic  of  the  atom  and  the  quantum  is  the  result  of  discontinuous 
absorption  or  emission  at  that  frequency,  the  present  theory  assumes  the  quantum 
of  energy  as  being  due  to  a  specific  process  taking  place  in  the  atom  and  hence 
a  fundamental  characteristic  of  the  atom,  and  that  the  frequency  exhibited  by 
the  atom  is  established  and  determined  by  that  process.  The  present  theory, 
therefore,  gives  a  simple  physical  basis  to  the  energy  quantum. 

232  REPORTS   ON   THE   STATE   OF   SCIENCE. — 1920. 

The  first  fact  to  be  dealt  with  is  that  when  two  or  more  atoms  unite  together 
the  resulting  molecule  becomes  endowed  with  a  new  frequency  which  is  the 
least  common  multiple  of  the  frequencies  characteristic  of  the  atoms.  Leaving 
on  one  side  the  cause  of  the  chemical  combination,  the  energy  lost  in  the  process 
may  be  considered.  The  simplest  possible  assumption  to  make  is  that  in  the 
synthesis  of  any  one  molecule  each  of  the  component  atoms  contributes  an  equal 
amount  of  the  total  energy  lost.  An  elementary  atom  ez  hypothesi  can  only 
gain  or  lose  energy  in  elementary  quanta,  and,  further,  can  only  enter  into 
chemical  combination  if  it  already  contains  energy  that  can  be  evolved.  Let 
the  case  be  considered  of  two  elementai-y  atoms,  the  characteristic  frequencie.s 
of  which  are  9  X  lO^"  and  r5  X  10",  or  in  wave  numbers  (1/ ^)  3  and  5. 
The  smallest  equal  amounts  of  energy  that  the  two  atoms  can  lose  are  five  ele- 
mentary quanta  at  the  frequency  9  X  lO'"  in  the  one  case,  and  three  elementary 
quanta  at  the  frequency  I'S  x  10"  in  the  other.  These  two  amounts  are  each 
equal  to  one  quantum  measured  at  the  frequency  4-5  x  10",  which  is  the  least 
common  multiple  of  the  two  atomic  frequencies.  In  this  is  doubtless  to  be  found 
the  key  to  the  first  problem— namely,  that  the  true  molecular  frequency  is  the 
least  common  multiple  of  the  frequencies  of  the  atoms  in  the  molecule. 

Further,  the  gain  or  loss  of  energy  by  a  molecule  as  a  whole  must  be  equally 
shared  in  by  the  component  atoms.  When  a  molecule  absorbs  or  loses  energy 
as  a  whole,  it  must  do  so  by  means  of  the  elementary  quanta  characteristic  of 
its  atoms.  In  the  case  of  the  molecule  specified  above,  the  smallest  amount 
of  energy  it  can  gain  or  lose  as  a  whole  is  the  sum  of  five  quanta  at  the  frequency 
9  X  lO'"  and  three  quanta  at  the  frequency  15  x  10".  This  minimum  amount 
of  molecular  energy  is  two  quanta  at  the  true  molecular  frequency,  and  in  this 
again  is  to  be  found  an  explanation  of  the  fact  that  the  true  molecular  frequency 
is  the  least  common  multiple  of  the  atomic  frequencies. 

It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  starting  from  the  conception  of  the  elementary 
energy  quantum  required  to  shift  one  electron  and  making  the  simple  assumption 
that  the  combining  atoms  share  equally  in  the  energy  loss  on  combination  and 
in  the  future  energy  changes  of  the  resulting  molecule,  we  arrive  at  the  con- 
ception of  molecular  quanta,  and  hence  molecular  frequency,  the  latter  being 
the  least  common  multiple  of  the  atomic  frequencies. 

It  can  be  shown  that,  when  molecules  under  normal  conditions  are  dealt  with, 
one  of  the  most  important  frequencies  they  possess  is  the  infra-red  fundamental 
frequency,  which  is  an  exact  multiple  of  the  true  molecular  frequency.  In  the 
case  of  sulphur  dioxide  the  infra-red  fundamental  is  fourteen  times  the  true 
molecular  frequency,  and  in  the  case  of  water  it  is  eight  times  the  true  molecular 
frequency.  It  was  stated  above  that  the  smallest  possible  equal  amounts  of 
energy  which  two  or  more  atoms  can  evolve  when  combining  together  are  equal 
to  one  quantum  measured  at  the  frequency  which  is  the  least  common  multiple 
of  their  atomic  frequencies.  It  does  not  follow,  of  course,  that  the  reacting 
atoms  only  evolve  this  smallest  possible  amount  of  energy.  They  may  evolve 
an  amount  of  energy  which  is  2,  3,  4,  &c.,  times  this  smallest  quantity,  with 
the  result  that  the  smallest  frequency  truly  characteristic  of  the  molecule  may 
be  a  multiple  of  the  true  molecular  frequency.  Indeed,  it  would  seem  that  the 
infra-red  fundamental  is  the  frequency  which  is  truly  characteristic  of  the 
fresJily  synthesised  molecule. 

At  the  commencement  the  simplest  possible  case  was  considered  of  the  com- 
bination of  two  atoms,  each  characterised  by  a  single  elementary  quantum. 
There  is  no  necessity  to  restrict  the  conditions  in  this  way,  and  it  is  to  be 
expected  that,  at  any  rate  in  the  atoms  of  some  elements,  there  will  exist  more 
than  one  possibility  of  shift  of  the  electrons,  and  that  there  will  be  elementary 
quanta  of  different  sizes  associated  with  such  atoms.  It  has  already  been  found 
that  two  different  elementary  quanta  are  associated  with  the  atom  of  oxygen 
in  the  water  molecule  and  with  the  atom  of  sulphur  in  the  molecule  of  sulphur 

Whilst  the  establishment  of  molecular  quanta,  and  hence  of  molecular 
frequency,  is  a  simple  deduction  from  the  conception  of  elementary  atomic 
quanta,  it  cannot  be  denied  that  the  molecule  may  also  exhibit  those  frequencies 
which  are  characteristic  of  its  component  atoms.  Although  these  atoms  have 
united  together  to  form  the  molecule,  there  is  no  reason  to  expect  that  they  have 


thereby  lost  their  individuality  as  far  as  their  powers  of  absorbing  or  radiating 
energy  are  concerned.  The  conception  of  the  molecular  quantum  is  based  on 
the  assumption  that  the  component  atoms  can  gain  or  lose  elementary  quanta 
when  in  combination.  In  addition  to  this,  there  is  definite  evidence  that  the 
molecule  exhibits  the  specific  frequencies  of  its  atoms,  since,  although  these 
atomic  frequencies  have  not  yet  been  observed  in  the  long-wave  infra-red,  they 
are  found  in  combination  with  the  molecular  frequencies  as  subsidiary  frequencies 
within  the  absorption  band  groups  in  the  infra-red,  visible,  and  ultra-violet 
regions.  The  question  then  arises  as  to  the  course  of  events  when  a  molecule 
IS  exposed  to  radiation  of  a  frequency  that  is  the  same  as  one  of  its  characteristic 
atomic  frequencies  which  may  be  active  in  the  extreme  infra-red.  Let  it  be 
supposed  that  the  molecule  formed  by  tlie  combination  of  two  elementary  atoms 
having  the  characteristic  frequencies  9  X  10'"  and  1-5  X  10"  is  exposed  to 
monochromatic  ra/diation  of  the  frequency  9  X  10'".  The  atom  having  this 
frequency  will  absorb  this  energy  in  elementary  quanta  of  9  X  6-56  X  10""  erg  : 
and  further,  let  it  be  supposed  that  this  atom  absorb  five  such  quanta.  Tiie 
total  quantity  of  energy  now  absorbed  is  equal  to  the  minimum  quantity  of 
energy  which  that  atom  evolves  when  combining  with  the  atom  with  characteristic 
frequency  1"5  x  10",  and  is  equal  to  one  molecular  quantum  at  the  true  molecular 
frequency.  If  the  postulate  made  at  the  beginning  as  to  the  combination  of 
atoms  be  accepted,  then  it  would  seem  to  follow  as  a  natural  consequence  that 
the  total  energy  absorbed  by  the  atom  can  be  transferred  to  or  taken  over  by  the 
whole  molecule  as  exactly  one  true  molecular  quantum.  In  fact  the  molecule 
can  obtain  one  true  molecular  quantum  by  the  absorption  of  a  whole  number  of 
elementary  quanta  by  its  atoms,  the  whole  nimiber  being  of  course  determined 
by  the  frequencies  of  the  other  atoms  in  the  molecule  and  the  least  common 
multiple  of  all  the  atomic  frequencies.  Further,  there  is  no  reason  against 
this  process  being  continuous  in  the  sense  that  a  molecule  will  be  able  to  gain 
more  true  molecular  quanta  than  the  single  one  by  absorption  of  the  specified 
number  of  elementary  quanta  by  its  atoms. 

Again,  this  process  will  be  reversible  :  that  is  to  say,  a  molecule  will  be  able 
to  radiate  one  or  more  true  molecular  quanta  in  the  form  of  the  specified 
number  of  elementary  quanta  characteristic  of  one  of  its  atoms. 

It  will  be  seen  that  this  leads  to  the  conception  of  critical  amounts  of  energy 
associated  with  elementary  atoms  in  combination,  the  critical  amount  of  energy 
of  an  atom  being  a  whole  number  of  elementary  quanta  characteristic  of  that 
atom  which  in  their  sum  equal  one  true  molecular  quantum  characteristic  of  the 
molecule  of  which  that  atom  forms  a  part.  When  an  atom  is  exposed  to 
radiation  of  a  frequency  equal  to  its  own  frequency,  it  can  absorb  its  elementary 
quanta  until  its  critical  quantity  is  reached,  when  this  critical  quantity  becomes 
merged  into  the  molecular  energy  content  as  one  true  molecular  quantum. 

Amongst  the  quantitative  relationships  detailed  above  was  mentioned  the  fact 
that  the  central  frequencies  of  all  absorption  bands,  that  is  to  eay,  all  molecular 
frequencies  exhibited  by  a  molecule  in  the  visible  and  ultra-violet,  are  exact 
multiples  of  the  infra-red  fundamental.  It  is  therefore  evident  that  one 
molecular  quantum  absorbed  at  one  of  the  molecular  frequencies  in  the  visible 
or  ultra-violet  is  equal  to  an  exact  number  of  quanta  at  the  infra-red  funda- 
mental. If  a  molecule  absorbs  one  quantum  at  one  of  these  higher  frequencies, 
this  amount  of  energy  can  be  radiated  again  as  a  whole  number  of  quanta  at  the 
infra-red  fundamental,  or  partly  as  quanta  at  this  frequency  and  partly  as 
elementary  atomic  quanta.  This  is  the  process  underlying  the  phenomena  of 
phosphorescence  and  fluorescence,  and  in  this  particular  case  the  phosphorescence 
will  be  in  the  form  of  infra-red  quanta.  Further,  it  is  obvious  that  the 
fluorescence  emission  need  not  of  necessity  be  evolved  as  a  whole  number  of 
molecular  quanta  at  the  infra-red  fundamental,  but  may  be  radiated  as  one 
molecular  quantum  at  a  molecular  frequency  which  is  a  multiple  of  the  infra-red 
fundamental,  the  remainder  being  radiated  as  molecular  quanta  at  the  infra-red 
fundamental  or  as  elementary  atomic  quanta.  For  example,  if  the  molecule 
absorbs  one  molecular  quantum  at  the  frequency  which  is  ten  times  the  infra-red 
fundamental,  this  energy  may  be  evolved  as  one  quantum  at  the  frequency  which 
is  nine  times  the  infra-red  fundamental  and  one  quantimi  at  the  infra-red  funda- 
mental itself.     In  such  a  case  the  fluorescence  will  be  in  the  visible  or  ultra- 


violet  legion  of  the  spectrum.  The  factors  governing  these  various  alternatives 
are  determined  by  the  conditions  under  vrhich  the  molecules  exist.  It  will  be 
seen  from  this  that  a  molecule  can  acquire  one  or  more  molecular  quanta  at  the 
infra-red  fundamental  in  three  different  ways  :  by  exposure  to  radiation  equal 
to  its  atomic  frequencies,  by  exposure  to  radiation  of  frequency  equal  to  the 
infra-red  fundamental,  or  by  exposure  to  radiation  of  a  frequency  which  is  an 
exact  multiple  of  the  infra-red  fundamental. 

The  next  point  to  be  considered  is  the  structure  of  the  absorption  bands,  that 
is  to  say,  the  system  of  subsidiary  frequencies  which  are  always  found  asso- 
ciated with  the  true  molecular  frequency  when  the  absorbing  or  radiating  power 
of  molecules  is  examined  at  ordinary  temperatures.  These  subsidiary  frequencie.s 
have  been  attributed  by  Bjerrum  -"  to  the  rotation  of  the  molecules  and  by 
Kriiger^^'  to  their  precessional  motions.  Without  discussion  in  detail  it  may 
be  pointed  out  that  both  these  theories  break  down.  In  the  first  place  neither 
theory  takes  account  of  the  fact  that  the  subsidiary  frequencies  are  due  to  the 
atomic  frequencies,  and  in  the  second  place  it  is  necessary  for  the  purpose  of 
these  theories  to  postulate  impossibly  large  variations  in  the  values  of  the 
molecular  rotation  or  molecular  precession. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  conception  now  put  forward  of  elementai'y  atomic 
quanta  of  energy,  whereby  definite  atomic  frequencies  are  established,  would 
seem  capable  of  affording  a  very  simple  and  straightforward  explanation.  More- 
over, this  conception  leads  to  the  establishment  of  exact  frequencies  without 
any  possibility  of  variation.  The  case  may  again  be  considered  of  the  molecule 
formed  by  the  combination  of  the  two  elementary  atoms  for  which  the  elementary 
quanta  are  9  x  6-56  x  10""  and  1-5  x  6-56  x  IQ-ie  erg,  and  which  therefore  exhibit 
the  characteristic  frequencies  9  X  10^°  and  1-5  X  10"  respectively.  Ex  hypothesi 
the  elementary  quantum  is  associated  with  the  shift  of  one  electron  from  one 
stationary  orbit  to  another,  and,  of  course,  there  is  no  reason  to  assume  that 
only  one  electron  can  be  so  shifted.  There  may  be  many  such  electrons  which 
can  be  so  shifted,  the  amount  of  energy  being  the  same  for  each;  and  conse- 
quently it  will  be  possible  for  one  atom  to  absorb  1,  2,  3,  &c.,  elementary  quanta 
in  the  same  unit  of  time.  The  atom  will  therefore  exhibit  frequencies  which 
are  1,  2,  3,  &c.,  times  its  fundamental  frequency.  The  two  atoms  specified 
above  will  in  the  free  state  exhibit  frequencies  of  «  X  9  X  10'°  and  «  X  1"5  X  10" 
respectively,  where  7i  =  1,  2,  3,  &c.  The  molecule  foi-med  by  the  combination 
of  these  two  atoms  can  also  exhibit  these  frequencies,  but  now  the  upper  limit 
of  71  will  be  fixed  by  the  critical  quantity  previously  defined.  Since  the  least 
common  multiple  of  the  two  atomic  frequencies  is  4"5  x  10",  the  upper  limits 
of  n  for  the  two  atomic  frequency  series  shown  by  the  molecule  will  be  4  and  2 
respectively,  since  when  n  =  5  and  3,  the  two  atomic  frequency  series  will  con- 
verge in  the  true  molecular  frequency.  Perhaps,  therefore,  the  true  molecular 
frequency  will  be  better  understood  as  the  convergence  frequency  of  the  atomic 
frequency  series  than  as  the  least  common  multiple  of  the  atomic  frequencies. 

We  may  now  consider  one  of  the  true  molecular  frequencies.  Since  the 
molecule  can  absorb  as  a  whole  one  quantum  at  that  frequency,  and  since  also 
each  atom  within  the  molecule  can  absorb  one  or  more  elementary  quanta, 
there  is  no  reason  why  the  two  processes  should  not  be  simultaneous.  The 
molecule  will  then  absorb  in  one  imit  of  time  an  amount  of  energy  equal  to  the 
sum  of  one  true  molecular  quantum  and  one  or  more  elementary  quanta.  This 
will  result  in  the  establishment  of  the  subsidiary  frequencies  M  +  nA,  where 
M  is  the  true  molecular  frequency,  A  is  the  atomic  frequency,  and  n  =  1,  2,  3,  &c., 
the  upper  limit  of  n  being  fixed  by  the  critical  value  as  already  explained. 

Similarly  there  will  be  established  the  subsidiary  frequencies  M  — nA,  for 
the  following  reason.  Let  the  molecule  which  is  in  radiant  equilibrium  with 
its  surroundings  absorb  one  quantum  of  energy  at  one  of  its  atomic  frequencies. 
In  order  for  it  to  gain  a  molecular  quantum  at  one  of  its  true  molecular 
frequencies  it  will  now  only  be  necessary  for  it  to  absorb  the  molecular  quantum, 
less  the  atomic  quantum  already  absorbed.  It  has  already  been  shown  how  on 
the  present  conception  summation  of  atomic  quanta  can  take  place  to  form 
molecular  quanta ;  so  it  would  follow  that,  after  the  absorption  of  a  given  number 
of  elementary  quanta  beyond  that  associated  with  the  radiant  equilibrium,  the 
molecule  will   be   able  to    absorb  the    balance  necessary'   to   form   one  molecular 


quantum.     In  other  words,  the  molecule  will  be  endowed    with  the  frequencies 

Emphasis  may  be  laid  on  the  fact  that,  under  normal  conditions,  when  the 
molecule  is  in  radiant  equilibrium  with  its  surroundings  the  subsidiary  frequencies 
M  +  »A  are  actually  observed ;  and  further,  that  in  these  series  of  subsidiary 
frequencies  tho  maximum  observed  vahie  of  v  is  one  less  than  the  critical  value ; 
that  is  to  say,  the  subsidiary  frequencies  associated  with  two  consecutive  values 
of  the  molecular  frequency  do  not  overlap.  Obviously,  if  the  molecule  is  screened 
from  all  external  radiation  with  frequency  equal  to  its  atomic  frequencies — that 
is  to  say,  it  is  cooled  to  low  temperatures — the  whole  of  the  above  deductions 
as  to  subsidiary  frequencies  fail,  and  the  subsidiary  frequencies  must  therefore 
vanish.  This  has  been  observed,  since  at  very  low  temperatures  only  the  central 
molecular  frequencies  remain. 

In  the  foregoing  the  simplest  case  only  was  dealt  with  of  a  binary  molecule 
formed  by  the  combination  of  atoms  of  two  different  elements.  Exactly  the 
eame  conditions  will,  of  course,  obtain  in  more  complex  molecules,  but  added 
to  these  will  be  new  conditions  resulting  from  the  existence  of  groups  of  atoms 
within  the  molecule.  For  instance,  even  in  the  apparently  simple  case  of  the 
water  molecule  the  conditions  will  be  more  complex,  owing  to  the  undoubted 
fact  that  in  this  molecule  the  hydroxyl  group  exists  as  an  integral  portion  of 
the  molecule.  Whilst,  of  course,  the  true  molecular  frequency  will  be  the 
convergence  frequency  of  all  the  atomic  frequencies,  it  is  the  subsidiary  fre- 
quenciee  that  will  exhibit  a  greater  complexity.  This  complexity,  however,  is 
only  one  of  degree,  and  its  explanation  follows  exactly  the  same  principles  as 
were  laid  down  for  the  simplest  possible  binary  molecules.  The  specific  case 
of  the  water  molecule  may  be  discussed  in  which  there  are  three  atomic  fre- 
quencies, 1-0635  X  lO'i,  21159  x  IQH,  and  2-4531  X  10".  Whilst  the  true  mole- 
cular frequency  of  the  water  molecule  is  the  convergence  frequency  of  these 
three,  6'1.326  X  10^^,  -we  have  also  to  take  into  account  the  intra-molecular  fre- 
quency of  the  OH  group.  Now  in  the  molecule  H — 0 — H  there  are  two 
frequencies  active  for  oxygen  and  one  for  hydrogen,  and  thus  there  are  two 
possible  intra-molecular  frequencies  for  the  OH  group,  depending  on  which 
oxygen  frequency  is  concerned.  In  addition,  therefore,  to  the  three  atomic 
frequency  series  the  molecule  will  also  show  intra-molecular  or  OH  series. 
Each  of  these  intra-molecular  frequencies  is  the  convergence  frequency  of  two 
atomic  series,  and  will  be  associated  with  subsidiary  frequencies  to  form  a 
band  group.  If  I  be  the  intra-molecular  frequency,  the  only  subsidiary  fre- 
quencies associated  with  I  will  be  given  by  I  +  wAj  and  1+  71A2,  where  Ai  and 
A=  are  the  two  atomic  frequency  series  converging  at  I,  and  n  =  1,  2,  3,  &c., 
with  an  upper  limit  defined  by  the  critical  value.  There  will  also  exist  two 
series  of  frequencies,  Ii  2It  3Ii,  &c.,  and  I2,  2I2,  31=,  &c.,  each  associated 
with  its  subsidiary  frequencies.  These  intra-molecular  frequencies  will  converge 
at  the  true  molecular  frequency. 

In  the  case  of  the  water  molecule  there  are  two  intra-molecular  frequency 
series,  namely  7-5  X  10",  which  is  the  convergence  frequency  of  the  atomic 
frequencies,  1-0635  x  lO^'  and  2-1159  x  lO",  and  1-7301  X  10l^  -which  is  the 
convergence  frequency  of  the  atomic  frequencies  2-1159  X  10''  and  2-45